AP Biology Key Terms 9 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Thylakoids
...
mycel-
threadlike
Hydrophobic
water fearing
Chrom-, -chrome
color
Cyclic Electron Flow
...
archaeo- (2 defs)
primitive; ancient
heterochromatin
Nontranscribed eukaryotic chromatin that is so highly compacted that it is visible with a light microscope during interphase.
Tetrad
a group of four
carboxyl
functional group -COOH; forms carboxylic acids; has acidic properties (charge of 1- in cells); hydrophilic
osteoblast
bone builders
secrete components of bone tissue
make new matrix that replaces one broken down by osteoblasts
Telophase/Cytokinesis
spindle disappears, nuclear envelope reforms around each set of chromosomes, chromosomes uncoil, cytoplasm divides forming two new cells.
anaphase
separation of sister chromatids, breakdown of microtubules forces the sisters to opposite poles
Chromosomes
A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus; Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins
Peroxisome
a microbody containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen; produces hydrogen peroxide
interleukin II
cell-mediated immune response: what substance helps increase the production of effector cells and activated killer t-cells?
exons
expressed sequences; parts of the protein-coding sequence
catalysts
chemical agents that selectively speed up chemical reactions without being consumed by the reaction; can be seen as workhorses that keep cells running by carrying out processes of life
Cartilage
an abundance of collagenous fibers embedded in a rubbery matrix made of a substance call chondroitin sulfate, a protein-carbohydrate complex.
starch
a polymer consisting entirely of glucose monomers (storage structure)
genes
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
Arrange the following from most general (i.e., most inclusive) to most specific (i.e., least inclusive):
1. Natural selection
2. Microevolution
3. Intrasexual selection
4. Evolution
5. Sexual selection
A) 4, 1, 2, 3, 5
B) 4, 2, 1, 3, 5
C) 4, 2, 1, 5, 3
D)
c
thigmotropism
plant growth in response to touch
What effect does ʺpinching backʺ have on a houseplant?
A) increases apical dominance
B) inhibits the growth of lateral buds
C) produces a plant that will grow taller
D) produces a plant that will grow fuller
E) increases the flow of auxin down the shoot
d
Transpiration
ecaporation of water from leaves, stems, and other plant parts
Infectious particle of short, tightly folded stran
viroid
adrenal medulla
releases epinephrine (fight or flight hormone)
ectoparasites
parasites that feed on the external surface of a host
Electrons
equal to number of protons; atomic particle that has negative charge
nuclear envelope
double membrane perforated with pores that control the flow of materials in and out of the nucleus
Bacteria
one of two prokaryotic domains of life
proton pump
transports hydrogen ions (protons) out of the cell (uses energy)
centromere
a specialized region in a chromosome that hold the two chromatids together
Polyploidy
A chromosomal alteration in which the organism possesses more than two complete chromosome sets.
Why is the filamentous morphology of the water molds considered a case of convergent evolution with the
hyphae (threads) of fungi?
A) Fungi are closely related to the water molds.
B) Body shape reflects ancestor-descendant relationships among organisms.
C
c
enantiomers
Molecules that are mirror images of each other.
Define: Cation
an atom with a positive charge
ovule
a seed plant structure within an ovary; it conatians a female gemtophyte surrounded by the nucellus and one or two integuments
conjugation
..., form of sexual reproduction in which paramecia and some prokaryotes exchange genetic information
Müllerian mimicry
two or more unpalatable species resemble each other; becomes kind of an aposematic coloration
food vacuoles
A membranous sac formed by phagocytosis.
What monosaccharide is a nutrient for cells?
glucose
stimulants
A substance that raises levels of physiological or nervous activity in the body; something that increases activity, interest, or enthusiasm in a specified field
Pedigree
Family tree showing the occurence of traits over several generations.
prokaryotic cell
A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and other membrane-enclosed organelles; found only in the domains Bacteria and Archaea.
saturated fatty acids
contain only single bonds between carbon atoms
secondary production
the amount of chemical energy in consumers' food that is converted to their own new biomass during a given time period.
codons
the form in which the message is carried in mRNA; a group of three bases that corresponds to one of 20 amino acids
Heat (thermal energy)
kinetic energy associated with random movements of atoms or molecules
sulfhydryl group
A functional group consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom (—SH).
Endothermic
the body is warmed by heat generated by metabolism, and temperature is maintained at a certain level to stay alive.
Meiosis
A two-stage type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the chromosome number of the original cell.
Test cross
A cross between an individual of unknown genotype or a heterozygote (or a multiple heterozygote) to a homozygous recessive individual (tester).
denaturation
For proteins, a process in which a protein unravels and loses its native conformation, thereby becoming biologically inactive. For DNA, the separation of the two strands of the double helix. Denaturation occurs under extreme conditions of pH, salt concentration, and temperature.
transformation
(1) The conversion of a normal animal cell to a cancerous cell. (2) A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell.
interphase
period when cell cycle when cell is not dividing- cell metabolic activity is high, chromsomes and organelles are duplicated and cell size may increase. 90% of cell cycle
host range
limited variety of hosts a particular virus can infect
chromatin
The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome. When the cell is not dividing,exists as a mass of very long, thin fibers that are not visible with a light microscope.
locus
the specific site of a particular gene on its chromosome
Nerve cords
Of bilateral animals, a line of communication, usually paired, that runs parallel with the anterior-posterior axis. In large or long invertebrates, it often has one or more large axons. In chordates, it develops as a hollow, neural tube that gives rise to the spinal cord and brain.
A habitat gets chopped into patches too small to s
habitat fragmentation
where is the pyloric sphincter located?
bottom of the stomach
Hardy-Weinberg Theorem
used to describe a population that is not evolving
potential energy
The energy that matter possesses as a result of its location or spatial arrangement (structure).
passive transport
diffusion or osmosis; the way a cell gets materials or excretes them by having them go from a high concentration to a low concentration; no ATP is necessary, energy comes from normal collisions; slow over large distances
analagous structures
Two structures in biology are said to be analogous if they perform the same or similar function by a similar mechanism but evolved separately.
Adaptive Zone
A set of different niches that become filled by a group of species.
sex-linked traits
traits that are carried on the sex chromosomes
Feedback Inhibition
A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway.
Rain Shadow

A dry region of little rainfall on the leeward side of mountains


Air flows over mountain and starts its descent, it warms up


Warm air can hold more water, so it retains moisture and draws more out of plants and soil
The species richness of a community refers to the?
number of different species
Semilunar valves
Valves at the two exits of the heart that are forced open by pressure created by contraction of ventricles. Prevents blood from flowing back into ventricles
DNA microarray assays
A method to detect and measure the expression of thousands of genes at one time. Tiny amounts of a large number of single-stranded DNA fragments representing different genes are fixed to a glass slide. These fragments, ideally representing all the genes of an organism, are tested for hybridization with various samples of cDNA molecules.
vascular tissue system
moves water and solutes to all plant parts.
comparative morphology (19th century style)
study of body plan and structures among organisms
outwardly similar species might be inwardly different and vice versa
why did animals have unneccesary parts if made in a perfect state?
Packs protiens and modifies them.
What is the function of the golgi apparatus?
why is salt (NaCl) a compound, but oxygen gas (O2) is not?
a compund is formed when two or more different kinds of atoms chemically bond together as in NaCl. oxygen gas is 2 oxygen atoms held together by chemical covalent bonds
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