AP Biology 43 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
grav-
heavy
-CH3
methyl
Erythro-
red
Mitochondria
Produces ATP
ocul-
eye (4 lets)
grana
stacks of thylakoids
glycoproteins/proteoglycans
large proteins (glycoproteins) function as enzymes, antibodies, hormones, or proteins - provides lubriication -secrets mucins form mucus lines respiratory/digestive tract; proteoglycans large polysaccharide molecules; tissue fluids - syrupy consistency
homozygous
alleles are the SAME
gametophyte
the haploid individual produces gametes by mitosis that fuse to form a diploid zygote
Binary Fission
Reproduction in Prokaryotes
Cell grows
DNA replicates
Telophase
nuclear envelopes form; chromosomes break down
Define: Energy
capacity to cause change
phosphate group: compound example
glycerol phosphate
Prokaryotic domain; closer to eukaryotic cells tha
Archaebacterium
golgi apparatus
modifies, packages, and distributes proteins using vessicles
Eutherians
placental mammal; mammal whose young complete their embryonic development within the uterus, joined to the mother by the placenta
anaerobic catabolism
metabolic breakdown of complex molecules into simple ones without the use of oxygen; results in the release of energy
Ribose
Pentose connected to the nitrogenous base in RNA
Operant Conditioning
Also called trial-and-error learning, in which an animal learns to associate one of its own behaviors with a reward or punishment
Similar to most amoebozoans, the forams and the radiolarians also have pseudopods, as do the white blood
cells of animals. If one were to erect a taxon that included all organisms that have cells with pseudpods, what
would be true of such a taxon?
A) It w
a
Osteoblasts
Bone-forming cells which deposit a matrix of collagen
amphipathic molecules
Amphipathic molecules have both hydrophobic regions and hydrophilic regions <phospholipids>.
Buffer
Substance that minimizes changes in the concentrations of H+ and OH- in a solution
RNA Interference
uses synthetic double-stranded RNA molecules matching the sequence of a particular gene to trigger breakdown of a gene's messenger RNA or to block its translation
Polyploidy
caused by nondisjunction; extra sets of chromosomes - prevalent in plant evolutionand AUTOpolyploid - chromosomes from the same speciesALLOpolyploid - chromosomes of different species
habituation
a loss of responsiveness to stimuli that disclose little or no information.
facilitated transport
no energy required; diffusion through a channel protein
Opportunistic species
quickly invade a habitat, quickly reproduce, then die. Mature quickly and require little to no parental care. R-selected species
Hydrocarbons
a chemical compound composed only of the elements carbon and hydrogen
adaptation
a behavioral or biological change that enables an organism to adjust to its environment
electron
a subatomic particle with a single negative charge; one or more electrons move around the nucleus
capsid
The protein shell that encloses a viral genome. It may be rod-shaped, polyhedral, or more complete in shape.
Peroxisome
an oxidative organelle that is not part of the endomembrane system.
Translocation
movement of a chromosomal segment from one chromosome to another non homologous chromosome; leads to abnormalities.
endoplasmic reticulum
An extensive membranous network in eukaryotic cells, continuous with the outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosome-studded (rough) and ribosome-free (smooth) regions.
aldosterone
released from the adrenal gland, this hormone acts on the distal tubules to cause the reabsorption of more Na+ and water; increases blood volume and pressure
Convergent Evolution
The independent evolution of similar features in different lineages.
carotenoids
An accessory pigment, either yellow or orange, in the chloroplasts of plants. By absorbing wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot, carotenoids broaden the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis.
Evolutionary Tree
Branches made by connecting organisms that looked similar as they evolved.
leaves
part of the shoot system
-venation can be parallel or netted
-classified based on shape venation or spatial arrangement
synapsis
occurs during prophase I of meiosis, when the duplicated chromosomes pair with their homologues
food vacuoles
A membranous sac formed by phagocytosis.
Endocrine glands
They secrete their products, hormones, directly into interstitial fluid. They have no ducts.
Eon in which life arose (3.8-2.5 bya).
Archean
Cell wall
prevents the cell from bursting (not in animal cells)
population density
number of individuals in a specific area
does not describe how individuals are distributed in it
Purines
One of the two types of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides. Adenine (A) and Guanine (G) are Purines.
endomembrane system
The collection of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles; includes the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vacuoles.
Define: Inductive Reasoning
involved in discovery science; derive generalizations based on specific observations (specific to general)
At what temperature is water at its densest?
4*C
reverse transcriptase
what do retroviruses carry along with them?
population
a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area
hypertonic solution
In comparing two solutions, the one with the greater concentration of solutes; cells in such a solution will lose water to their surroundings.
ATP Synthase
A cluster of several membrane proteins found in the mitochondrial crista (and bacterial plasma membrane) that function in chemiosmosis with adjacent electron transport chains, using the energy of a hydrogen ion concentration gradient to make ATP. ATP synthases provide a port through which hydrogen ions diffuse into the matrix of a mitrochondrion.
Anitbiotic
Chemicals that inhibit the growth of a kill or other microorganisms
Bilateral symmetry
having two sides or parts, arrangement of body parts so there are distinct left and right halves that mirror each other
respiratory pigment
A protein that transports oxygen in blood or hemolymph.
Behavior
everything an animal does and how it does it (a series of responses to change stimuli)
Mutation
a change or alteration in form or qualities
organ level
made up of different types of tissues
sieve-tube members
A living cell that conducts sugars and other organic nutrients in the phloem of angiosperms. They form chains called sieve tubes.
polymerase
in PCR, what makes the other half of DNA when cooled?
Organ
a body part consisting of two or more tissues
What type of bonds does carbon have a tendency to form?
Covalent
disaccharide
a carb made of two types of sugar molecule
What is cell specialization?
Cells throughout an organism can develop in different way to perform different tasks.
Bundle Sheath Cell
A type of photosynthetic cell arranged into tightly packed sheaths around the veins of a leaf.
pulmocutaneous circuit
A branch of the circulatory system in many amphibians that supplies the lungs and skin.
closed stoma
2 guard cells around stoma close when solutes exit their body and with it comes water
-causes cells to shrink
environmental cues that trigger closing stomata
-not a lot of water- restricts evaporation
-roots produces ABA when the soil is dry
-binds to ABA receptors in leaf which signals solutes to be pumped out
-pollutants also cause stomata to close
Organ System
A set of organs that are interacting chemically, physically, or both in a common task.
anchorage dependence
to divide, cells must be attached to a substratum such as the inside of a culture jar
Molecule
2 or more atoms of the same type held together by a covalent bond
regulatory gene
..., a gene that codes for a protein, such as a repressor, that controls the transcription of another gene or group of genes
Defines a species as one or more populations of in
biological species concept
What is a triglycerol (triglyceride)
measure of fat in blood, means fat
What are the characteristics of unsaturated fats?
Cs may be partially oxidized, some C=C double bonds, fatty acid tails "kinked", less dense, oil
/ 76
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online