AP Biology 162 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
milli-
thousandth
Demi-
half
solv
loosen, free
estrogens
sex hormones
valence electron/shell
outermost electron/shell
Comso-
world; order; form
bryophytes
nonvascular plant like mosses
pre-
before; ahead of time
statolith
Sensory organs that contain mechanoreceptors and function in the sense of equilibrium.
Starch
Storage polysaccharide for plants, consists of glucose monomers
monosaccharides
The simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. Also known as simple sugars, the molecular formulas of are generally some multiple of CH2O.
Lymph
Fluid in the lymphatic system.
Heterotrophs

Get energy from other organisms


Also called consumers
Inhibitors
Substances that block an enzyme's activity.
meninges
the tough fibrous envelope enclosing the brain and spinal cord
golgi apparatus
organelle active in synthesis, modification, sorting, and secretion of cell products; produces and modifies polysaccharides that will be secreted
Polynucleotides
Nucleic acids that exist as polymers
Proteins
most fundamental building substance of living organisms - long chain polymer of amino acids with 20 different common side chains. occurs with its polymer chain extended in fiborous proteins or coiled into a compact macromolecule in enzymes and other globular proteins
noble gases
Stable atoms are known as...
collagen
A glycoprotein in the extracellular matrix of animal cells that forms strong fibers, found extensively in connective tissue and bone; the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom.
ribose
a five-carbon sugar present in RNA
Arterioles
Small vessels branched from arteries that ferry blood to capillaries
Ethology
the study of behavior in nature
Variation
Differences between members of the same species
Plant hormone; promotes elongation of stems, helps
gibberellin
cortical nephrons
nephrons located almost entirely in the renal cortex; have a reduced loop of Henle
In a hypothetical situation, a certain species of flea feeds only on pronghorn antelopes. In rangelands of the
western United States, pronghorns and cattle often associate with one another. If some of these fleas develop a
strong preference, instead, for
e
sensation
the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment.
exergonic reaction
A spontaneous chemical reaction in which there is a net release of free energy.
chemiosmosis
coupling of the movement of electrons down the ETC with the formation of ATP using the driving force provided by the proton gradient; occurs in BOTH cell respiration and photosynthesis to produce ATP
cation-
An ion with a positive charge, produced by the loss of one or more electrons.
Epiglottis
A cartilaginous flap that covers the windpipe when you are not breathing.
Chlorophyll A
A type of blue-green photosynthetic pigment that participates directly in the light reactions.
Stem Cells
unspecialized cells that retain the ability to become a wide variety of specialized cells
What are the light absorbing molecules found in plants?
Pigments.
Cryptic Coloration
Camouflage which makes prey difficult to spot
Charophytes
lineage of green algae, evolved from same ancestor as plants, closest relative of land plants
transformation
..., (genetics) modification of a cell or bacterium by the uptake and incorporation of exogenous DNA
Fragile X
abnormal X chromosome, which causes mental retardation and autism
diffusion
the tendency of molecules of any substance to spread out in the available space it is driven by intrinsic kinetic energy (thermal motion or heat) of molecules
carbon fixation
The incorporation of carbon from carbon dioxide into an organic compound by an autotrophic organism.
positive feedback cycle
the stretching causes oxytocin secretion, which causes more stretching until the fetus is expelled
Adhesion protein
of multi-celled species, a plasma membrane protein that helps cells stick together in tissues and to extracellular matrixes such as basement membrane
bottom-up model
A model of community organization in which mineral nutrients control community organization because nutrients control plant numbers, which in turn control herbivore numbers, which in turn control predator numbers.
pineal gland
which gland is located within the brain and secretes melatonin?
controlled experiment
An experiment in which an experiential group is compared with a control group that varies only the factor being tested.
Down syndrome
an aneuploidy condition that is the result of having an extra chromosome 21
metaphase II
the phase in which sister chromatids in the middle
macromolecule
A giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules, usually by a condensation reaction. Polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids are macromolecules.
Polysaccharide
any of a class of carbohydrates whose molecules contain chains of monosaccharide molecules. ex. cellulose or starch
Hershey and Chase
used the "blender experiment," in which they tagged protein and DNA and used radioactive bacteriophages to prove that DNA was the transforming agent
diploid cells
A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent.
Automated DNA Sequencing
Extremely rapid, robotic method of identifying the nucleotide sequence of a region of DNA. Gel electrophoresis and laser detection of fluorescent tracers are part of the method.
electron transport chain
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
disposal
Many plant cells use their vacuoles as __ sites for metbolic by-productsthat would endager teh cell if they accumulated in the cytosol.
dehydration reaction
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
ovary
(1) In flowers, the portion of a carpel in which the egg-containing ovules develop. (2) In animals, the structure that produces female gametes and reproductive hormones.
BIogeochemical cycle
Slow movement of an element from environmental reservoirs, through food webs, then back.Water or nutrient moves through the environment, then through organisms, then back to an environmental reservoir.
DNA segment that can randomly move to different lo
transposon
hyracotherium
had four toes on its front feet, three toes on its hind feet and teeth adapted for browsing on bushes and trees
Petioles
The stalk of a leaf, which joins the leaf to a node of the stem.
reduction reaction
a reaction in which a reactant gains an electron (-)
Chlorophyll B, C, D; Carotenoid, Xanthophyll
Examples of antenna pigments
nephron
any of the small tubules that are the excretory units of the vertebrate kidney
Describe: Dissociation of Water
occasionally, a water molecule splits into a hydrogen ion (H+) and a hydroxide ion (OH-), and the H+ binds to another water molecule creating a hydronium ion (H3O+)
photosystem I
One of two light-capturing units in a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it has two molecules of P700 chlorophyll a at its reaction center.
Allele
one of two alternate forms of a gene that can have the same locus on homologous chromosomes and are responsible for alternative traits
Heme Groups
functional group that has an iron atom that reversibly binds O2. (of all the oxygen inhaled into the human body, 98.5% of it gets bound to heme groups of hemoglobin)
atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)
a peptide hormone that opposes the renin-angiotension-aldosterone system (RAAS)
Define: Ionic Bond
the attraction between a cation and an anion; the environment affects the strength of ionic bonds
law of independent assortment
Mendel's second law, stating that each allele pair segregates independently during gamete formation; applies when genes for two characteristics are located on different pairs of homologous chromosomes.
alpha helix / beta pleated sheet
The secondary structure includes the _______ and the _____.
From an area of higher water potential to an area of lower water potential.
Where will water always move?
Oxygen has an atomic number of 8. What does this mean? A. It has 8 protons. B. It has 8 electrons. C. It has 16 neutrons. D. Both A and B. E. Both B and C.
It has 8 protons and 8 electrons
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