AP Biology 50 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
same, alike
fearing, repelled by
Pancreatic cells
produce glucagon
on the opposite side
An emerging nondestructive biotechnology that seeks to cheaply reclaim contaminated areas by taking advantage of some plant species' ability to extract heavy metals and other pollutants from the soil and to concentrate them in easily harvested portions of the plant.
The substance that is dissolved.
Smooth ER
outer surface lacks ribosomes.
synthesis of lipids (oils, phospholipids, steroids, hormones), metabolism of carbs and detoxification of drugs and poisons (add hydroxyl groups). Stores calcium ions which are important in muscle contractions.
molecules made by carbohydrates covalently bonded to lipids
Any multicelled heterotroph that ingests other organisms or their tissues, develops through a series of embryonic stages, and it motile during part or all of the life cycle. Most species have epithelial tissues and extracellular matrixes.
macromolecules that are constructed from one or more polypeptides, each folded and coiled into a specific three-dimensional structure; all made from same 20 amino acids; most structurally sophisticated molecule known
Vase-shaped, sedentary stage of cnidarian life cyc
protist; unicellular; cell walls of silica; make chalk out of them
inability of chromosomes to separate properly into different daughter cells during mitosis or meoisis I or II
a physiological adjustment to an environmental change
Define: Glycoproteins
most secretory proteins; have carbohydrates covalently bonded to them
The scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment.
The domain that includes all eukaryotic organisms.
plant roots and hyphae symbiotic relationship
a kingdom of eukaryotic organisms. They are heterotrophic and digest their food externally, absorbing nutrient molecules into their cells. Yeasts, molds, and mushrooms are examples.
decomposers that absorb nutrients from dead organisms
2nd whorl
petals are largest and most colorful part of flower
function to attract pollinators
membrane carbohydrates are important for ___
cell-cell recognition
The two-part latinized name of a species, consisting of genus and specific epithet.
openings to the air tubes (tracheae) that many arthropods/insects use to breathe with
to what do secondary antibodies attach in the Elisa test? (for HIV- person)
"all land"; about 250 million years ago, all the continental landmasses came together into a super continent
Parathyroid glands
endocrine glands located near the thyroid that release parathyroid hormone (PTH), which acts to increase the blood calcium level
phosphate groups
PO4 organic phospahtes, often involved in energy transfer to perform work
One of two families of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides. Adenine (A) and guanine (G) are purines.
proteins that are responsible for the first level of DNA packing in chromatin
action spectrum
average of pigment's productivity vs. wavelength
(1) A lineage of genetically identical individuals or cells. (2) In popular usage, a single individual organism that is genetically identical to another individual. (3) As a verb, to make one or more genetic replicas of an individual or cell. See also gene cloning.
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
hormone produce in hypothalamus, stored in the Posterior Pituitary gland and increases the permeability of the kidney's distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct to water and stimulates smooth muscle causes vasoconstriction raising blood pressure
What are organic compounds with the same chemical formula but different structural formulas. Three types- structural, geometric, and enantiomers?
A type of endocytosis involving large, particulate substances.
little sacs that carry products from the Golgi bodies to the plasma membrane
evidence for evolution
1. fossil record
2. comparative anatomy - homologous structures
3. comparative biochemistry
4. comparative embryology - embryonic development
5. molecular biology - cytochrome
6. biogeography
A person working with plants may remove apical dominance by doing which of the following?
A) pruning
B) deep watering of the roots
C) fertilizing
D) transplanting
E) feeding the plantsʹ nutrients
RNA splicing
The removal of noncoding portions (introns) of the RNA molecule after initial synthesis.
Instinctive Behavior

A particular behavior is performed without having been learned by experience

Ex. baby mimic facial expressions of adult

Ex. Cuckoo lays eggs in other birds nest
Body sturcture with definite form and function tha
area of the cytoplasm near the nucleus that coordinates the building and breaking of microtubules in the cell
systems biology
an approach to studying biology that aims to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems
electron microscope
instrument that uses a beam of electrons instead of light to magnify structures up to 500,000 times actual size; allows scientists to view structures within a cell
A threadlike linear strand of DNA and associated proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells that carries the genes and functions in the transmission of hereditary information
Glycosidic Linkage
a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction
Recall that when sodium chloride (NaCl) is placed in water the component atoms of the NaCl crystal dissociate into individual sodium ions (Na+) and chloride ions (Cl-). In contrast, the atoms of covalently bonded molecules (e.g, glucose, sucrose, glycerol
1.0 M MgCl2
Endosymbian Hypothesis
mitochondria used to be a separate organism that engaged the cell in a symbiotic relationship
a phage genome that has been inserted into a specific site on the bacterial chromosome
a group of organisms of one species, living in a certain area. The organisms are able to interbreed.
Embryo sac
Large oval cell in nucellus of ovule
enzyme-substrate complex
A temporary complex formed when an enzyme binds to its substrate molecule(s).
atrial natriuretic peptide
makes urine dilute
released by heart when high blood volume causes the artial wall to stretch
inhibits secretion f aldosterone
-acts on adrenal cortex and renin release
increases glomerular filtration rate
-more fluid enters kidney tubules
made up of a number of specialized cells
Process by which a cell takes in liquid from the surrounding environment
Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents
Dark, hot, oxygen-rich environments of volcanic origin on midocean ridges
Molecular clocks
a certain rate of mutation / evolution, which stays the same.involved in neutral theory, which states that fitness has nothing to do with darwinian selectionclock does not run this smoothlyHIV example - comparison of HIV samples from throughout the epidemic - descendant from HIV that infected primates
The number of years it takes for 50% of an original sample of an isotope to decay.
life cycle of HIV: what is step 2? (after attachment)
While studying a cell with an electron microscope, a cell biologist notes the following: DNA that is clustered but not enclosed within a membrane, ribosomes, a plasma membrane, and a cell wall. Which of the following could be the source of this cell?
A bacterium
Which bonds must be broken for water to vaporize?
hydrogen bonds
The study of whole sets of genes and their interactions.
A simple cell with no nucleus and no membrane-bound organelles
The genetic material is found in a region of the cell known as the nucleoid
Divides by binary fission
carbon skeletons
chain of carbons that vary in length, branching, double bonds, rings (no limits)
species that are in the same_____ are more closely related than species that are only in the same______.
family; order
What are tissues?
Group of cells that have similar abilities and that allow and organ to function.
genetic abnormality
a rare or uncommon version of a trait
What three things make up the cytoskeleton?
Microtubules, Microfilaments, and Intermediate filaments.
Origins of Replication
Sites where the replication of a DNA molecule begins.
recognition and adhesion proteins
membrane proteins that are exposed on the extracellular surface and play a roll in cell recognition and adhesion
the order of the amino acids that make up the protein
primary structure
carbonyl group: compound names
ketone, if the group is within a carbon skeleton; aldehyde, if the group is at the end of the skeleton
What is a similarly between DNA and RNA?
nucleotides consisting of a phosphate, sugar, and nitrogenous base
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