AP Biology 152 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
proteins
CHONS
Erythro-
red
an-
not; without
pyr-
heat; fire
Organic Compounds
contains carbon
Domain Bacteria
unicellular prokaryotes
Hydroxyl groups
make molecule polar
Nuclear Envelope
encloses the nucleus
cytokinesis
division of the cell's cytoplasm
What are lipids
fats, steroids, phosolipids
meter
the basic unit of length
DNA
A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.
aorta
main artery of the heart
random fertilization
adds to genetic variability; chromosome combination between gametes
adhesion
clinging of one substance to another
James Hutton
Geology= Theory of Gradualism----> Geological changes took place slowly but its a continous process.
gene
a discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses)
Parasitism
a symbiotic relationship where one organism benifitsand the other is harmed, symbiotic relationship in which one organism lives in or on another organism (the host) and consequently harms it
cytoskeletons
network of fibers that transport, found in cytoplasm, 3 functions (support shape of cell, motility-allows cell and organelles to move, regulation- information travels cell to cell with motor proteins), made up of 3 components (microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments)
Ribosome
The host organelle for protein synthesis
Built in nucleolus
Substrates
The reactants of and enzyme-catalyzed reaction.
apoplast
In plants, the nonliving continuum formed by the extracellular pathway provided by the continuous matrix of cell walls.
Protocells
nonliving structures that are believed to have evolved into prokaryotes
trachoma
A contagious bacterial infection of the eye in which there is inflamed granulation on the inner surface of the lids
Among invertebrates, a muscular tube to the gut. I
Pharynx
Eukaryotic cell
has a true nucleus, linear chromosomes; Domains: Eukarya
Structures as different as human arms, bat wings, and dolphin flippers contain many of the same bones, these
bones having developed from very similar embryonic tissues. How do biologists interpret these similarities?
A) By identifying the bones as being h
d
sexual reproduction- produce gametes and increase variation among species
function of meiosis
operon genes
information for making enezymes that make tryptophan
Exocytosis
The process in which substances are exported out of the cell. Substances are in a vesicle and are shipped out.
Pyrimidine
A six-membered ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms
Endosymbiosis
two species living together; with one living inside the body (or even cells) of another.
ligand
A molecule that binds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule
carbohydrate
key source of energy; organic compunds made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen.
thomas malthus
economist
when a population of humans reproduces beyond the capacity of the environment they must compete or development new technology to increase productivity
-darwin applied his theory to all species
chemical energy
potential energy stored in molecules as a result of the arrangement of the atoms in those molecules
pyrimidines
one type of nitrogenous base, includes cytosine (C), thymine (T), uracil (U), characterized by 6-ring carbon/nitrogen atoms
trachael system
needed for organisms with exoskeleton that blocks gas exchange
consists of repeatedly branching air filled tubes
starts at spiracles- openings across integument
-pair per segment of body
can be opened or closed to regulate oxygen in the body
smooth ER
lacks ribosomes, synthesis of lipids, carbohydrates, and detoxification of drugs
trisomic
A chromosomal condition in which a particular cell has an extra copy of one chromosome, instead of the normal two; the cell is said to be trisomic for that chromosome.
monocot vascular bundle pattern
distributed throughout ground tissue
not organized
synapsis
The pairing and physical connection of replicated homologous chromosomes during prophase 1 of meiosis
ecdysone
hormone in many insect life cycles; roles in metamorphosis, molting
territoriality
A behavior in which an animal defends a bounded physical space against encroachment by other individuals, usually of its own species. Territory defense may involve direct aggression or indirect machanisms such as scent marking or singing.
Which of the following is not evidence that charophytes are the closest algal relatives of plants?
A) similar sperm structure
B) similarities in chloroplast shape
C) similarities in cell wall formation during cell division
D) genetic similarities in chlor
b
Enzyme
A protein serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
Observation 2
Populations tend to remain stable in size except for seasonal fluctuations.
ATP Synthase
A cluster of several membrane proteins found in the mitochondrial crista (and bacterial plasma membrane) that function in chemiosmosis with adjacent electron transport chains, using the energy of a hydrogen ion concentration gradient to make ATP. ATP synthases provide a port through which hydrogen ions diffuse into the matrix of a mitrochondrion.
What is a disaccharide
two sugars by glycosidic linkage
electronegtativity
the tendency of an atom to attract electrons when it occurs as part of a compound
Endomembrane System
The collection of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles.
Repressor
protein that binds to the operator in an operon to switch off transcription
cation
an ion with a positive charge produced by the loss of one or more electrons
Anaerobic Pathway
Any set of metabolic reactions for which a substance other than oxygen is the final acceptor of electrons stripped from substrates.
nuclear lamina
A netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus.
membrane potential
the voltage measured across the plasma membrane.
peptide bond
the covalent bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of the other (dehydration reaction)
A peptide linkage holds together two
amino acid molecules
circulatory system
function: to move substances in the blood to and from cells
Extracellular matrix
The substance in which animal tissue cells are emb
You are hiking in a forest and happen upon a plant featuring a central stemlike structure from which sprout
many, tiny, leaflike structures. Which of these would be the most certain means of distinguishing whether it
was a true moss, or a club moss?
A) it
e
What begins with a specific molecule which is then altered in a series of defined steps, resulting in a cetain product?
A metabolic pathway
carbon skeleton
The chain of carbon atoms that forms the structural backbone of an organic molecule.
microevolution
A change in the gene pool of a population from generation to generation.
locus
The position of a gene, DNA marker or genetic marker on a chromosome.
Landscape Ecology
The study of past, present, and future patterns of landscape use, as well as ecosystem management and the biodiversity of interacting ecosystems
cell mediated response
The branch of acquired immunity that involves the activation of cytotoxic T cells, which defend against infected cells.
Define: Peptide Bond
a dehydration between two amino acids that are positioned so that the carboxyl group of one is adjacent to the amino group of another
reflex arc
The nerve pathway involved in a reflex action
oceanic pelagic biome
Most of the ocean's waters far from shore, constantly mixed by ocean currents.
Depending on where the carbon is in a monosaccharide, what are they called
ketose, aldose
fragile X syndrome
Piece of X hangs from thread of DNA
What is 3 fatty acids attached to one glycerol?
a fat
parabronchus (plural, parabronchi)
A site of gas exchange in bird lungs. Parabronchi allow air to flow past the respiratory surface in just one direction.
What is the correct sequence in the evolution of plants?
algae, ferns, conifers, flowering plants
If the pH of a solution is decreased from 9 to 8, its means that the...
concentration of H+ has increased 10 times what it was at pH 9 and the concentration of OH- has decreased 10 times what it was at pH 9.
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