AP Biology: Immune System Flashcards

cells
Terms Definitions
Antibody
These reproduce quickly
B cells
cells that secrete antibodies
cytokine
promotes B and T cell creation
viral neutralization
antibodies block virus from binding
Epineferin
This constricts blood vessels to prevent the flow of blood flow to cells (crucial in an allergic reaction)
IgE
This is immunoglobin released during an allergic reaction and signals basophils to stimulate histomine
Antigen
Any foreign molecule, recognized by lymphocytes and ellicits a response from them
Lysozyme
An enzyme that destroys bacterial cells walls; in mammals, found in sweat, tears, and saliva.
Plasma Cells
The antibody-secreting effector cell of humoral immunity; arises from antigen-stimulated B cells.
opsonization
antibodies bind as a tag for destruction
Cytokines
These signal othe cells of specific viruses, bacteria, when stimulated
Macrophages
A phagocytic cell present in many tissues that functions in innate immunity by destroying microbes and in acquired immunity as an antigen-presenting cell.
Epitope
A small, accessible region of an antigen to which an antigen receptor or antibody binds; also called antigenic determinant.
CD4
A surface protein, present on most helped T cells, that binds to class II MHC molecules, enhancing the interaction between the T cell and an antigen presenting cell.
Active Immunity
Also known as Primary Response, this develops naturally in response to an infection. It is immediate action (recognizes)
Autoimmune Diseases
These types of diseases involves the immune system losing tolerance for self and turns against certain molecules of the body
Primary Immune Response
The initial acquired immune response to an antigen, which appears after a lag of about 10 to 17 days.
Secondary Immune Response
The acquired immune response elicited on second or subsequent exposures to a particular antigen. The secondary immune response is more rapid, of greater magnitude, and of longer duration that the primary immune response.
Autoimmune Disease
An immunological disorder in which the immune system turns against itself.
Monoclonal Antibody
Any of a preparation of antibodies that have been produced by a single clone of cultured cells and thus are all specific for the same epitope.
Clonal Selection
The process by which an antigen selectively bins to and activates only those lymphocytes bearing receptors specific for the antigen. The selected lymphocytes proliferate and differentiate into a clone of effector cells and a clone of memory cells specific for the stimulating antigen.
natural killer cells
What type of cells recognize and eliminate certain diseased cells based on MHC?
Antigen Presentation
The process by which an MHC molecule binds to a fragment of an intracellular protein antigen and carries it to the ell surface, where it is displayed and can be recognized by a T Cell.
Humoral Immune Response
The branch of acquired immunity that involves the activation of B cells and that leads to the production of antibodies, which defend against bacteria and viruses in body fluids.
complement system
make a pore in the doomed cell and lyse it
Immosuppressive Drug
This type of drug would be used for example, to prevent the rejection of organ transplant (Cortisone)
AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)
The symptoms and signs present during the late stages of HIV infection, defined by a specified reduction in the number of T cells and the appearance of characteristic secondary infections.
Helper T Cell
A type of T cell that, when activated, secreted cytokines that promote the response of B cells (humoral response) and cytotoxic T cells (cell-mediated response) to antigens.
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