AP Comparative Government Flashcards

Terms Definitions
corruption/ill-gotten money
Member of Parliament
iron triangle
mutually-beneficial relationships between private itnerests, bureaucrats, and legislators; sometimes called an "integrated elite"
stable, long lasting organizations that help to turn political ideas into policy (examples: bureaucracies, legislatures, judicial systems, and political parties)
a government-owned corporation to compensate for the lack of private economic development or to ensure complete and equitable service to the whole country (can be anything from a national airline or a railroad to a postal system or manufacturing and marketing operations)
developing countries
nation-states which are industrializing
disposed to preserve existing conditions, institutions, etc., or to restore traditional ones, and to limit change.
a group of producers that, individually are unable to dominate a market, but in collaboration with one another can; can control prices by limiting supplies (ex. OPEC—Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)
the concept that public officials serve at the pleasure of the citizens
allocation of power throughout various political, economic, and social institutions; members of the public are given beneficial relationship with the state/government; examples: corporatism, clientelism, rent seeking and/or personality cult
when national, ethnic, linguistic, and religious systematically affect political allegiances and policies,
the attempt to explain complex correlations and causations using a single independent variable; oversimplification
distributive policies
government policies that allocate valuable resources
independent legal authority over a population in a particular place; the degree to which a state controls its own territory and independently make and carry out policy
snap elections
parliamentary elections that take place before the expiration of the legislature's full term. (Also called "anticipated elections."
fiscal policy
government decisions about total public spending and revenue
A tentative explanation for a phenomenon used as a basis for further investigation
system of social democratic policy making in which a limited number of organizations representing business and labor work with the state to set economic policy.
A strategy for economic development that calls for free markets, balanced budgets, privatization, free trade, and minimal government intervention in the economy.
a militant organization of Irish nationalists who used terrorism and guerilla warfare in an effort to drive British forces from Northern Ireland and achieve a united independent Ireland
Political Efficacy
the ability to influence political outcomes
the sense of belonging and identity that distinguishes one nation from another
Market Economy
an economy that allocates resources through the decentralized decisions of many firms and households as the interact in markets for goods and services
Individuals who apply the theory of natural rights to all; Their problem with government is that it denies these natural rights as it takes on more jobs/roles in the community
Military Regime
the institution of military dominates politics (ex. Nigeria under military rule of Babangida and Abacha)
divisions based on ethnic or cultural identity
Political Socialization
how individuals form their political attitudes and then, collectively, how citizens form their political culture
Political Culture
public attitudes toward politics and their role within the political system; refers to the collection of political beliefs, values, practices, and institutions that the government is based on
delegation of decision making to lower (more local) levels of government
a process undertaken in the Soviet Union under Stalin in the late 1920's and the early 1930's and in china under Mao in the 1950's, by which agricultural land was removed from private ownership and organized into large state and collective farms.
Unfinished State
a state characterized by instabilities and uncertainties that may render it susceptible to collapse as a coherent entity.
one house; usually refers to a legislature that consists of only 1 house/part
too many goods chasing too little money
the process by which colonial powers divested themselves of empires
to win support by granting special favors to an individual or a group; there is often an implication that those receiving benefits abandon important goals when offered less-important benefits
civil society
all those organizations outside of government and commercial arenas which provide avenues of public participation in society
social democracy
a political philosophy centered on electoral politics, egalitarian social policies, and the creation of social welfare systems
structural adjustment
World Bank programs which offer financial and management aid to poor countries while demanding privatization, trade liberalization, and governmental fiscal restraint
the characteristics of a regime or government
a regime in which political authority is shared between a central government and local governments
political economy
the interaction of political and economic systems and policy making of a state
command economy
an economic/political system in which government decisions rather than markets determine resource use and output
Ways that average citizens and the groups they form engage in political life.
traditional legitimacy
accepts aspects of politics because they have been institutionalized over a long period of time.
in a parliamentary system, the group of ministers who direct administrative bureaucracies and make up the government, which is responsible to parliament. In a presidential system, the administrative directors who are responsible to the president.
centrifugal forces
forces that divide and fragment societies
A system of production based on private property and free markets.
centripetal forces
forces that pull societies closer together
negative correlation
an inverse association between two variables. As one variable become larger, the other one becomes smaller.
The principle that the economy should be "allowed to do" what it wishes; a liberal system of minimal state interference in the economy.
Gini Index
A statistical formula that measures the amount of inequality in a society; its scale ranges from 0 to100, where 0 corresponds to perfect equality and 100 to perfect inequality.
Social Expenditures
State provision of public benefits, such as education, health care, and transportation.
an area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs
the organization that is the governing authority of a political unit
federation council
upper house of the federal legislature; consists of 2 members from each of the 89 federal administrative units;less powerful than the duma
Unitary State
By contrast to the Federal systems, where power is shared between the central government and state or regional governments, in a unitary state (such as Britain) no powers are reserved constitutionally for sub-national units of government.
state management of sale of goods and services domestically AND internationally; tools of trade regulation: tariffs, quotas, non-tariff barrier
Rule of Law
states government cannot take action that has not been authorized by law and citizens can only be punished for violating existing laws; a system that attempts to protect the rights of citizens from arbitrary and abusive use of government power; it supersedes the actions and statements of individual rulers
a coherent set of ideas and guidelines that defines what the nature and role of government should be and prescribes the main goals the people should pursue through political action
Polarizing Cleavages
occur when the factors composing one's social identity tend to pull in the same political direction
Fusion of Power
A constitutional principle that merges the authority of branches of government, in contrast to the principle of separation of powers. In Britain, for example, Parliament is the supreme legislative, executive, and judicial authority. The fusion of legislature and executive is also expressed in the function and personnel of the cabinet; regime in which all or most authority is by one element of government
Presidential System
a form of democracy where citizens vote for legislative representatives as well as for executive branch leaders; the two branches function with a separation of power
Public Goods
those goods, provided or secured by the state, available for society and indivisible (cannot be owned by any one individual or group); examples: national defense, roads; some goods, such as air and water quality, are essential to all of society but not easily provided by the market
failed state
a state within which the government has lost the ability to provide the most basic of public services
a situation in which values, goals, or policies are contradictory or incompatible with each other
strong state
a state with extensive capacity to carry out policies adopted or a state in which there are few limitations on the actions of one or more parts of the state
the degree to which a government or state is able to implement its policies
rent seeking
the practice of political leaders who, for the purposes of remaining in positions of power, "rent" public assets (resources or tax supported services) to patrons who profit from those public assets
interest articulation
the methods by which citizens and groups can express their desires and make demands upon government (e.g., political participation, lobbying, protest, etc.)
A national vote called by a government to address a specific proposal, often a change to the constitution..
absolute majority
more than 50% of all votes cast
federal system
a government that divides the powers of government between the national government and state or provincial governments
a process of transition as a country attempts to move from an authoritarian form of government to a democratic one
mixed economy
an economy in which private enterprise exists in combination with a considerable amount of government regulation and promotion
normative questions
require value judgments; they ask what ought to happen
Structural Adjustment Programs (SAP)
economic reform programs focusing on economic liberalization
the right of a sovereign state or an ethnic or other group that shares cultural and historical ties to live together in a given territory and in a manner they desire.
Multiparty Systems
ensures that no single party wins a legislative majority by having combinations of parties and election laws
One Party State
is dominated by a strong political party that relies upon a broad membership as a source of political control
political communication
the flow of information from and about government to its constituents and feedback from constituents to people in government
national debt or surplus
the historic total of yearly government budgetary deficits and surpluses for a nation-state
first past the post
An electoral system in which individual candidates compete in single member districts; voters choose between candidates and the candidate with the largest share of the vote wins the seat.
parliamentary system
head of government is chosen by and serves at the pleasure of the legislature
coup d'etat
A move in which military forces take control of the government by force.
a group of people bound together by a common set of political aspirations
vote of confidence
a vote in a parliament expressing support for a government; a government losing is often expected to resign.
charismatic legitimacy
Legitimacy built on the force of ideas embodied by an individual leader.
Purchasing-Power Parity (PPP)
A statistical tool that attempts to estimate the buying power of income across different countries by using prices in the United States as a benchmark.
Town and Village Enterprises
township village enterprises one of dengs four modernizations in which in the country side the government owns the building and the people own the buisness
westminister model
Form of democracy based on the supreme authority of Parliament and the accountability of its elected representatives.
an alliance made up of states that had been Soviet Socialist Republics in the Soviet Union prior to its dissolution in Dec 1991
unitary system
A government in which all key powers are given to the national or central government
Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)
a statistical tool that estimates the buying power of income across different countries by using prices in the United States as a benchmark; attempts to estimate buying power of income in each country by comparing similar costs using prices in the US as a benchmark; a mechanism that attempts to estimate the real buying power of income in each country
fusion of powers
a system of governance in which the authority of government is concentrated in one body
variable sum games
games in which the outcome can at times be beneficial for all or most of the players.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
the total value of goods and services produced by a country's residents in a given year; GDP per capita divides the Gross Domestic Product by total population
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