Ap Biology:Evolution Flashcards

Terms Definitions
causes of evolution
1.genetic drift
2.gene flow
4.nonrandom mating
5.natural selection
artificial selection
man-made, intentionally bred selection. ex. bichons!!!!!
a pre-1832 scientist who studies fossils and realized that each stratum of earth is characterized by different fossils. He believed that a series of catastrophes was responsible for the changes in the organisms on earth and was a strong opponent of evolution, though this fossil studies helped Darwin
developed the theory that all life-forms can be arranged on a ladder of increasing complexity, each with its own allotted rung. the species are permanent and do not evolve. humans are at the top
bottleneck effect
phenomenons when natural disasters, etc. reduce the population and somewhat random alleles survive
Evolution in a multi-cellular organisms
What is macroevolution?
2pq in hardy weinberg equilibrium
percent heterozygous organisms
the first cells on earth
anaerobic heterotrophic prokaryotes
having extra fingers and toes, common among amish people due to the founder effect
the mating of organisms within one species that are not closely related. maintains variation and a strong gene pool. ex. lions never breed with their own siblings, but with others of a different pride.
stabilizing selection
a selection that eliminates extremes and favors the more common intermediate forms. ex. human babies are usually in the 6-8 pounds weight range. babies that weigh more or less have a greater mortality rate.
vestigial structures
these provide evidence that structures have evolved. ex. appendix, which is not really used by humans today, must have been used by hominids in the past and so shows that different structures were needed in the past
reproductive isolation
includes prezygotic and post zygotic barriers
balanced polymorphism
one population divided into two distinct groups
sidney fox
recently determined that cells could be made form organic molecules
What is the location in which a certain gene occupies in a chromosome?
adaptive radiation
the emergence of numerous species from a common ancestor introduced into an environment, each species adapts to fill a niche. ex. Darwin's finches
q squared in hardy weinberg equilibrium
percent recessive organisms
a graded variation in the phenotype of an organism. ex. north rabbits have white fur, south rabbits brown
carolus linnaeus
in 1707-1778 he developed the system of binomial nomenclature
homologous structures
structures with common origin that are somewhat similar, even if they may not perform the same function. ex. human arm and bat wing
wrote "on the origin of species" and came up with the theory of natural selection and descent with modification
frequency-dependent selction
also called the minority advantage. it helps organisms that look different than the rest of the population, for example an odd looking deer is less likely to be spotted and attacked by a wolf.
founder effect
when a small population breaks away from a larger one to colonize a new area, it is most likely not genetically representative of the original large population.
Oparin and Haldane
in the 1920s hypothesized separately that under the conditions of early earth, organic molecules could form.
disruptive/diversifying selection
a selection that increases the extreme types in a population at the expense of intermediate forms ex.white, brown, and black mice become just white or black
Allopatric Speciation.
A canyon is formed that seperates a species of kangaroo rats, over time those two separated species start to change from each other, what type of speciation is this?
It must reproduce
Besides being able to survive, what else must an organism do to contribute to the survival of its' species?
It is evolution on a smaller scale.
What is microevolution?
temperal isolation
breed at different times, of day, of the year, etc.
6 areas that provide evidence for evolution
1.fossil record
2.comparative anatomy
3.comparative biochemistry
4.comparative embryology-all mammals have gills as fetuses
5.molecular biology
anagenesis (phyletic evolution)
a phenomenon that occurs when one species replaces another
Theory that certain traits are brought up by the competion of one sex of an organism of a certain species to obtain an organism of the same species of the opposite sex
What is sexual selection?
Phenotype of a species
What does natural selection focus on the most?
When populations of the same species become isolated
What is allopatric speciation?
genetic drift
change in the gene pool due to chance. ex. bottleneck and founder effect
gene flow
the movement of alleles into or out of a population
When fragments of a population of a certain species are seperated by changes in geography, for example the emergence of a river seperating a species of chipmunks.
What is geographical isolation?
An observable trait in an organism
What is the definition of phenotype
A locus is the specific location of where a gene is found on a chromosome.
What is a locus?
Changes in a species due to variation of mating habits, while said species still occupies the same geographical region
What is parapatric speciation?
A mutation is a change in an organism's DNA.
What is a mutation?
By comparing the nucleotide sequences of DNA samples from two individuals and then pooling the data from many such comparisionsof two individuals.
How do Geneticists measure nucleotide diversity?
A process in which a certain trait becomes more frequent or less common within a population. This fluctuation occures from challenges in survival and reproduction.
What is natural selection?
hardy weinberg equilibrium is stable if...
1.the population is very large
2.the population is isolated from other populations
3.there must be no mutations
4.mating is random
5.no natural selction
Modern synthesis took form in the early 1920s.
When did modern snythesis take form?
Substitution, Insertion, Deletion and Frameshift
What are some of the types of mutations?
stanley miller and harold urey
the in the 1950s they determined that almost any energy sources would have converted the molecules of the early atmosphere into a variety of organic molecules, including amino acids
When members of a population migrate and become isolated from other members of their own population
What is the dispersal of a population?
They are genetic drift and natural selection.
What are the two main causes of microevoultion?
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