AP Biology and vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
different, other
electron charge
negatively charged ion
ring, circle, spiral
bond broken by water
Organelle responsible for photosynthesis in plants and algae.
diploid stage
dominant generation for animals
unstructured semifluid substance that fills the space between cells in connective tissues or inside organelles, the surface area exposed to fluids, such as where the production of energy takes place, in a mitochondrion
upper part of a forest.
Which ventricle has more pressure?
the behaviors and physical characteristics that allow organisms to live successfully in their environments
polysaccharide composed of glucose molecules used by plans in the formation of their cell walls
A fungal infection damages all peristomes, preventing them from performing their function. Which process
will be directly hindered as a result?
A) growth of the sporophyte
B) ability of sperm to locate eggs
C) growth of the protonema
D) lengthening of rhi
an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals
digestive organ that releases enzymes into the small intestine. also an endocrine gland that regulates glucose levels in the blood by releasing insulin or glucagon from special cells called islets of langerhans
concentration of neurons that detect and process information at bodies anterior or head/booty aka a brain
part of evolution of bilateral body
individual members of a species maintain an exclusive use of an area that contains some limited resources
The food-conducting tissue of vascular plants
Nonliving; referring to physical and chemical properties of an environment
differentiation and growth of the structure of an organism
klinefelter's syndrome (XXY)
extra X - polyploidy
an instrument that measures the proportions of light of different wavelengths absorbed and transmitted by a pigment solution
Fish-shaped lancelets that have a simple brain in a head that develops as it does in vertebrates.
Neutral Variation
Genetic diversity that confers no apparent selective advantage
Long tubular single cells or filaments of cells that anchor bryophytes to the ground. Rhizoids are not composed of tissues, they lack specialized conducting cells, and they do not play a primary role in water and mineral absorption.
contain RNA and proteins, carry out protein synthesis (make proteins), 2 kinds: free and bound. free are suspended in the cytosol, bound are attached to the rough ER or nuclear envelope
Inductive Reasoning
Reasoning from detailed facts to general principles
Adrenal gland
paired endocrine glands that are positioned just above the kidneys
a subatomic particle that has a negative charge
A special sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene. It signals RNA polymerase to release the newly made RNA molecule, which then departs from the gene
a ball of capillaries in the nephron
very dense region of chromatin and protein in the nucleus, it has rRNA which is synthesized
(1) A deficiency in a chromosome resulting from the loss of a fragment through breakage. (2) A mutational loss of one or more nucleotide pairs from a gene.
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy.
The systematic study of how biology affects human social behavior.
composed of nine sets of triplet microtubule arrange in a ring
An organic molecule consisting only of carbon and hydrogen.
What is a mole?
6.02 x 10 ^23
An interaction in which an herbivore eats parts of a plant or alga
A method of organizing the chromosomes of a cell in relation to number, size, and type.
microscopic pores on the exterior of leaf through which carbon dioxide enters and oxygen exits
Mature ovule with an embryo sporophyte inside and
a plant form in the alternation of generations that is diploid, having two sets of chromosomes
a disease caused by an allele that codes for a dysfunctional enzyme, which is unable to break down certain lipids in the brain. The lipids accumulate in the brain cells, and the child can suffer from blindness, seizures, or death
A class of related plant hormones that stimulate growth in the stem and leaves, trigger the germination of seeds and breaking of bud dormancy, and stimulate fruit development with auxin.
cell envelope
in a prokaryotic cell, the portion composed of the plasma membrane, the cell wall and the gycocalyx
cells need these in order to exist because they make up cell membranes; has 2 fatty acids attached to glycerol instead of traditional 3 (triacylglycerol); always assemble into a double-layer aggregate because of hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail
a meal that has been exposed to gastric juice in the stomach
a change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell
nuclear lamina
protein network that retains the shape of the nucleus, found on inner membrane (inside of nuclear envelope)
cyclic photophosphorylation
The generation of ATP by cyclic electron flow.
bacterial chromosone
A single circular piece of double stranded DNA, free in cytoplasm
hardy-weinberg equation
p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1
pancreatic amylase
..., An enzyme released by the pancreas (through the pancreatic duct) into the small intestine -- it converts starch to maltose.
The unit of inheritance from parent to offspring
The driving force that pushes the root tip through the soil is due primarily to
A) continuous cell division in the root cap at the tip of the root.
B) continuous cell division just behind the root cap in the center of the apical meristem.
C) elongation of
Organ System
Has two or more organs interacting physically, chemically, or both in the performance of one or more tasks.
Polar Molecule
The opposite ends of the molecule have opposite charges.
replication fork
place where DNA is open and being copied
Cytotoxic T cell
the T cells actively involved in cell-mediated immunity by destroying infected, cancerous, or foreign cells. Triggered as antigens and cytokines activated the cell and encourage proliferation of memory cytotoxic T cells and active cytotoxic T cells. Helper T cells are activated by antigens presented by dendritic cells and secrete cytokines that encourage cytotoxic T cell activity
central vacuole
A membranous sac in a mature plant cell with diverse roles in reproduction, growth, and development.
Somatic Cell
any cell other than those involved in gamete formation
benign tumor
a mass of abnormal cells that remains at the site of origin
co dominance
situation in which both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype of the organism
Unsaturated Fatty Acid
Fatty acid possessing one or more double bonds between the carbons in the hydrocarbon tail
function: controls entry into and out of cell
cell (plasma) membrane
Blood vessels
a set of tubes through which the blood moves through the body
Regulatory Gene
a gene that codes for a protein, such as a repressor, that controls the transcription of another gene
a change in the growth of a plant in response to gravity
you are more likely to observe primary succesion in a terrestrial community when you visit a(n)
recently created volcanic island
simple and complex tissue
simple- 1 type of cell
complex- 2 or more types of cells
fluid mosaic model in cell membrane
The plasma membrane is described to be fluid because of its hydrophobic integral components such as lipids and membrane proteins that move laterally or sideways throughout the membrane. That means the membrane is not solid, but more like a 'fluid'.
The membrane is depicted as mosaic because like a mosaic that is made up of many different parts the plasma membrane is composed of different kinds of macromolecules, such as integral proteins, peripheral proteins, glycoproteins, phospholipids, glycolipids, and in some cases cholesterol, lipoproteins.
According to the model, the plasma membrane is a lipid bilayer (interspersed with proteins). It is so because of its phospholipid component that can fold in itself creating a double layer - or bilayer - when placed in a polar surrounding, like water. This structural feature of the membrane is essential to its functions, such as cellular transport and cell recognition.
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