AP Biology terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
dissolved substance
having arms
middle, half, intermediate
belong to alveolata(Dinos,whirling); are abundant components of marine and freshwater phtoplankton; two flagella sit in perpendicular grooves in the armor and produce a spinning movement as they move though water; can cause red tides
Second step of transcription;
the only liquid metal
comes from the word hydrargentum
cancer cells
exhibit neither density-dependent inhibition nor anchorage dependence
Oxygen-storing protein found in muscles
having an affinity to water
Compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, in the approximate ratio of C:2H:O, e.g., sugars, starch, and cellulose.
All monkeys, apes, and humans.
coiled shell, foot for locomotion, radula
chromosomal alteration in which the organism possesses more that 2 complete chromosome sets
cytoplasmic streaming
acin-myosin interactions and sol-gel tranformations brought about by actin may be involved in this circular flow of cytoplasm within cells. especially common in large plant cells. distributes materials in the cell faster.
non ionic and non-polar; repels water
Combines with proteins to form ribosomes.
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Entire range of electromagnetic energy, or radiation.
is a storage polysaccharide in animals
Humans and other vertebrates store glycogen mainly in liver and muscle cells
lagging strand
A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates in a direction away from the replication fork.
diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane from low solute concentration to high solute concentration
An atom's central core, containing protons and neutrons.
after embryonic period, new individual that has distinct human features
reducing complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study
Alfred Wallace
naturalist who synthesized a concept of natural selection independently of Darwin
group of individuals born during the same interval
subject of age specific pattern analysis
-birth rate and mortality measured
-data put in to life table
life table is useful for determining how a change will impact a species
Does a prokaryotic or eukaryotic cell have a true nucleus bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope?
a monosaccharide found in all living cells; it has the chemical formula C6 H12 O6; the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues; it degrades as a source of energy during cellular respiration
a solution of equal concentrations of solutes.
closed circulatory system
annelids and vertebrates
blood remains inside heart/blood vessels
-doesnt mix with interstitial fluid
blood moves through large and small blood vessels
-slower in capillaries because the volume of blood in the capillaries is huge
5' cap
A modified form of guanine nucleotide;
Added onto the nucleotide at the 5' end of a a pre-mRNA molecule.
a molecule having both a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic region
Golgi apparatus
An orgenelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of flat membranous sacs that modefy, store, androute products of the endoplasmic reticulum
triplet code
A set of three-nucleotide-long words that specify the amino acids for polypeptide chains.
smooth ER
endoplasmic reticulum in which the cytoplasmic surface lacks ribosomes
exergonic reaction
A spontaneous chemical reaction in which there is a net release of free energy.
t-dependent antigens
Antigens that can stimulate antibody production only with help from T helper cells
the liver is involved in detoxification of many poisons and drugs. which of the following structures is primarily involved in the process and therefore abundant in liver cells?
smooth ER
The control of water balance in organisms living in hypertonic, hypotonic, or terrestrial environments.
The cellular process that uses special enzymes to fix incorrectly paired nucleotides
stops blood loss from small blood vessels that hve become ruptured or cut
Peptide bond
the new bond between amino acids
A group of indiviudals of one species that live in a particular geographic area.
The region of the root between the stele and epidermis filled with ground tissue.
S phase
which phase takes up the most time?
bind to the mRNA coding sequence to align the amino acids in the correct order to form the polypeptide chain
type of steroid in the cell membrane that keeps the cell from melting and freezing; HDL = good LDL = bad
Define: Stroma
the fluid outside the thylakoids that contains chloroplast DNA, ribosomes, and enzymes
ABA (abscisic acid)
Plant hormone that inhibits growth, closes stomates during times of water stress and counteracts breaking of dormancy
amino acids
organic molecules that serve as the building blocks of proteins; contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atoms
The reaction of plants to light in which the plants bend toward the light
sex chromosomes
One of the pair of chromosomes responsible for determining the sex of an individual
Hydroxyl group
What is the -OH functional group called
A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.
Chambers that pump blood out of the heart
law of segregration
Mendel's first law, stating that allele pairs separate during gamete formation, and then randomly re-form as pairs during the fusion of gametes at fertilization.
RNA processing
Modification of RNA before it leaves the nucleus, a process unique to eukaryotes.
Primary Productivity
The rate at which primary producers capture and store energy in their tissue
Organic compounds flow throug phloem in response t
pressure flow theory
renal artery
the blood vessel bringing blood to the kidney
central vacuole
A membranous sac in a mature plant cell with diverse roles in reproduction, growth, and development.
hydroxyl group: functional properties
Polar because of oxygen's high electronegativity; attracts water molecules, helping to dissulve organic compounds such as sugars
Signal transduction pathway
a mechanism linking a mechanical or chemical stimulus to a specific cellular response
photosystem I
One of two light-harvesting units of a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it uses the P700 reaction-center chlorophyll.
gene therapy
The alternation of the genes of a person afflicted with a genetic disease.
mRNA base triplet (written in 5' to 3' direction) / basic unit of genetic code
law of segregation
refers to the separation of alleles into separate gametes
what type of energy is available when we are at rest
potential energy
In the life cycle of a plant or alga undergoing alternation of generations, a meiotically produced haploid cell that divides mitotically, generating a multicellular individual, the gametophyte, without fusing with another cell.
functions of the proteins
1. Transport of specific solutes into or out of cells. 2. Enzymatic activity, sometimes catalyzing one of a number of steps of a metabolic pathway 3. Signal transduction, relaying hormonal messages to the cell. 4. Cell-cell recognition, allowing other proteins to attach two adjacent cells together 5. Intercellular joining of adjacent cells with gap or tight junctions 6. Attachment to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix, maintaining cell shape and stabilizing the location of certain membrane proteins.
genetically modified (GM) organisms
organisms that carry new traits that have been inserted through advanced genetic engineering methods
Thermal Inversion
A layer of cool, dense air is trapped under a layer of warm air

Creates smog
Describe: Linear Molecular Shape
a molecule consisting of two atom is always linear
response to environmental stimuli in a mammal
It responds to different temperatures, ect and environmental changes.
C3 Plants
bad; evil
alleles are DIFFERENT
site of cellular respiration
Carbohydrate monomers. Molecular formulas are a multiple of CH2O.
in classification, the taxonomic category above species; the first part of a species' binomal, for example: Homo
cell that is not firm
many sugars (complex carbohydrates) Starch- stores long term energy in plants Glycogen- relatively long term energy storage in animals, stored in livers and muscles Cellulose- in the cell wall of plants Chitin- found in the exoskeleton of insects and crustaceans
fluid-filled body cavity, provides space for elaborate body systems
(animal cell) function: structural integrity
structure: cytoskeleton
a cell ingests large, solid particles
nucleic acids
compounds including DNA and RNA
absorption spectrum
the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation that has passed through a medium that absorbed radiation of certain wavelengths
the attraction between different kinds of molecules
chromosomes line up along metaphase plate
Chemical agents that selectively speed up chemical reactions in the cell
Proteins and their Functions - Hemoglobin
nitrogen fixation
the assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen by soil bacteria and its release for plant use on the death of the bacteria
The colorless fluid, derived from interstitial fluid, in the lymphatic system of vertebrates.
alchohol with three carbons, each bearing a hydroxyl group
A connective tissue whose cellular components arise from stem cells in bone.
A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.
the random movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration of that substance
the reduced form of NAD+; an electron-carrying molecule that functions in cellular respiration
a small molecule that cooperates with a repressor protein to switch an operon off
A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid.
Molecules that are mirror images of each other.
Centrioles begin to move apart in animal cells
hypothetical remedy for all ills or diseases
a complex of DNA and associated protein molecules, becomes densly packed during cell division
A kingdom that includes the bacteria and blue-green algae in some classification schemes.
Angiotensin II
Plasma protein that helps constrict arterioles and stimulates ADH and aldosterone secretion.
Allows for diversity due its ability to create long complex chains with other molecules.
a longitudinal, flexible rod that runs along the dorsal axis of an animal's body in the future position of the vertebral column
The smallest unit of matter that retains the physical and chemical properties of its element
Endosymbiont theory
explains that eukaryotic cells may have evolved from prokaryotic cells
malignant tumor
cancerous tumor that is invasive enough to impair function of one or more organs
two paired lungs have about 600 million alveoli (singular, alveolus) or air sacs; adjusted by metabolic demands for gas exchange
membrane potential
the charge difference between the cytoplasm and extracellular fluid in all cells due to the differential distribution of ions. membrane potential affects the activity of excitable cells and the transmembrane movement of all charged substances
sister chromatids
two copies of a replicated chromosome held together at the centromere that are seen in prophase, prometaphase, and metaphase of mitosis and meiosis, produced when DNA is synthesized
A small, very toxic molecule made up of three hydrogen atoms and one nitrogen atom; produced by nitrogen fixation and as a metabolic waste product of protein and nucleic acid metabolism.
Division of the cytoplasm in the cell cycle
vasa recta
The capillary system in the kidney that serves the loop of Henle.
generating resting potential
-cytoplasm has many negatively charged proteins that are not present in intersititial fluid
-proteins cannot diffuse out
-potassium ions are moved in and sodium ions are pumped out (2 K's for every 3 Na's)
-net decrease in charge
signal-recognition particle (SRP)
A protein-RNA complex that recognizes a signal peptide as it emerges from a ribosome and helps direct the ribosome to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by binding to a receptor protein on the ER.
Crossing Over
two homologs pull apart slightly but remain connected slightly and tranfer alleles
In a cnidocyte of a cnidarian, a specialized capsule-like organelle containing a coiled thread that when discharged can penetrate the body wall of the prey.
Carbon Fixation
Taking carbon from CO2 and making sugar.
The stalk of a flower's carpel, with the ovary at the base and the stigma at the top.
sugar and the polymers of sugar, end with -ose; excess can be converted to fat
hydroxyl groups
A functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom joined to an oxygen atom by a polar covalent bond. Molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols.
atomic weight

§average of the mass numbers of all isotopes
All living and nonliving things in a given area
eukaryotic cell
a type of cell w a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles.
enzyme inhibition
Process by which a substance known as an inhibitor binds to an enzyme and decreases it's activity
Define: Cytoplasmic Streaming
a circular flow of cytoplasm within cells
Light-Harvesting Complex
Cholophyll a and b molecules that are in each photosystem bound to proteins.
A polymer of up to over a thousand monosaccharides, formed by dehydration reactions.
Batesian Mimicry
A animal that is a 'harmless copy-cat' of a poisonous animal species.
motor neurons
convey impulses from the CNS to the effector cells
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
consists of a network of membranous tubules and sacs called cisternae
HMS Beagle
the ship that darwin sailed on - galapagos island - finches - through his data he began to develop theory of evolution
what does GP stand for in GP 120 and GP 40?
Basel Metabolic Rate (BMR)
The metabolic rate of a resting, fasting, and non stressed endotherm at a comfortable temperature
DNA microarray assays
A method to detect and measure the expression of thousands of genes at one time. Tiny amounts of a large number of single-stranded DNA fragments representing different genes are fixed to a glass slide. These fragments, ideally representing all the genes of an organism, are tested for hybridization with various samples of cDNA molecules.
NADPH is produced by  ___ in photosynthesis
photosystem I (PS I)
fresh water bony fish urinary system
gain water
-produce large amounts of urine
-solutes lost in urine are offset by solutes from food and water
in a ___ cell, most of the DNA is in a region free of membrane enclosure called a nucleoid
kernel, nucleus
bonds with Guanine
purine, attaches to thymine
Hold muscle to bone
-gen, -genic, -genesis
produce, initiate, formation
the space between plant nodes
eggs are formed in utero
Symbiotic interaction that benefits both participa
The exudation of water droplets, caused by root pressure in certain plants.
trophic efficiency
the percentage of production transferred from one trophic level to the next.
an internal supportive and protective structure comprised of a framework of smaller components that connect at movable regions called joints and assist in movement of the organism
Simplest Formula
AKA empirical. Gives smallest whole-number ratios for the atoms present in compound
a membrane protein, specifically a transport protein, that facilitates the passage of water through channel proteins
Which term accurately describes the behavior of Paramecium species that lack zoochlorellae in an aquarium
with light coming from one side only?
A) positive chemotaxis
B) negative chemotaxis
C) positive phototaxis
D) negative phototaxis
scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation
An acceptor that temporarily stores energized electrons produced during the light reactions.
Linear unbranched polymer of D-glucose in α 1-4 β 4-6 linkages
A structural polysaccharide that is a major component of plant cell walls
process by which mature embryo sporophyte resumes growth
water has to seep into the seed to initiate it
-activates Gibberellin that causes production of amylase that hydrolyzes starch in sugar monomers
-tissues swell and seed coat splits and oxygen enters
-sugars and oxygen are used for aerobic respiration by meristem cells and cellular division occurs
ends when embryonic root- radical- emerges
Phylum Arthropoda (general)
Skeleton of ---
Segmented, Jointed
Bilateral sym.
In scientific studies, the search for the least complex explanation for an observed phenomenon.
organism that moves via flagella (also paramecium)
how many genes are in large viruses?
a supportive meshwork of fine fibers in eukaryotic cells
the state in mitosis that is characterized by the migration of chromatids to oppposite ends of the cell; the stae in meiosis during which homologous paris migrate (anaphase I); and the stae in meiosis during which chromatids migrate to different ends of the cell (anaphase II)
insoluble in water, waxy, oily, fatty, incorporate fatty acids.
food vacuoles
A membranous sac formed by phagocytosis.
neutral variation
Genetic diversity that confers no apparent selective advantage.
Insertion Sequence
the simplest kind of transposable element, consisting of inverted repeats of DNA flanking a gene for transposase, the enzyme that catalyzes transposition
brush border
large numbers of microvilli that increase the surface area of the small intestine to improve absorption efficiency
protein that can turn off an operon
the use of living organisms, usually prokaryotes, fungi, or plants, to detoxify polluted ecosystems.
consists of ancestral species and all its descendants
A process for synthesizing ATP using the energy of an electrochemical gradient and the ATP synthase enzyme.
P. generation
The parent individuals from which offspring are derived in studies of inheritance; P stands for parental.

Precipitation - less than 10cm of rain per year

Soil - sandy soil, low in nutrients and very little topsoil

Plants - succulent plants that have needle shaped leaves

Animals - snakes, lizards, spiders, roadrunner

Temperature - humidity is low, suns rays penetrate and heat the groung quickly so its hot during the day and cold at night

Plants are adapted to growing, flowering and producing seed quick

Plants are deep rooted

Found at latitudes about 30° N and S


Fungus having club-shaped cells that produce and b
club fungus
The process of generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of a proton-motive force generated by the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynthesis.
age structure
number of individuals in each of several age categories
A protein serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that changes the rate of reaction without being consumed by the reaction
dehydration reaction
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
carboxyl group: compound name
Carboxylic acids - organic acids
When does the reduction of oxygen to form water occur?
simple epithelium
epithelium w/ a single layer of cells
process of DNA being copied over to mRNA; occurs in nucleus; consists of initiation, elongation, and termination.
active transport
uses energy to move solutes against their gradients; requires the cell to expend metabolic energy; enables a cell to maintain its internal concentrations of small molecules that would otherwise diffuse across he membrane ; ATP supplies the energy for active transport
Electron Transport Chain
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
Prokaryotic Cells
Have no nucleus, but still contain chromosomes.
Endoplasmic reticulum
an internal membrane system in which components of cell membrane and some proteins are constructed
pulmonary circuit
The branch of the circulatory system that supplies the lungs.
Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis
Allows the cell to acquire bulk quantities of specific substrates by receptors to which substrates attach which are then engulfed by the cell
Sexual Dimorphism
A special case of polymorphism based on the distinction between the secondary sex characteristics of males and females.
having two alleles for each gene - allows for recessive genes to survive
what an animal does and how it does it.
what is used to describe the cell when a virus is lytic?
Semiconservative Model
type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand, derived from the old molecule, and one newly made strand
What do phosphate groups do?
transfer energy between organic molecules
pH scale
scale used to measure the acidity or alkalinity of a solution
Non-cyclic light reaction
Pathway that produces ATP, NADPH, and O2
Uses both photsystems I and II
Anchorage Inhibition
the requirement that to divide, a cell must be attached to the substratum.
what is the name of the protein that actually forms a clot?
Hydrostatic pressure
pressure exerted by a volume of fluid against a cell wall, membrane, or some other structure that contains it; also called turgor pressure
Line graph
Use this type of graph when data is numbers vs. numbers
Growth Factor
A protein that must be present in the extracellular environment (culture medium or animal body) for the growth and normal development of certain types of cells.
Origin of life
Carbon, water, energy in form of light all play a role in creating amino acids, in other words life. This brings the idea that life began by organic material.
what is "spatial learning"?
the establishment of a memory that reflects the environment's spatial structure.
What is a peptide bond
covalent bond between 2 AMINO AND CARBOXYL
What is the end result of lipids
makes 3 molecules of water in fat
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