AP Biology 41 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
C
kilocalorie=1000calories.
>C=O
carbonyl
olf-
smell
proto
first, primary
combined elements
compounds
cyt-; -cyte
cell; receptacle
Reducing Agent
the electron donor
Reading Frame
Groupings of Codons
apicoplast
a nonphotosynthetic plasmid that carries out vital functions including the synthesis of fatty acids; part of the apicomplexan
initiation
uses proteins called initiation factors
phage
a virus that infects bacteria
polysaccharide
long chain of sugar molecules
secondary structure
foiling/coiling polypeptide, with alpha helix & beta pleated sheet
Hypothetic cell-like stage between chemical evolut
Proto-cell
parasitism
symbiotic relationship which one is benefitedand the other by causing damage to it
Gymnosperms and angiosperms have the following in common except
Ovaries
yeast
common name given to unicellular ascomycetes
Chaperonins
Protein molecules that assist the proper folding of other proteins
Communication
An essential element of interactions between individuals, involving the transmission of, reception of, and response to signals
Which term most accurately describes the nutritional mode of healthy P. bursaria?
A) photoautotroph
B) photoheterotroph
C) chemoheterotroph
D) chemoautotroph
E) mixotroph
e
Fibroblasts
-Secrete the protein ingredients of the extracellular fibers
-Are a type of loose connective tissue
F2 generation
Offspring resulting from interbreeding of the hybrid F1 generation.
Plantae
The kingdom that consists of multicellular eukaryotes which carry out photosynthesis.
Cell Differentiation
process by which cells specialize
Prezygotic barrier
reproductive isolation which impedes members of a species from interbreeding - it prevents the actual mating of two organisms
1) Habitat isolation (living in two different places)
2) Temporal isolation - day v. night
3) behavioral isolation - mating rituals
4) mechanical isolation - live in different places
5) Gametic isolation - incompatability at the molecular level
Foraminiferans
(forman, little hole, and ferre, to bear) belong to cercozoa; named for their porous shells or tests; have multichambered tests hardenedwith calcium carbonate; symbioses with algae; live in marine and fresh water; more than 90% of the described are fossils
malpighian tubes
what arthropods use for their excretory system
life history
An organism's schedule of reproduction and death
Eukaryotic
a type of cell containing a membrane-enclosed nucleus and other membrane-enclosed organelles. All organisms except bacteria are composed of eukaryotic cells
binary fission
asexual reproduction; in this process, the parent organism splits into two equal daughter cells
Temperature of the human body
37 degrees C
genetics
The scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation.
Element
Any substance that cannot be broken down into any other substance.
Nucleotide
Monomer of DNA; consists of sugar, phosphate, and a nitrogen base.
promoter
A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase and indicates where to start transcribing RNA.
nitrogen fixation
process in which bacteria convert nitrogen gas into nitrogen compounds plants can use
Endemic
Referring to a species that is confined to a specific, relatively small geographic area.
compound
substance consisting of two or more elements in a fixed ratio
Common Ancestor
Organisms descending from a similar ancestor , however became modified throughout time.
guard cells
control stomata opening for gas exchange
-can cause plant to become flaccid (stomata are closed due to lack of water)
genes
coded information in the form of hereditary units
hydrophobic
having aversion to water tend to coalesce and form droplets of water
Langerhans cells
Phagocytic cells engulf bacteria or viruses and notify the immune system of the threat. UV rays damage these cells. They migrate through the epidermis.
The present era (65 mya to present).
Cenozoic
Cis face
the "receiving" side of the golgi apparatus; closer to the ER
density independent factor
likelihood of occurring and magnitude of effect is unaffected by density
ex: natural disaster
Glycosidic Linkage
A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction
motor molecule
protein that moves along either actin filaments or microtubules and translocates organelles
Define: Controlled Experiment
where an experimental group is compared with a control group; the two groups ideally only differ in one factor
Effector cells
Short-lived cells that combat the same antigen
Cardiac Muscle
Type of muscle that forms the contractile wall of the heart. It's cells are joined by intercalated disks that relay each heartbeat
herbivore
any animal that feeds chiefly on grass and other plants
photophosphorylation
The process of generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of a proton-motive force generated by the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynthesis.
Enzyme
A protein serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
Oviduct
either of a pair of tubes conducting the egg from the ovary to the uterus
heart murmur
A hissing sound that most often results from blood squirting backward through a leaky valve in the heart.
Fixed Action Pattern
A sequence of unlearned, innate behaviors that is unchangeable and, once initiated, is usually carried to completion.
Oxidative Phosphorylation
The production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain.
dorsal body cavity
 
protects the fragile nervous system organs
 
has 2 subdivisions: the cranial cavity and the vertabral cavity
 
need to know what organs are in each cavity
global energy budget
1. earth bombarded with 10^22 joules of solar radiation
2. most of it is absorbed, scattered, or reflected by clouds and dust
3.small fraction used in photosynthesis--rest is transmitted, reflected or lost as heat
6 to 7
how many genes are in small viruses?
cyclic electron pathway
Portion of the light reactions of photosynthesis that generates ATP using only photosystem I
Antigen receptor
Receptor in B or T cells that recognizes antigens
Ribosomal RNA
The most abundant type of RNA, which together with proteins, forms the structure of ribosomes. Ribosomes coordinate the sequential coupling of tRNA molecules to mRNA codons.
resting potential
membrane potential of a nerve cell at rest
Induced Fit
A change in enzyme shape caused by substrate binding.
atrioventricular (AV) node
A region of specialized heart muscle tissue between the left and right atria where electrical impulses are delayed for about 0.1 second before spreading to both ventricles and causing them to contract.
dicot root
vascular cylinder is in the center of the root
there is no pith
xylem is in the center of the root, typically in the form of a thick-armed "X", with phloem in the spaces between the arms.
negative feedback loop
a manin homeostatic mechanism by which some activity changes conditions in a cell or multicelled organism and thereby triggers a response that reverses the change
DNA ligase
a special type of ligase that can link together two DNA strands that have double-strand break (a break in both complementary strands of DNA).
benign tumor
what a tumor is termed if the abnormal cells remain at the original site
sieve tube elements
..., found in phloem; stacked end to end; have holes so materials can get in and out of the phloem
a rare or uncommon version of a triat, as when a p
genetic abnormality
What are the importance of proteins
everywhere in organisms, 50% dry weight of cells, most structurally sophisticated molecules known, Q
crossing over / independent assortment / random fertilization
what are the three ways for genetic diversity in meiosis?
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