AP Environmental Science 4 Flashcards

Environmental Studies
Terms Definitions
Radon
naturally occuring colorless, odorless, radioactive gas found in some types of soi and rock, can seep into homes and buildings, causes lung cancer
Chlorine
goo=disinfection of water; bad=forms trihalomethanes
Most Populous Countries
China, India, US
Aquifer
any water-bearing layer in the ground
Aerobic Respiration
Oxygen gas consuming producers, consumers and decomposers break down complex organic compounds and convert Carbon back into carbon dioxide
Preservation
setting aside areas and protecting them from human activities
Volcano and Earthquake Occurence
at plate boundaries(divergent=spreading, mid-ocean ridges; convergent=trenches; transform=sliding)
Sulfur Oxide
Source: Coal burningEffects: Acid deposition, kills plantsReduction: scrubbers
Minamata Disease
(1932-1968, Japan) Mental impairments due to mercury poisoning
Parasitism
relationship in which one partner obtains nutrients at the other's expense
Major insecticide groups
Chlorinated hydrocarbons (DDT), organophosphates (malathion), carbamates (aldicarb)
Continental Crust
Thicker and lighter, composition of calcium, sodium, potassium, and aluminum; much thicker, expands down 20-30 miles, appears layered and becomes denser with depth
Crust
Makes up .5% of Earth's total mass
Fecal coliform/ Enterococcus bacteria
indicator of sewage contamination
Ionizing radiation
enough energy to dislodge electrons from atoms, forming ions; capable of causing cancer(gamma, x-rays, UV)
Secondary Succession
life progresses where soil remains (clear-cut forest, fire)
Natural Radioactive Decay
unstable radioisotopes decay releasin gamma rays, alpha particles and beta particles
High Quality Energy
organized and concentrated; can perform useful work(fossil fuel and nuclear)
Monoculture
cultivation of a single crop, usually in a large area
How are covalent compounds held together?(13)
Electron sharing
Population Change
is calculated by subtracting the number of ppl leaving(emigration/death) from the number of entering (immigration/birth)
Core
Very dense, hot metal; mostly iron and nickel, makes up 32% of earths mass but only 16% of its volume
Ore
a rock that contains a large enough concentration of a mineral making it profitable to mine
Preindustrial Stage
birth and death rates high, population grows slowly, infant mortality high
Hypoxia
when aquatic plants die, the BOD rises as aerobic decomposers break down the plants, the Do drops and the water can't support life
Largest Reservoirs of Carbon
Carbonate rocks first, oceans second
Salt Water Intrusion
near the coast, over-pumping of groundwater causes saltwater to move into the aquifer
True cost/ External costs
harmful environmental side effects that are not reflected in a product's price
K Strategist
reproduce late in life; few offspring; parents care for offspring
Immigration
migration of ppl into a country or area to take up permanent residence
Life Expectancy
average number of years a newborn infant can be expected to live
Keystone species
species whose role in an ecosystem are more importnat than others, such as a sea otter ,sea stars, grizzly bears, prairie dogs, elephants and alligators
Temperature Inversion
layer of dense, cool air trapped under a layer of warm dense air, pollution in trapped layer may build to harmful levels
First Law of Thermodynamics
energy is neither created nor destroyed, but may be converted from one form to another(Law of Conservation of Energy)
Safe Drinking Water Act
(1974) set maximum containment levels for pollutants in drinking water
What is the fuel used in a nuclear reactor?(17)
Heat
Two most serious nuclear accidents
Chernobyl, Ukraine (1986) and Three Mile Island, PA (1979)
Replacement Level Fertility
the number of children a couple must have in order to replace themselves (2.1 in developed countries)
When did the first Earthy Day take place?(7)
April 22, 1970
Infant Mortality Rate
number of babies out of  every 1,000 born who die before their first birthday
Second Law of Thermodynamics
when energy is changed from one form to another, some useful energy is always degraded into lower quality energy, usually heat
Crude Death Rate
The number of deaths per 1,000 ppl in a population any given year
Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act
(1977) requires coal strip mines to reclaim land
Who are Henry David Thomas and George Perkins Marsh?(5)
HDT and GPM were Conservationists.******HDT wrote "Life in the Woods"******GPM was a scientist & member of Congress from Vermont.GPM wrote "Man in Nature"GPM was first to question the idea that the country's resources were inexhaustible.GPM used studies to show the rise & fall of past civilizations were linked to the use & misuse of resources.GPM formulated basic conservation principles still used today.
N2 and O2 are examples of? (Atoms, molecules, compounds?)(9)
Diatomic molecules consisting of 2 atoms of the same element
Who founded the Sierra Club? What is the Sierra Club?(6)
John Muir - The protection of areas of wilderness on public lands from human exploitation, except for low-impact recreational activities
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