AP Biology 165 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
C6H12O6
monosaccharide
In-
not
stom, stome
mouth
proton
positively charged
Meiosis
produces haploid gametes
Rod-shaped prokaryotic cell.
bacillus
Sympatric Speciation
non-geographic reproductive isolation
anion
a negatively charged ion
Kingdom Protista
kingdom containing eukaryotic, unicellular and multicellular creatures with a two-part life cycle; may be plantlike, animal-like, or fungus-like
hydrophilic
having an affinity to water
Ion
A charged atom or molecule
brain stem
-conducts data
-controls automatic activities essential for life(heartbeat)
Altruistic Behavior

A self-sacrificing behavior. 


Helps others but diminishes its own chance of producing offspring
Lignin
A hard material in cell walls
Protostomes
patterns of zygote cleavages. Early cleavages occur at a slight angle (spiral). First infolding of archenteron forms at the mouth. Coelom develops from split in tissues at sides of archenteron
introns
the noncoding regions of transcribed mRNA
polysaccharides
macromolecules; polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages; serve as storage material, hydrolyzed as needed to provide sugar for cells; building material for structures that protect a cell or an organism; architecture and function are determined by sugar monomers and by positions of glycosidic linkages
Microtubules
minute tubular structures found in centrioles spindle aparatus, cilia, flagella and cytos kelleton of euykaryotic cells. Tubules play roles in the motion and maintenance of shape of eukayotic cells
polynucleotide
Each ______ consists of monomers called nucleotides.
pH
A measure of hydrogen ion concentration equal to -log [H+] and ranging in value from 0 to 14.
hyphae
threadlike filaments that make up fungus; surrounded by a cell wall; chains of cells separated by cross-walls that have pores big enough to allow ribosomes, nuclei and mitochondria to flow from cell to cell; grow longer without getting thicker
negative
less peptidoglycan and more complex walls
autosomes
other chromosomes (not X or Y)
ovaries
gonads that produce oocytes (immature eggs) and secretes sex hormones on a cyclic basis to one of a pair of Fallopian tubes
Protect cover that replaces plant epidermis during
periderm
endocrine system
system that secretes hormones and consists of ductless glands
The most likely explanation for the high rate of sympatric speciation that apparently existed among the cichlids
of Lake Victoria in the past is
A) sexual selection.
B) habitat differentiation.
C) polyploidy.
D) pollution.
E) introduction of a new predato
a
Calvin Cycle
reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars
cisternae
membranous tubules and sacs that make up the ER. Separates the lumen from the cytosol.
osmoregulator
An animal that controls its internal osmolarity independent of the external environment.
Describe: Plasmodesmata
channels between adjacent cells that perforate their walls
Essential Fatty Acids
Certain unsaturated fatty acids (unsaturated is have double bonds) that cannot be produced by the body, but obtained only in a prefabricated form.
Metaphase
The third subphase of mitosis, in which the spindle is complete and the chromosomes, attached to microtubules at their kinetochores, are all aligned at the metaphase plate.
Ovules
In a plant ovary, structures that contain the female gametophyte.
Outputs of Light-Dependent Reactions
Oxygen, NADPH, and ATP
ethylene
The only gaseous plant hormone. Among its many effects are response to mechanical stress, programmed cell death, leaf abscission, and fruit ripening.
Which is a true statement concerning genetic variation?
A) It is created by the direct action of natural selection.
B) It arises in response to changes in the environment.
C) It must be present in a population before natural selection can act upon the pop
c
sepals
..., Leaflike parts that cover and protect the flower bud
Eukaryote
have nucleus and membrane organelles - things like mitochondria and golgi apparatus,
monosomic
A chromosomal condition in which a particular cell has only one copy of a chromosome, instead of the normal two; the cell is said to be monosomic for that chromosome.
What is homeostasis?
Maintaining a stable internal environment.
Molecular Formula 
A type of molecular notation indicating only the quantity of the essential atoms 
H2 (molecule has 2 atoms of hydrogen) 
photon
a discrete quantity of light energy that behaves like a particle
water molds
Members of the group Oomycota, they are heterotrophic stramenopiles that lack chloroplasts. They typically have cell walls made of cellulose.
microphyll
In lycophytes, a small leaf with a single unbranched vein.
Many mammals have skins and mucous membranes that are sensitive to phenolic secretions of plants like poison oak . These secondary compounds are primarily adaptions that
Inhibit herbivory
cytosine
one of four nitrogenous bases that can make up a DNA molecule; a pyrimidine (single-ringed base); binds with guanine
transformation
(1) The conversion of a normal animal cell to a cancerous cell. (2) A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell.
carboxyl group
A functional group present in organic acids and consisting of a single carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group.
dalton
unit of particle mass, same as atomic mass unit (amu)
Cytokinesis
The division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells immediately after mitosis.
A biologist discovers an alga that is marine, multicellular, and lives at a depth reached only by blue light. This
alga probably belongs to which group?
A) red algae
B) brown algae
C) green algae
D) dinoflagellates
E) golden algae
a
interphase
period when cell cycle when cell is not dividing- cell metabolic activity is high, chromsomes and organelles are duplicated and cell size may increase. 90% of cell cycle
population
a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area
gated channels
many ion channels function as gated channels these channels open or close depending on the presence or absence of a chemical or physical stimulus
Template strand
the DNA strand that provides the pattern, or template, for ordering the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcript.
steroids
A type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings with various functional groups attached.
foraminiferan (foram)
An aquatic protist that secretes a hardened shell containing calcium carbonate and extends pseudopodia through pores in the shell.
Larynx
a large airway with two paired folds of mucus-covered membrane projecting into it
A chrysophyte with silica scales, or other hard pa
Golden alga
Nucleolus
a small round body of protein in a cell nucleus
previous evolution
What can we say is the contributing factor to variation within a species in different environments?
calorie
the amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius; conversely, also the amount of heat that 1 gram of water releases when it cools by 1 degree Celsius
Turgor Pressure
The force directed against a cell wall after the influx of water and the swelling of a walled cell due to osmosis.
myosin
acts as a motor molecule by means of projections (arms) that "walk" along the actin filaments
Decent with Modification
Each living species has descended with changes from other species over time.
potential energy
The energy stored by matter as a result of its location or spatial arrangement.
Water-vascular system
A system of tube feet connected to canals, through which controlled water flow can extend the feet in coordinated ways.
What is an essential nutrient?
materials that an animal's cells require, but cannot synthesize. The four classes of essential nutrients are: essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals
Define: Central Vacuole
a. in plant cells; enclosed in a membrane called tonoplast
b. solution inside the vacuole is called cell sap
c. functions include: hold reserves of organic compounds, repository of inorganic ions, disposal sites for dangerous metabolic by-products
Define: Specific Heat
the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 g of that substance to change its temperature by 1 degree Celsius (for example: specific heat of water is 1 cal/g/degree C
condensation reaction
enzymes split an -OH and an H from another molecule to make water
Endrocrine and Nervous Systems are structurally related
A nuerosecretory cell in the hypothalamus.
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
a technique by which any piece of DNA can be quickly amplified (copied many times) without using cells
why do we need a pressurized cabin when flyin on a jet
the higher you go up the less pressure. the deeper you go in ocean the more pressure
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