AP Biology 88 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
gene sets
bladder; pouch
bio; bi
life; living
organic compounds
Carbon-based molecules.
precursor mRNA
the original transcript
-contain vesicles with cytokines, enzymes, or toxins
target parasite too big for phagocytosis
circulate in blood
migrate to damaged tissue
chemicals produced in ductless glands
phosphate group
-OPO3^-2; organic phosphates; contributes neg charge to mc of which it is a part ; has potential to react with water releasing NRG
genetic makeup (PP, Pp, etc)
Which describes brightly colored peacocks mating more frequently than drab peacocks?
A) artificial selection
B) directional selection
C) stabilizing selection
D) disruptive selection
E) sexual selection
E site
where discharged tRNAs leave
Golden Algae
Chrysophytes (chrysos, golden) belong to stramenopiles; are named for their yellow and brown carotenoids; cells are biflagellated; mlst are unicellular; some colonial; live among freswatera nd marine plankton
A mass of green, branched, one-cell-thick filaments produced by germinating moss spores.
A community and its physical environment.
Methyl group
CH3; methylated compounds;addition of methyl group to DNA or to mcs bound to DNa affects expression of genes; arrangement of methyl groups in sex hormones affects function
Immunity caused by unnatural exposure to an infectious agent.
small molecule which inactivates the repressor
the command center of the cell
Action Potential
Of excitable cells, a self-propogating, abrupt reversal in the voltage difference across the plasma membrane.
dampens effectos of histamine
act on histamine receptors and inhibit release of histamine
the pattern that describes the formation of DNA; the two sugar-phosphate backbones run in opposite 5' >> 3' directions from each other, somewhat like a divided highway
a specific biological community and its physical environment interacting in an exchange of matter and energy.
Periodic shedding of worn-out or too-small body structures. Permits an animal to grow in size or renew.
compounds with the same simple formula but different three-dimensional structures resulting in different physical and chemical properties.
adaptive radiation
evolution of many diversely adapted species from a common ancestor upon introduction to various new environmental opportunities and challenges (migration to new environments)
a pattern of dispersion in which animals are randomly spread. (dandelions, for example)
An enzyme that untwists the double helix of DNA at the replication forks.
1:2:1 ratio of carbon hydrogen and oxygen (think of glucose!) [when there are 6 carbon molecules = sugar]; maltose is a disaccharide (forms a glycosidic linkage from dehydration synthesis..breaking it up is called hydrolysis); starch and cellulose are polysaccharides (animals store glucose in form of glycogen in liver and muscle cells while plants store starch in plastids)
compounds that have the same numbers of atoms of the same elements but different structures and therefore different properties
The union of haploid gametes to produce a diploid zygote.
a mechanism through which a single ATP-powered pump that transports a specific solute can indirectly drive the active transport of several other solutes; substances that have been pumped across membrane can do work as they move back across the membrane by diffusion
What structure is the overall protein structure that results from the aggregation of two or more polypeptide subunits?
crossing over
The reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during synapsis of meiosis I.
An organic molecule serving as a cofactor. Most vitamins function as coenzymes in important metabolic reactions.
polymerase chain reaction
technique that allows molecular biologists to make many copies of a particular gene
P. generation
The parent individuals from which offspring are derived in studies of inheritance; P stands for parental.
mitochondrial matrix
The compartment of the mitochondrion enclosed by the inner membrane and containing enzymes and substrates for the Kreb's cycle.
In a monosaccharide, aldoses are what carbonyl
the environment as it relates to living organisms
Located in the Arctic and covering about 20% of Earth's land surface, with long cold winters and short cool summers and an annual rainfall of 20-60 cm
Vegetation is mostly lichens, mosses, grasses, and small shrubs, grazing mammals and their predators are resident
Visible light
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum detected as various colors by the human eye, rangin in wavelength from about 380 nm to about 750 nm
speed up reactions by lowering the activation energy
What statement best contrasts environmentalism with ecology?
Ecology provides scientific understanding of living things and their environment; environmentalism is more about conservation and preservation of life on Earth
in ssDNA, by what process does RNA make protein?
Permain Mass extinction
defines the boundary between the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras; 96% of marine animal species went extinct; cause of enormous volcanic eruptions
way a cell exerts larger objects to outside the membrane
A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
nuclear lamina
A netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus.
Casparian Strip
water-impermeable ring of wax in the endodermal cells of plants that blocks the passive flow of water and solutes into the stele by way of cell walls.
Any eukaryoke that is not a plant, animal, or fungus.
Most are unicellular.
All nutrition modes.
Ex. amoeba
The occurrence of more than one kind or form of organisms of the same species that exist together in one locality.
Cardiac Muscle
Forms the contractile wall of the heart
Alternation of generations
diploid and haploid generations are distinct, multicellular bodies
interleukin 1&2
A cytokine secreted by a macrophage that is in the process of phagocytizing and presenting antigen; in combination with the antigen, activates the helper T cell to produce IL-2 and other cytokines
the process by which water is lost through a plant's leaves
A threadlike linear strand of DNA and associated proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells that carries the genes and functions in the transmission of hereditary information
A structure in a living organism, esp. a sensory cell or sense organ, that responds to light falling on it
Between the gut and body wall, a cavity lined with peritoneum.
The drooping of leaves and stems as a result of plant cells becoming flaccid.
receptor mediator endocytosis
lets cell acquire bulk amounts of substance
specific heat
the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 gram of that substance to change its temperature 1 degree Celsius
A dense region of DNA in a prokaryotic cell.
functions of lysosomes
bonds with and breaks down food vacuoles, phagocytosis, poptosis, act as recyclers
radial symmetry
Symmetry in which the body is shaped like a pie or barrel (lacking a left side and a right side) and can be divided into mirror-imaged halves by any plane through its central axis.
punnett square
A diagram used in the study of inheritance to show the results of random fertilization.
quaternary structure
Proteins that consist of two or more polypeptide chains.
A polymer of up to over a thousand monosaccharides, formed by dehydration reactions.
passive transport
the diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane
unsaturated fatty acid
A fatty acid possessing one or more double bonds between the carbons in the hydrocarbon tail. Such bonding reduces the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton.
Who claimed that animals are made of cells?
Theodor Schwann (1839)
What is a sphere of water molecules that circles around each dissolved ion?
a hydrogen shell
What does a desmosome do between two cells?
makes a physical connection
humans can make about half of the 20 amino acids in proteins by modifying compounds taken from the ___
citric acid cycle
what is the difference between atomic mass and atomic weight
atomic mass indicates the sum of protons and neutrons. atomic weight indicates the average mass of all the isotopes of a given element
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