AP Biology 45 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
side, flank
mela-; melan-
black; dark
Double Hydrogen Bond
a bundle of axons
virus that infects bacteria
In classification, the taxonomic category above family.
Macromolecules that are biologic catalysts. They lower the activation energy required to perform a chemical reaction in the body.
division of the cell body
a specialized metabolic compartment bounded by a single membrane
double sugar, two monosaccharides joined by dehydration reaction (glycosidic linkage)
A category of photosynthetic protistans (e.g., gol
analogous structures
same function, no common ancestry
The first stage of cellular respiration, literally the "splitting of sugar." The metabolic conversion of glucose into pyruvate, accompanied by the production of ATP.
nonlinving, as in the physical environment
amino acid chains, bonded by condensation, involved in protein synthesis
Chemical substances of which the production and response are controlled genetically and often which relate to reproductive behaviors
A snail-like, coiled, porous test (shell) of calcium carbonate is characteristic of which group?
A) diatoms
B) foraminiferans
C) radiolarians
D) gymnamoebas
E) ciliates
crossing over
forms recombinant chromosomes, two nonidentical sister chromatids
The genetic makeup of an organism
The kingdom that consists of multicellular eukaryotes that ingest other organisms.
enzymes that untwist the double helix
allometric growth
tracks / controls proportioningex: shapes of human and chimp skulls
reciprocal altruism
increase others fitness so they increase yours.
melanocyte procucing hormone
secreted by anterior pituitary; melanin in skin
what kind of RNA acts as mRNA?
anything that occupies space and has mass
a foreign protein that stimulates that prodiction of antibodies when introduced into the body of an organism
b. 4 valence electrons, and the valence shell can accept 4 more (tetravalence)
golgi apparatus
An organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of flat membranous sacs that modify, store, and route products of the endoplasmic reticulum.
modern synthesis
A comprehensive theory of evolution emphasizing natural selection, gradualism, and populations as the fundamental units of evolutionary change; also called neo-Darwinism.
Protein that binds DNA to make chromatin
trans face
golgi apparatus--> gives rise to vesicles which pinch off and travel to other sites
balanced polymorphism
two or more phenotypic variants maintained in a populations
intrasexual selection
selection within the same sex, individuals of one sex compete directly for mates of the opposite sex
An organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of cellular respiration.
movement corridor
where habitats have been serverely fragmented, the presence of a _______, a narrow strip or series of small clumps of quality habitat connecting otherwise isolated patches, can be a deciding factor in conserving biodiversity.
species or group of species being studied, but clearly not as closely related as any study-group members are to each other
Releasing Energy
Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins can all be broken down to release energy in cellular respiration.
smallest unit of matter that retains property of an element
Eutrophic Lake
Nutrient rich and oxygen poor
High rate of primary productivity
Prokaryotic gene transfer mode; also protistan sex
Conjugation (protozoan)
Endomembrane system
all the different membranes of the eukaryotic cell
intermediate disturbance hypothesis
species richness is greatest where disturbances are moderate in intensity or frequency
enough time for new colonists
not enough time for competition to cause extinction
Fatty acid
A long carbon chain carboxylic acid. Fatty acids vary in length and in the number and location of double bonds; three fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule form fat
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
captures released electrons and picks up two hydrogen atoms (each with one proton and one electron); acts as a shuttle to the Electron Transport Chain in the mitochondria during cellular respiration
the sugar connected to RNA; has one more oxygen atom than the other sugar associated with nucleicacids
What indicates the number of protons in an atom's nucleus?
Atomic number
a group of cells with a common STRUCTURE, FUNCTION, or both.
Genetic code
universal code that is ancient and allows for conversion DNA and RNA's chemical code to a sequence of amino acids in a protein.
one of several atomic forms of an element each containing different number of neutrons and different in atomic mass
The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction.
an accident of meiosis or mitosis in which the members of a pair of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids fail to move apart properly
a vast, level, treeless plain in the arctic regions. The ground beneath the surface of the tundras is frozen even in summeril
An increase in the diameter of blood vessels caused by relaxation of smooth muscles in the vessel walls.
Spatial Learning
the modification of behavior based on experience with the spatial structure of the environment
Natural Selection
a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment, process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest
a Clade
a certain branch of the phylogenic tree MONOphyletic - an ancestor and all its descendantsPARAphyletic - an ancestor and some of its descendents
agnostic behavior
a type of behavior involving a contest of some kind that determines which competitor gains access to some resource, such as food or mates.
life cycle of HIV: what is step 7? (after DNA replication)
hydroxide ion
water molecule that has lost a proton, also known as (OH-), has a charge of -1
A molecule of CO2 is formed when one atom of carbon (atomic number ) is covalently bonded with two atoms of oxygen (atomic number 8). What is the total number of electron pairs that must be shared between the carbon atom and the oxygen atoms in order to c
chemical bond
what holds the atoms of a compound together; ionic, covalent, or hydrogen
Cyclic Light Reaction
Pathway that produces only ATP and uses only photosystem I
No NADPH or oxygen are produced
Calvin Cycle
The second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions), involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate.
capillary bed
A network of capillaries in a tissue or organ.
What anatomical feature of the veins maintains a unidirectional flow of blood back toward the heart?
one way valves
Active transport
pumping of a specific solute across a cell membrane against its concentration gradient, through the interior of a transport protein. Requires energy input, as from ATP
covalent bond
a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
a piece of DNA that can move from one location to another in a cell's genome
vegetal pole
the portion of the egg where the most yolk is concentrated
definition of "kinesis"
a change in activity or turning rate in response to a stimulus
structure of amino acids
center is an asymmetrical alpha C with amino group, carboxyl group, H atom, and variable R. Nonpolar, polar, and acidic/basic
what is a unsaturted fat
one or more double bonds bc of removal of hydrogen
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