AP English Poetry Terms 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
penta
5 feet
hyperbole
exaggeration or overstatement
imagery
appealing to the senses
understatement
opposite of hyperbole; litote
personification
attribute human qualities or characteristics to nonliving things
assonance
repetition of similar vowel sounds
Parallelism
a similar grammatical structure within a line of poetry.
tone
the techniques and modes of presentation that create moods/attitudes
Allusion
A reference to something in literature/ history
irony
contrast between actual meaning and suggestion of another meaning; sarcasm is the lighter form
similes
a directly expressed comparison; a figure of speech comparing two objects, usually with “like,” “as,” or “than.” It is easier to recognize a simile than a metaphor because the comparison is explicit: my love is like a fever; my love is deeper than a well. (The plural of “simile” is “similes” not “similies.”)
Sonnet
normally a 14 line iambic pentameter poem. Rhymed abba, abba, cde, cde or abab cdcd efef gg
anapest
(light light heavy) in-ter-vene; in a hut
Melodious birds sign madrigals
Chistopher Marlowe
"The Passionate Shepherd to His Love"
couplet
two consecutive lines or verse with end rhyme
ex: "The play's the thing,
wherein I'll catch the conscience of the King."
Euphony
A smooth, pleasant sounding choice and arrangement of sounds
onomatopoeia
use of words whose sound suggests their meaning
Meter
The regular patterns of accent that underlie metrical verse; the measurable repetition of accented and unaccented syllables in poetry.
elegy
formal poem on someone's death, or another solemn theme
satire
writing intended to arouse a reader's disapproval or a n object by ridicule
dactyl
a metrical foot of three syllables, one long (or stressed) followed by two short (or unstressed), as in happily; is the reverse of the anapest
enjambment
the continuation of the sense and grammatical construction from one line of poetry to the next. Milton’s Paradise Lost is notable for its use of enjambment, as seen in the following lines: . . . . Or if Sion hill Delight thee more, and Siloa’s brook that flow’d Fast by the oracle of God, . . . .
Stanza
usually a repeated grouping of three or more lines with the same meter and rhyme scheme.
Conceit
an ingenious and fanciful notion or conception, usually expressed through an elaborate analogy, and pointing to a striking parallel between two seemingly dissimilar things. A conceit may be a brief metaphor, but it also may form the framework of an entire poem. A famous example of a conceit occurs in John Donne’s poem “A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning,” in which he compares his soul and his wife’s to legs of a mathematical compass.
A mortall thing so to immortalize
Edmund Spenser
"Sonnet 75"
versification
the art and practice of writing verse while including all the mechanical elements of poetry such as meter, accent, rhyme, etc.
refrain
group of words forming a phrase or sentence and consisting of one or more lines repeated at intervals in a poem usually at the end of a stanza
Rhetorical pause (caesura)
A natural pause, unmarked by punctuation, introduced into the reading of a line by its phrasing or syntax.
mixed metaphors
the mingling of one metaphor with another right after it when the 1st one is incongruous
Trope
A figure of speech, such as metaphor or metonymy, in which words are not used in their literal (or actual) sense but in a figurative (or imaginitive) sense
pentameter
a line of poetry that has five metrical feet
ballad meter
a four-line stanza rhymed abcd with four feet in lines one and three and three feet in lines two and four.
 
O mother, mother make my bed.
O make it soft and narrow.
Since my love died for me today,
I’ll die for him tomorrow.
Internal Rhyme
rhyme that occurs within a line, rather than at the end. The following lines contain internal rhyme: Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary, Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore— While I nodded, nearly napping. . suddenly there came a tapping . . . .
Narrative Poem
a non-dramatic poem which tells a story or presents a narrative, whether simple or complex, long or short. Epics and ballads are examples of narrative poems.
Sarcasm
a type of irony in which a person appears to be praising something but is actually insulting it.
Where I to thee eternity shall give
Michael Drayton
"Sonnet 6"
So after long pursuit and vaine assay
Edmund Spenser
"Sonnet 67"
synecdoche
a figure of speech in which a part stands for the whole, or a whole for a part
ex: lend me an ear. all hands on deck
devices of sound
techniques deploying sound of words in poetry
dramatic poem
a poem which employs a dramatic form or some element of dramatic techniques as a means of achieving poetic ends; dramatic monologue
rhyme royal
a type of poetry consisting of stanzas of seven lines in iambic pentameter with the rhyme scheme ababbcc; was an innovation introduced by Geoffrey Chaucer
heroic couplet
a stanza composed of two rhymed lines in iambic pentameter
litotes
a figure of speech in which a positive is stated by negating its opposite; some examples: no small victory, not a bad idea, not unhappy; litotes is the opposite of hyperbole
theme
the main thought expressed by a work. In poetry, it is the abstract concept which is made concrete through its representation in person, action, and image in the work.
pun
a play on words that are identical or similar in sound but have sharply diverse meanings. Puns can have serious as well as humorous uses. An example is Thomas Hood’s:" They went and told the sexton and the sexton tolled the bell.”
Masculine Rhyme
rhyme that falls on the stressed and concluding syllables of the rhyme-words. Examples include “keep” and “sleep,” “glow” and “no,” and “spell” and “impel.”
When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st
William Shakespeare
"Sonnet 18"
Fixed form
Any form of the poem in which the length and pattern are prescribed by previous usage/ tradition, sonnet, limerick, or villanelle
Terza Rima
A type of poetry consisting of 10- or 11-syllable lines arranged in 3 line "tercets" with the rhyme scheme aba bcb cdc etc.
iambic pentameter
a type of meter in poetry, in which there are five iambs to a line; (the prefix penta-means "five," as in pentagon, a geometrical figure with five sides; meter refers to rhythmic units; in a line of thisr, there are five rhythmic units that are iambs); Shakespeare's plays were written mostly in this style, which is the most common type of meter in English poetry; an example line from Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet is "But soft!/ What light/ through yon/der win/dow breaks?" Another, from Richard III, is "A horse!/ A horse!/ My kind/dom for/ a horse!"
The metal in this furnace wrought are mens defiled souls
Robert Southwell
"The Burning Babe"
strategy (or rhetorical strategy)
planned placing of elements in a poem to achieve an effect
So long as men can breath or eyes can see
William Shakespeare
"Sonnet 18"
To come to thee and be thy love
Sir Walter Raleigh
"The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd"
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