behavioral science Flashcards

Terms Definitions
BMI
182430 
NLP
Neuro-Linguistic Programming
BMI obese
>30
Alpha
Witch hunt
r^2
coefficient of determination
Sleepwalking/Night terror medication
Benzodiazepines
Delirium
Bewildered, restless, confused, disoriented reaction associated with fear and hallucinations
Information giver (personality)
Supplies facts/opinions
specificity rules _____
IN

mneu: SPIN
45% of sleep
Stage 2
Treat patients FAIRLY
Informed consent
TCA time 45 mins
Behavioral video
Definition
Misinterpretation of real external sensory stimuli.
Hippocampus
Converts information into longterm memory. Deals mostly with the recall process
Compromiser (personality)
Attempts to resolve conflicts
Occipital lobe is responsible for?
Vision
30-36 mo cognitive/social milestones
toilet training
24-48 mo cognitive/social milestone
parallel play
Tanner stages of developent
1= Childhood
1. Hallucination*Hypnagogic (before sleep)*Hypnopompic (waking)
2. Cataplexy
Alcoholic prevention measures
Here's a TIP:
Agerophobia is?
The fear of going outside
Hypochondria
Exaggerated concern about health that is based not on real organic pathology, but rather on unrealistic interpretations of physical signs or sensations as abnormal
Psychosis
Inability to distinguish reality from fantasy; impaired reality testing with the creation of a new reality
Blocking
Abrupt interruption in train of thought before a thought or idea is finished.
Narcissism
Excessive love of ones self. Conceit.Lack of empathyNOT JUST ANOTHER NAME FOR "SELFISHNESS"...see "Paris Hilton" (jk....or am i?)
opinion giver (personality)
Imparts values and opinions
Altruism
or selflessness; -is the unselfish concern for the welfare of others
what does the limbic system control?
emotions
the consistency and reproducibility of a test (reliability)

the absense of random variation in a test
precision
this describes the obligation to respect pts as individuals and to honor their preferences in medical care
autonomy
"do no harm". However, if benefits of intervention outweigh the risks, a pt may make an informed decision to procede
nonmaleficence
May alter compliance, outcomes, etc.
Bimodal distribution
Autonomy
Obligation to respect patients as individuals and honor their preferences in medical care
Any orderMultiple stages at once possible
DenialAngerBargainingGrievingAcceptance
Paramedian pontine reticular formation
Milestones: 2 years



Patient-Physician Interaction
Rule 13
Always respond to emotional context expressed by pt.
Listen for signs of potential problems
Sundowning
Syndrome in older persons that usually occurs at night and is characterized by drowsiness, confusion, ataxia, and falling as the result of being overly sedated with medications
Do right brain learners prefer to process information verbally or non-verbally?
non-verbally.
The Lewin, Lippitt,and white study the term that the laissez-faire(or hands off) pproach to management had the best impact on productivity
False
Neocortex Has 4 parts what are they?
Occipital-VisionPariental-TouchTemporal-HearingFrontal-Body Parts
Dominator
Attempts to assume command, if they can't, they disrupt group process
Recognition seeker
Demands attention while ignoring group issues
Who Researched Instant and Delayed Graticfication?
Walter Mischel
Who experimented with the Classical Conditioning of the salivation response of dogs
Ivan Pavlov
Elements of classical conditioning?
Conditioned stimulas, conditioned response. Unconditioned stimulas, Unconditioned response. Conditioned relationship
Another name for the Neocortex is?
Thinking Brain
12-14 months?
Motor: Stands with support, upgoing Babinski disappears
describe Superego
Moral values, conscience. (YOu know you can't have it)
Describe pathological grief
includes excessively intense or prolonged grief or grief that is delayed, inhibited, or denied. May experience depressive symptoms, delusions, and hallucinations
man has flashbacks about his girlfriends death 2 mo. ago follwooingt a hit-and-run accident. He often cries and wishes for the death of the culprit. What is the dx?
normal bereavemnt
suicide rate increases in elderly. T or F
T
Adoption study
Compares siblings raised by biologic vs. adoptive parents
*Decreases as the sample size increases
95% CI
Cognitive/social milestones: Adolescence
Boys ~ 13Girls ~ 11
Subjects are not REPRESENTATIVE to general population
Prevents generalizability
 

Patient-Physician Interaction
Rule 18

 
Admit when you have made a mistake
Lilliputian hallucination
False perception in which objects are seen as reduced in size
If a student is labeled as being hyperactive - which learning style is this associated with?
Bodyily/Kinesthetic.
The 8 Different types of the Multiple Intelligence Theory are:
1.Verbal/Linguistic2.Musical3.Logical/Mathematical4.Visual/Spatial5.Bodily/Kinesthetic6.Naturalist7.IntER Personal-Interaction with ppl,Street Smarts-Social Adaptation8.IntRA Personal-Great Self Control,know your self,control body,mind
Special interest advocate
Disregards team vision and presents only the case for some group/cause
What is an Unconditional Response?
dog+food=salivate
Salivate is the Unconditional Reponse
dog+food+bell=salivate
Salivate is the Unconditional Response
Fight/Flight impact on thought process
-little rational thought-angered easily
What year did Howard Gardner come up with his theory on Multiple intelligences?
1943
the left brain controls which side of the body?
right
negative reinforcement vs. punishment
negative reinforcement: mouse pushes button to avoid shockpunishment: baby is given lemon juice every time they ruminate 
α=
you saw a difference that idd not exist--for example, convicting an innocent man
this type of bias occurs when information is gathered at an inappropriate time
late-look bias
Cross sectional study
Outlines current risk factors and disease prevalence in the population
Assesses treatment efficacy, optimal dosing, adverse effects
Phase 3 clinical trial
Delusion of thought withdrawal
Delusion that thoughts are being removed from a person‘s mind by other persons or forces
Magical Thinking
A form of dereistic thought; in which thoughts, words, or actions assume power (for example, they can cause or prevent events)
Multiple Intelligence Theory
No standaeds,No test,still a work in progress
What are the 5 Basic Needs
1. Survival
2. Love/Belonging
3. Power
4. Freedom
5. Fun
What is Delayed Gratification
gratification obtained in ways that provide a barrier to impulse behaviors
What are the components of Object-related intelligence?
math and logic knowledge
What are mothers under 15 at risk of?
StillbirthSpontaneous AbortionPremature BirthObstetric complications b/c less likely to get prenatal care, physically immature
random sampling
every member of a population has a chance
what is the mean IQ test and standard deviation
mean=100
SD=15
Sleep changes with aging:
Decreased sleep (less REM and SWS)
Coma vigil
Coma in which a patient appears to be awake with eyes open but cannot be aroused
What is the diffusion of responsibility theory?
phenomenon that occursamong large groups witnessing an emergency situation. individuals feel they do not bear full burden and distribute responsibility among others near by.
What are the effects on mood from Dopamine?
energy and excitment
What is expectancy
it is the belief in a behaviors likelihood to achieve a particular outcome
What is the central area of the brain called?
Limbic System
What about at 4-5 months?
Motor: rolls front to backsits propped upSocial: recognized peoplebabbles at 3-4 mos
SEM is __ than σ

SEM ______ as n increases
less than

decreases
Compares the frequency with which both monozygotic or dizygotic twins develop a diseaseMeasures heritability
Phase 1 clinical trial
Four sleep probs with Depressed ppl are:
Excessive sleepinessShort bursts of REM(But more REM overall)Early morning awakening
What type of thinking is the right brain responsible for?
Holistic thought, Intuition, Creativity, Art and music.
Where is Hypothalmus and what is it usded for?
Limbic System
Secretion of Hormones
Dopamine and Serotonin
What are the components of the limbic system?
Amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, nuclei, cingular gyrus, septum
what are the positive aspects in learning how to delay gratification?
higher test scores. better relationships and better self control
What are common behavioral responses to divorce by age group?
2 1/2-5 problems sleeping, enuresis, moodiness,anxiety5-8 bereavment,feel rejection, fantasize reconcil, poor schoolwork9-12 feigned anger/nonchalance, decline school, peer probsadolescents- depression, drugs/alcohol, sexual act.
This is the number of true positives divided by number of people who tested positive for the dz.

It is the probability of having a condition given a positive test
positive predictive value (PPV)
Tail is drawn out toward positive side
Mean > Median > Mode(Alphabetical)
MAO rises with age thus?
A risk factor for aged pts (But sunlight helps raise the catecholamines)
What is a locus of control?
It is where an individual places responsibility for control over their life. Internal/External.
What do Cognitive Learning Styles, Multiple Intellegence Theory, and Brain Dominance all measure
they measure the abilities to solve problems, employ logic, and think critically
What is an External Locus of Control
Ones likeliness to attribute lifes success or failures to outside sources
What four reflexes are typically present at birth?
Moro reflex (birth to 2mos) = extension of limbs when startledRooting reflex - nipple seeking when brush cheek/etcPalmar Reflex - grasps objects in palm (diss. 2 mos)Babinski Reflex - large toe dorsiflexes with plantar stimulation
this type of test checks the difference between the means of 2 groups
t- test

mneu: Mr. T is MEAN
3. Patient suffers DAMAGE (harm)
4. DIRECT link: breach was what caused the harm
Delusion of perception (or delusion of reference)
A person‘s false belief that the behavior of others refers to himself or herself.
How could one go about satisfying the 5 basic needs?
 
1. Survival= food, shelter, safty
2. Love/Belonging= the need for relationships
3. Power= to succeed
4. Freedom= independance
5. Fun= pleasure, play, laugh
Another name for the right side of the brain and its functions?
Global brain, creativity, intuiting, visual imagery.
leading causes of death in US of people 25-64
Cancer, heart dz, injuries, suicide, stroke
It is possible to prescribe medically appropriate analgesics that coincidentally shorten the patient's life
Patient states that he finds you attractive
Define Colic, and when does it abate? How doe you treat it?
Crying more than 3 hours/day more than 3 days/week. Cause unknown (air in GI tract?).Usually resolves by 4 months.Treatment: Holding, avoiding overstimulation, antispasmodics.
65 y/o man is dx w/ incurable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. His family asks you, the doctor, not to tell the pt. What do you do?
assess whether telling the pt will negatively affect his health. If not, tell him
Another name for the left side of the brain and its functions?
Linear brain. Deals with rational, logical, Sequential
A child wishes to know more about his illness
Ask what the parents have told the child about his illness
Beta
Miss
Hypothesis
Educated Guess
BMI overweight
25-30
Right Brain Dominance
Creative
TIRNIP
Tiny totsInfectionsRDSNecrotizing entercolitisIntraventricular hemorrhagePersistent fetal circulation
Ii Had TB
InmatesImmigrants
Commitment
Intrisic/Internal rewardsppl care about you
Hospital expenses
Medicare part B
Normal bereavement
6 mo-1 year
Relative risk:
(Exposed w/dz)/(Total exposed)-----------------------------------(Unexposed w/dz)/(Total unexposed)
MAO breaks down all ur?
Catecholamines
Verbigeration
Meaningless repetition of specific words or phrases
Howard Gardner
Created Multiple Intelligence Theory,which currently has 8 parts
Who Developed Choice Theory?
William Glasser
What neurotransmitters are implicated in anxiety?
NE5-HTGABA
Physicians have special ethical responsibility to act in the pts best interest (physician is a fiduciary"). Pt autonomy may conflict.
beneficence
3 mo cognitive/social milestone
social smile
SitScoots (or crawls)Stranger anxietySpins around to see you (orients)
Motor:*Sits alone*Crawls
Incoherence
Thought that generally is not understandable; running together of thoughts or words with no logical or grammatical connection, resulting in disorganization
Who discovered the 8 intelligences?
Howard Gardner
"From that perspective, you probably feel..." is an example of...
EMPATHIZING
The Cognitive Behaviorists believe that all behavior is caused by?
By Thought
Hearing information aloud is most useful for this learning style
auditory
12-15 months?
Motor: walksSocial: (10-15) few words, separation anxiety (10-18)
regression
turning back the maturational clock and going back to earlier modes of dealing with the world

e.g., seen in children under stress (e.g., bed-wetting) and in pts on dialysis (e.g., crying)
image - statistical hypothesis p. 64
--
Mean +/- 1.96 x SEM
SEM =
Measures:1. Heritability2. Influence of environmental factors
Twin concordance study
Sensitivity
The number of positive cases recognized as such
Dysprosody
Loss of normal speech melody (called prosody). Should be called aprosody.
Stupor
Lack of reaction to, and unawareness of, surroundings
Who discovered Fight or Flight response?
Walter Cannon
Humans are born Narssasists; They see themselves as the centers of their universe
True
Sympathy
when you feel or express COMPASSION for one's experience
What are the three Cognitive Learning Styles?
Visual
Kinesthetic
Auditory
The Cognitive-Affective Personality Theory was developed by who
Walter Mischel-25 yrs research-established the degree of a persons ability to delayed gratification/instant gratification
Fight or Flight reactions
-overreaction to any provocation-exaggerated fear-distorted thinking-scanning for surrounding danger-fixation on possible sources of harm
Who developed the social learning theory?
J.B. Rotter
what are the roles of each lobe?
Occipital-visionPariental-touchfrontal-planning, inhabition of innapropriate behaviorsTemporal- hearing
selection bias
lack of representation in the sample
describe Ego
Mediator between the unconscious mind and the external world (Deals with the conflict)
repression
involuntary witholding of an idea or feeling from conscious awareness. The basic mechanism underlying all others.
<2500g. Associated with greater incidence of physical and emotional problems. Caused by prematurity or intrauterine growth retardation. Complications include infections, respiratiory distress syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis, intraventricular hemorr
low birth weight
CI=
range from [mean-Z(SEM)] to [mean + Z(SEM)].
15 mo cognitive/social milestones
few words, separation anxiety
Probability that negative result ~ disease
True negatives------------------------------True negatives + false negatives
True positives-------------------------True positives + False negatives
SNout: Good for ruling OUT disease
Checks the difference between the means of 3+ groups
X^2 test
Definition: <2500 g
Associated w/greater incidence of physical and emotional problems
Patient is non-compliant
Work to improve physician-patient relationship
Weight (kg)----------(Height--meters)^2
< 18.5 = Underweight18.5-25 = Normal25-30 = Overweight30+ = Obese
Patient-Physician Interaction
Rule 1
Pt.'s wishes, comfort, and safety comes first
Nihilistic delusion
False feeling that self, others, or the world is nonexistent or coming to an end
What is modeling?
A vicarious experience. IE seeing others like yourself succeed/fail in a given situation. Affects self efficacy.
disadvantages of group dynamics
Groupthinkdecision making can take longer to accomplishsacrifice of individualitysocial loafing
What is an Conditioned Response?
dog+bell=salavate
salavate is the Conditioned Response
Where is the Occipital Lobe located and what does it do?
 
Neocortex
Visual Processing
Mutual Sympathy
-exists when others have the same experiencies and thus appreciate our same passions and emotions.
The front section of the brain is called?
Neocortex
what part of the limbic system was reffered to as "homeland security" meaning it is constantly processing emotions, especially aggresion and fear?
Limbic
who created the equation to predicting himan behavior?
J.B. Rotters
interview
a method in which questions are asked directly to an individual to find out about the person's experience and attitude
OR is used in this type of study
case-control
This is the number of true negatives divided by number of all people without the desease. It is the probability of a negative test given taht a person is free of the dz.
specificity.
what is greater for chronic dzs like diabetes. prevalence or incidence
prevalence.
random error leads to reduced this in a test
precision
Psychiatric changes w/aging
Psychiatric disorders found at LOWER prevalence
Vaginal shortening, thinning and dryness
No change in interest
Delusion of thought control
Delusion that a person‘s thoughts are being controlled by other persons or forces
Do left brain learniers prefer to learn information as a while or step by step?
step by step.
"What I heard you say.." is an example of...
MIRRORING
What is an unconditional Stimulus?
dog+food=salivate
in this case the Food will be an Unconditional Stimulus
dog+food+bell=salivate
in this case the food will still be an Unconditional Stimulus
Fight or flight chemical reactions
-increased heart rate-sharpening of senses-more adrenaline, stronger-more endorphins, dulls the pain
What is the lower section of the brain known as?
Hindbrain
What are behavioral signs of attachment to the mother?
Following mom with eyes/limbsClingingSmiling at momSignaling frightNeed for maternal comfort
operational definition
-a definition of behavior in terms of observable features
Give the Kubler-Ross grief stages
Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Grieving, Acceptance

mneu: Death Arrives Bringing Grave Adjustments

note: stages do not necessarily occur in this order and &gt;1 stage can be present at once.
Describe primary, secondary, and tertiary dz prevention
primary-prevent dz occurance (e.g., vaccination)

secondary-early detection of dz (e.g., Pap smear)

tertiary- reduce disability from dz (e.g., exogenous insulin for dbts

mneu: PDR (prevent, detect, reduce disability)
Leading causes of death: Infants
CLoSe your mouth, MR(CLS MR)
Sleep:1 (5%): Theta waves
2 (45%): Sleep spindle, K complex
Delusion of poverty
A person‘s false belief that he or she is bereft or will be deprived of all material possessions.
What is social persuasion?`
Encouragement from others that you can achieve a goal. Can affect overall self efficacy.
The Behaviorists believed that all behavior was caused by?
The product of our Envirement
Ways to alleviate stress caused by Fight or Flight?
Exercise, meditation, breathing exercises
what are four components of total behavior in choice theory?
Acting, thinking, feeling, physiology
What are signs of physical abuse, who is often the abuser, and how many deaths/year?
Healed fracturescigarette burnssubdural hematomasmultiple bruisesretinal detachment/hemorrhageFemale, primary care giverabout 3000 deaths/year in US
this describes the range of values in which a specified probability of the means of repeated samples would be expected to fall
confidence interval (CI)
*Total number of end points experienced by the population
*Behavior of the population (differences in compliance, etc.)
Romantic relationships w/patient are never appropriate
Kaplan says: Don't socialize w/anyone you have interacted with in the last 2 years
Delusion of doubles
"You look like my mom, but you aren't my mom". More common in kids. Capgras syndrome
What are the 3 components of the triune brain model?
Hindbrain, Limbic System, Neocortex
Explain how Total Behavior works
So people can have a better understanding of their behaviors so they can choose wisley
What are the 4 components of Total Behavior?
Acting, Thinking, Feeling, Physiology
What are the components of Personal Intelligence?
psychological perception of yourself or others
name the foure lobes of the neocortex?
occipital, pariental, frontal, and temporal lobes.
What can severe deprivation lead to, and when are irreversible changes noted?
Irreversible changes w/ deprivation greater than 6 mos. Severe deprivation--> infant death
Given the risk factor give the important prevention services:

drug use
hepatitis immunizations, HIV, TB tests
Limitations of information withholding
Can be done in the context of therapeutic privilege:*Info would severely harm patient*Info would severely undermine decision-making capacity
Tail is drawn out toward negative side
Mean < Median < Mode(Alphabetical)
Pts on MAO inhibitors must avoid?
Aged cheese and wine (Tyramine -> ocatpine is potent analoge of NE thus BP goes up and no MAO's thus hypertension crisis) Thus in USMLE it would be a depressed person who went to a party last night.
What is the formula said to show social learning theory and what does each variable mean?
BP=f(e+rv)Behavior Potential is a function of the environment and reinforcement value.
What is the difference between the Quality World and the Percieved World?
Quality World is what we want
Percieved is what we have/get
Characteristics of someone with an internal locus of control?
Attributes any of life's successes or failures to his own efforts
Define normal devel. of crying
Peaks at 6 weeks, most frequent btwn 4-6 PM.
Patient refuses a necessary procedure or desires an unecessary one
Attempt to understand why the patient wishes this
Name at least one suggestion given to reduce the effects of the Fight or Flight response?
Physical Activity, Relax the Mind, Breathing Exercises.
What study habits are best to use for each?
Visual= using graphs and pictures
Auditory= while studing say information out loud
Kinesthetic= using flash cards and physical study aids
what are the 2 filters in the choice theory?
Knowledge filter and value filter
this checks the difference between the means of 3 or more groups
ANOVA

mneu: ANalysis Of VAriance of 3 or more variables
Ask how the patient feels about his/her smoking
Offer advice on cessation if the patient seems willing to quit
At 3 months, what motor and social milestones are present?
Motor: holds head up, Moro reflex disappearsSocial: social smile (at people versus spont smiles at birth)Can express fear,anger,joy,affection
What is social learning theory and who developed it?
States that personality is a result of interaction between an individual and his/her environment. Developed by Julian B. Rotter.
how are odds are calculated within a group
as number with dz divided by number without the dz
Diseases
Psychological
BMI normal
18.5-25
HomelessAlcoholicDrug user
TB
Origin of Fear
FailureSuccessHumiliationChange
PreventDetectReduce disability
TB screening
2 humps
Positive skew
william Glasser
Created Choice Theory
Bandura Experiment
dependent variable: childrenindependent variable: reward/punishment2 experimental groups, 1 control
Congenital anomaliesLow birth weight/short gestationSIDSMaternal complicationsRDS
Beneficience
Coprolalia
Compulsive utterance of obscene words
Hallucination
False sensory perception not associated with real external stimuli
Multi-sensory
Using more than one sense
Who Developed Classical Condition?
Ivan Pavlov
identificationisolation 
identification: model behavior after someone more powerfulisolation: seperate feelings from events/idea (describe details of murder w/out emotion) 
dissociation
temporary, drastic change in personality, memory, consciousness, or motor behavior to avoid emotional stress

e.g.,exteme forms can result in multiple personalities (dissociative identity disorder)
Highest "echelon" of clinical significance
Prevalence
Erotomania
Delusional belief, more common in women than men, that someone is deeply in love with them
Hypnopompic hallucination
False perception occurring while awakening from sleep
Autistic Thinking
Preoccupation with inner, private world; term used somewhat synonymously with dereism. (One of the four A‘s of schizophrenias.)
When trying to utalize assertive techniques it is recommended to be agressive
False
Social Competence
Ability to maintain positive relationships with groups accross the board
What hormones are released during Fight-or-Flight?
Adrenalin
Endorphins
Individuals favoring there left brain favor what learning style?
analytical
Apgar score
Appearance Pulse (HR)Grimmace (reflex irratibility)Activity (muscle tone)Respiration10 is perfect score 
sublimation
process whereby one replaces an unacceptable wish with a course of action that is similar to the wish but does not conflict with one's value system.

e.g., aggressive impulses used to succeed in business ventures
this describes total cases in population at a given time over total population
prevalence
Cohort study
ProspectiveProduces a Relative Risk Produces an Attributable Risk
Highest suicide rate in US
Men 65-74
Cyclothymia is?
Low level depression with hypomania (slight shopping spree) for minimum of 2 yrs
Word salad
Incoherent mixture of words and phrases
Somatic delusion
False belief involving functioning of the body.
Name the 3 learning styles?
Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic
2.Neocortex
Thinking Brain Has right and left hemispheres made of elctroncs neutrons and chemcials
Ethnocentrism
when superiority is bestowed to one culture over another
Recorder (personality)
Chronicles the groups decisions and progress
Deffine Brain Dominance
how you process information (Right/Left)
What is the Limbic System
The Feeling Brain
When was the brain diminance theory introduced?
1960s
Which component is the easiest to control?
Acting
questionnare (survey)-
similiar to an interview except respondants read a question and write down answers
fixation
partially remaining at a more childish level of development

e.g., men fixating on sports games
this occurs when pt projects feelings about formative or other important persons onto physician (e.g., psychiatrist=parent)
transference
1. Married or otherwise emancipated
2. Emergency situation
Sleep stages
Awake: High freq, low amp*Alert-Beta *Eyes closed-alpha
If you are consciously trying to stop yourself from overreacting to a situation which part of the brain should you try to tap into?
Neocortex.
Someone with a sense of entitlement typically defines their personal status through comparason of others
True
3 basics for communication?
Habits (Scripts)Intentions (what are you trying to gain)Emotions (Response to changes)
How many areas are developed in the brain?
3
What is a Neutral Stimulus?
dog+food+bell=salivate
Bell is the Neutral Stimulus
Four components of predicting bhavior?
behavior potential, expectancy, Reinforcement value, psychological situation
What is social persuasion?
Recieving encouragement and support from others
why did the brain develop in three stages?
evolution
24-36 months (2-3 years)
Social:Core GENDER identitycan say phrasesavg vocab 200 wordsMotor: kicks ball, balances on one foot for one second
natural onservation
(observe behavior in a real world setting and make no effort to manipulate or control the situation)-time restrictions/ you might not find what you're looking for-location might affect results-researcher's opinion may alter results
Splitting
belief that peoplea re either good or bad

e.g., a pt says that all the nurses are cold and insensitive but that the doctors are warm and friendly.
describe Id
primal urges, sex, and aggression (I want it.)
deprevation for greater than how long can lead to irreversible changes
6 mo
7-9 mo cognitive/social milestones
stranger anxiety, orients to voice
Median = 50% areaMode = Most encountered value
Negative skew
Anticlonergic means the same thing as sym but no sweating (the only sym with muscarinic receptors)
Hot dry skin
Tactile (haptic) hallucination
False perception of touch or surface sensation, as from an amputated limb
Define Fight or Flight response?
body automatically releases chemicals that heighten awareness, lift heart rate, extra fuel for running or fighting.
3 main leadership categories (according to the Lewin, Lipitt & White Study)
Authoritarian - One vision*Democratic - Group goals+Laissez Faire - Members considered individuals moving towards a goal*most popular+worst result
Who was the first to study the Fight-or-Flight Response
Walter Cannon
Lobe located at the bridge of your nose is?
Temporal Lobe
if you overreact or use a high level of emotion what part of the brain are u using?
limbic
reaction formation
take the opposite action to the bad thought
correlational method
the goal is to describe the strengths of relationship between 2 or more factors/characteristics/variables
11 y/o girls
13 y/o boys
abstract reasoning (formal operations), formation of personality
woman w/ anxiety about gyn exam is told to relax and imagine going through the steps of the exam. What process does this exemplify
systematic desensitization
It is possible to have accuracy w/o precision
Selection bias
A delusion is?
A falsly held belief despite proof to the contrary (NB for it to be paranoia it has to be abt mulitple things)
If a person has a high level of Visual/Spatial Intelligence - do you think they would be more Right or Left brained?
Right brained.
Triune Brain Has 3 sections due to evolution what are they?
1.Hind Brain2.Neocortex3.Limbic System
What is the Hindbrain responsible for?
Reptilian Brain or Survival Brain
Digestion, Reproduction, Circulation, Breathing, Reflexes, and Fight-or-Flight
What is Psychological situation?
part of the external and internal world to which we respond
what is the equation(to predicting human behavior)?
BP=f(E and R) behavior potential
this type of reinforcement schedule describes when a reward is received after random number of responses. It is slowly extinguish
variable ratio

note: think slot machine--continue to play even if it rarely rewards
in informed consent pts must understand these 3 things
risks, benefits, and alternatives (including no interventions)
T-test (2 means)Anova (3+ means)
Analyses that deal w/proportions and percentages
Name at least one of the components that makes up the J.B. Rotters equation to prediction human behavior.
Behavior potential, expectancy, reinforcment value, phychological situation.
What experiment was conducted to show impulse control and who was it conducted by?
The Marshmellow experiment was conducted by Walter Mischel in the 60's
What is the Limbic System responsible for?
Feeling Brain or Emotional Brain
Release of Hormones, Generation of Hormones, Storage of Memories
What is the comparing place?
conceptual location in brain where we continually process information.
When are transitional objects employed?
(ex - teddy bear)2 mos-2 years, usually discarded by age 4
This type of error states that there IS NOT an effect or difference when one exists (to fail to reject the null hypothesis when in fact Ho is false.
type II error (β)
Given the situation, give the appropriate response:
pt states that he finds you attractive
ask direct, closed-ended questions and use a chaperone if necessary. Romantic relationships with pts are NEVER appropriate.
*Oldest group to feature injuries and suicide
Leading causes of death: 15-24
Vomiting centers require which catecholamines?
Dopamine (but is also used by the basal ganglia therefore movement disorders - tics, chroea and psychosis)
What are the major roles of each lobe in the Neocortex?
F=planning, inhibitions, visceral sensation. P=Body sensations, touch. T=Hearing. O=Vision
Who was Kitty Genovese?
She was murder outside of her house in a highly populated neighborhood and no one called for help. Her case after study helped develop the bystander effect, and diffusion of responsibility theory.
Where is Amygdala and what is it used for?
Limbic System
Homeland Security, Formation and Storage of Memories
What is the social learning theory?
Personality is defined by the result of interaction between a person and their environment.
describe changes in sleep patterns in the elderly
decrease REM
decrease slow wave sleep
increase sleep latency,
increase awakinings during the night
Avoid discussing issues with relatives without the permission of the patient
A 17-year-old girl is pregnant and requests an abortion
Which technique is an effective means to present feedback
Try not to critique a persons personality traits
What is the Social Learning Theory
it states that a personality is a result of interaction between an idividual and his/her enviroment
How is prematurity defined?What is it associated with?
Gestation period less than 34 weeks OR birth weight less than 2500 g.7% births, assoc w/ teen pregnancy, low SE status, poor maternal nutrition
duty to break confidentiality because of potential to harm others can take several forms. Give 3 examples
1) infectious dzs- duty to warm public officials and identifiable people at risk
2) Child/Elder abuse
3) Impared auto drivers
If a person is considered a global learner, what are they?
Right brained. They prefer examples to technical info.
ρ is judged against α, a preset level of significance (usually &lt;0.5). ρ=
probability of making a type I error
What does it mean when someone has in internal locus of control?
It means they take responsibitlity for their actions by attributing them to their efforts.
36 y/o woman with strong family hx of breast CA refuses mammogram because she heard it hurts. What do you do?
discuss the risks and benefits of not havign a mammogram. Each pt must give her own informed consent to each procedure; if the pt refuses, you must abide by her wishes.
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