AP Biology Midterm Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
coel-
hollow
density
mass/volume
rhizoids
rootlike structures
Stabilizing Selection
...
Atoms contain molecules
false
Chlorophyll B
Accessory pigment
Na K pump
3Na 2K
dicots
-two cotyledons
-netlike veins
-floral parts in 4's and 5's
-tap root
phototropism
growth in respose to light
Phosphate
-OPO3, organic phosphates, ex. glycerol phosphate, makes anions
Exocytosis
Cellular secretion of macromolecules by a fusion of vesicles to the plasma membrane
protein
A three-dimensional biological polymer constructed from a set of 20 different monomers called amino acids.
3 Germ Layers
ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
gene
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
Given a population that contains genetic variation, what is the correct sequence of the following events, under
the influence of natural selection?
1. Well-adapted individuals leave more offspring than do poorly adapted individuals.
2. A change occurs in
a
allopatric speciation
population becomes separated from species by geographical barrier
starch
plant storage molecule; can be digested by people
tetrad
A paired set of homologous chromosomes, each composed of two sister chromatids. Tetrads form during prophase I of meiosis.
Density Dependent Inhibition
crowded cells stop dividing
capsid
the outer covering of protein surrounding the nucleic acid of a virus
Carbohydrate
Organic material used to generate energy, it is divided into 3 saccharide groups.
rubisco
Ribulose carboxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle (the addition of CO2 to RuBP, or ribulose bisphosphate).
disaccharide
molecule that consists of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage
peroxisome
A microbody containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen, producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide.
endergonic reaction
a non-spontaneous chemical reaction, in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings
metaphase II
1) chromosomes positioned on metaphase plate 2) due to crossing over in meiosis I, two sister chromatids are not identical 3) kinetochores of sister chromatids attach to microtubules
pits
Thinner regions in the walls of tracheids and vessels where only primary walls are present.
community
All the organisms that inhabit a particular area; an assemblage of populations of different species living close enough together for potentiality interaction
sexual reproduction
two individuals contribute genes; form of reproduction results in greater genetic variation in the offspring
development
changes that take place during the life of an organism
pH scale
measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution: ranges from 0-14
Permafrost
layer of permanently frozen subsoil in the tundra
enhancer
A DNA sequence that recognizes certain transcription factors that can stimulate transcription of nearby genes.
Glycolipids
Carbs that are covalently binded to the bilayer. Used for cell to cell recognition.
chyme
liquid mixture of food and stomach fluids released from the stomach into the small intestine
viroid
a virus-like infectious agent that is composed of only a single, circular strand of RNA
reduction
The addition of electrons to a substance involved in a redox reaction.
DNA molecule
double helix
two strands run in opposite directions
repeating units of nucleotides
5 carbon sugar: deoxyribose
made of 5-carbon sugar, phosphate & a nitrogen base
Fibrinogen
Inactive form of sealant that plugs leaks in bloo vessels
Temperature of water's greatest density
4 degrees C
Electroporation
brief electrical pulse applied to a solution containing cells creates temporary holes in their plasma membrane through which DNA can enter
Vitamin D Function
Promotes bone growth and mineralization; enhances calcium absorption.
hydrogen atoms taken from glucose are carried by the coenzyme NAD+ to form
NADH
production efficiency
trophic efficiency must always be less than ______ _____ bc it takes into account energy lost through respiration and in feces, also energy in organic material in a lower trophic level not consumed by next trophic level
renal cortex
the outer portion of the vertebrate kidney
carriers
an individual aho is heterozygous at a given locus, with one normal allele and one potentially harmful recessive allele
Stele
The vascular tissue of a stem or root.
excretory system
organ system that filters blood and removes nitrogenous wastes from the body in the form of urea or uric acid. in humans, the kidneys are the two vital organs of blood filtration (also have the ureters, urinary bladder, urethra). in annelids, the nephridia fill the filtering role, malphigian tubes do the same in arthropods.
Trans Fats
has double bonds, tightly packed to increase melting temp., people cannot break them down
F1 generation
The first filial, or hybrid, offspring in a genetic cross-fertilization.
gas exchange
The uptake of molecular oxygen from the environment and the discharge of carbon dioxide to the environment.
metapopulation
when a number of local populations are linked because of immigration and emigration; local populations are clumped together, and cannot exist except in those areas, because of environment, etc.
evolution of photosynthesis
ancient bacteria had heat detecting pigment so it could locate thermal vents
allowed capturing of light from vents
this ability evolved into the ability to capture the light energy
modern day bacteria photosynthesize using thermal vents
Interspecific Competition
A (-/-) interaction which occurs when species compete for a particular finite resource
Vector
moves DNA from one source to another (ex: plasmids)
primary electron acceptor
A specialized molecule sharing the reaction center with the pair of reaction-center chlorophyll a molecules; it accepts an electron from one of these two chlorophylls.
primary structure
the unique structure of amino acids; example: a polypeptide composed of 127 amino acids has 20^127 different ways it can be organized
Cellular Respiration
the catabolic pathways of aerobic and anaerobic respiration, which break down organic molecules for the production of ATP
growth ring
the combination of early wood (large diameter, thing walled cells, starts forming with the first rains of the growing season) and late wood (forms in dry summers and has small diameter, thick walled xylem cells)
electronegativity
the attraction of an atom for the electrons of a covalent bond
which of the following has a better chance of influencing gene frequencies in small populations than in large populations, but which one most consistently requires a small populations as a precondition for its occurrence?
genetic drift
Polysaccharides
A polymer of up to over a thousand monosaccharides formed by dehydration reactions; can serve as building or storage material
Covalent Bond
type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one of more pairs of valence electrons.
Ingestion
The act of eating, the first stage to food processing.
Things Found in Prokaryotic AND Eukaryotic Cells (things found in all cells)
Ribosomes, Chromosomes, Plasma Membrane, and Cytoplasm
poly A tail
added to the end of mRNA, protects
vital capacity
The maximum volume of air that a respiratory system can inhale and exhale.
Nucleic acids do what with hereditary info
store and transmit
Protein Digestion Enzymes
-Pepsins in the stomach lining; active in the stomach; substrate=proteins; main breakdown products=protein fragments-Trypsin and chymotrypsin in the pancreas; active in the small intestine; substrate=proteins; main breakdown product=protein fragments-Carboxypeptidase in the pancreas; active in the samll intestine; substrate=protein fragments; main breakdown products=amino acids -Aminopeptidase in the intestinal lining; active in the samll intestine; substrate=protein fragments; main breakdown products=amino acids
trans isomer
the arangement with the Xs on opposite sides
What are the 3 classes of organic macromolecules?
Carbs, lipids, proteins
citric acid cycle. krebs cycle
series of chemical reactions that break down glucose and produce ATP by oxidizing pyruvate molecules into CO2. Energizes electron carriers that pass the energized electrons on to the electron transport chain
Dependent Variable
A factor in an experiment that can be changed by the outcome of the independent variable
What is a triglycerol (triglyceride)
measure of fat in blood, means fat
calvin cycle (light independent reactions
The second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions), involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate.
Which of the following is true of anabolic pathways?
They are highly regulated and consume energy to build polymers from monomers.
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