AP Biology Vocabulary 13 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
equal; same
b. hydrogen
CHO chains (long)
making big molecules
Room temperature
20-25 degrees C
polymers of amino acids
3 tissue system
dermal, vascular, ground
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
(aka Consumer)
Dependency on autotrophs for food, O2
cell to cell signaling molecule
coordinate all aspects of immunity
-ex: interluekins, interferons
"A specialized reproductive shoot", that develops on a sporophyte. Spores and gametophytes originate inside this. A _____ develops from a lateral bud. Many _____ have one carpel; others have two or more carpels fully or partly fused together. They contain stamens and carpels (perfect), but some species produce _____ with stamens or carpels (imperfect).
alcohol with three carbons each bearing a hydroxyl group
industrial stage
population grows slowly
cities develop and employ people
average family size decreases
low mortality rate
Pertaining to the underside, or bottom, of a bilaterally symmetrical animal.
substances that release hydrogen ions in a solution
endergonic reaction
reaction that takes in heat
symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship
respiratory pigment of arthropods and some mollusks
The coupling of the "downhill" diffusion of one substance to the "uphill" transport of another against its own concentration gradient.
A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose.
lagging strand
A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates in a direction away from the replication fork.
consist of only hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to carbon
The correspondence between nucleotide triplets in
Genetic code
vestigial structures
remnants of features that served important functions in various organisms' ancestors, although today they are hardly used (if at all)
passive diffusion of water into phloem causes increase in pressure. sugar gets taken into sink cell and causes water to flow out of phloem
Arrange the following in the correct sequence, from the earliest to most recent, in which these plant traits originated:
1. Sporophyte dominance, gametophyte independence
2. Sporophyte dominance, gametophyte dependence
3. Gametophyte dominance, sporoph
Material present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells, important during cell division; the microtubule-organizing center.
in cilia and flagella, a large contractive protein extending from one microtuble to the adjacent doublet
nitrogeneous bases that have a double ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms such as adenine and guanine
a nitrogenous base that has a double-ring structure; one of the two general categories of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA; either adenine or guanine
a structure of proteins and specific sections of chromosomal DNA at the centromere of a chromosome
Two fatty acids attached to glycerol rather than three
monohybrid cross
A cross between two individuals, concentrating on only one definable trait.
restriction fragment
DNA sequence after cutting by restriction enzyme
process of forming an endospore within a vegetative cell
gray matter
greyish nervous tissue containing cell bodies as well as fibers
mc formulas usually some multiple of the unite CH2O
binds to the cell surface receptor proteins
olfactory bulb
a structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the perception of odors
Ray-Finned Fishes
Have flexible fin supports derived from skin and thin scales.
proximate question
In animal behavior, an inquiry that focuses on the environmental stimuli, if any, that trigger a particular behavioral act, as well as the genetic, physiological, and anatomical mechanisms underlying it.
adding water to break a bond between molecules
obligate anaerobes
bacteria that cannot survive in the presence of oxygen
active site
in an enzyme reaction, where the substrate binds to
Proximal tubule
In the vertebrate kidney, the portion of a nephron immediately downstream from Bowman's capsule that conveys and helps refine filtrate
One of several atomic forms of an element, each containing a different number of neutrons and thus differing in atomic mass.
any plant organ that grows in an atypical loction, such as roots growing from stems
The named taxonomic unit at any given level.
Peptide bond
A covalent bond between two amino acids
Plasma Membrane
The selective barrier around a cell composed of a double layer of phospholipids
Define: Solution
a liquid that is a completely homogeneous mixture of two more more substances
A group of individuals of the same species living in the same geographic location.
the 22 pairs of chromosomes that code for many different traits
What is a gene
amino acids sequence of polypeptide
perfect flower
have male and female part
-can self pollinate which is adaptive in regions where plants are widely spaced
-offspring less virgorous than those from sexual reproduction
Either of two masses of gray matter lying between the cerebral hemispheres on either side of the third ventricle, relaying sensory information and acting as a center for pain perception
a restriction enzyme cuts a DNA molecule in a reproducible way
restriction fragments
Gram-negative bateria
has a thin peptidogclyca cell wll that retains a red die and also have a layer of lipopolysaccharids.
A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs
radioactive isotope
isotope (an atomic form of a chemical element) that is unstable; the nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off detectable particles and energy.
interstitial fluid
liquid found between the cells of the body that provides much of the liquid environment of the body
Retro Viruses
a special type of RNA virus that contains the enzyme reverse transcriptase
accessory fruit
A fruit, or assemblage of fruits, in which the fleshy parts are derived largely or entirely from tissues other than the ovary.
self v.s. nonself recognition
MHC markers in plasma membrane
-self recognition proteins
-major histocompatibility complex protein
-aka HLA
T cell receptors- TCR
-on T cells
-part of TCR recognizes MHC as self
-another part recognizes antigen as nonself
incomplete dominance
A type of inheritance in which F1 hybrids have an appearance that is intermediate between the phenotypes of the parental varieties
Memory cells
Long-lived B and T cells that develop during the first exposure to an antigen. They are set aside for any future encounters with the same antigen.
Carboxyl Group
a carbon atom with a double bond with a oxygen and a single bond with a hydroxyl group
Heat of vaporation
quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1 g to be converted from liquid to gas- water = 580 cal
Quaternary Structure of a Protein
The arrangement of the separate polypeptide subunits into a single protein
Bacterial Artificial Chromosome
a large plasmid that acts as a bacterial chromosome and can carry many base pairs
beta (B) pleated sheet
One form of the secondary structure of proteins in which the polypeptide chain folds back and forth, or where two regions of the chain lie parallel to each other and are held together by hydrogen bonds.
Describe: Carbon's Atomic Structure
a. carbon has 6 electrons, 2 in the first shell and 4 in the second
Gas exchange with water as the respiratory medium is much more demanding than exchange with the air. What are three reasons for this?
the warmer and saltier less O2, water contains less O2 than air per unit, surface area-skin
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