AP Environmental Science Review Flashcards

Environmental Studies
Terms Definitions
Ozone
Formation: Secondary pollutantEffects: Respiratory irritant, plant damageReduction: Reduce NO emissions
Sources of Sulfur
burning coal
World Population/US Population
6.7 Billion/305 Million
BOD
Biological Oxygen Demand-amount of disolved oxygen needed by aerobic decomposers to break down organic materials
Pesticide Cons
genetic resistance, ecosystem imbalance, pesticide treadmill, persistence, bioaccumulation, biological magnification
Assimilation
inorganic nitrogen is converted into organic molecules such as DNA/amino acids and proteins
Denitrification
bacteria convert nitrate and nitrite back into nitrogen gas
Forest Fires
Surface-usually burn only undergrowth and leaf litter on forest floorCrown-hot fires, may start on ground but eventually leap from treetop to treetopGround-go underground, may smolder for days or weeks, difficult to detect and extinguish
Organic Fertilizer
slow-acting and long-lasting because the organic remains need time to be decomposed
Petroleum formation
microscopic aquatic organisms in sediments converted by eat and pressure into a mixture of hydrocarbons
Natural Selection
organisms that possess favorable adaptations pass them on to the next generation
Particulate Matter
Source: Burning fossil fuelsEffect: reduces visibility & respiratory problemsReduction: filtering, alternative energy
Carbon Oxides
Source: Auto exhaust, incomplete combustionEffects: global warming (greenhouse gas)Reduction: catalytic converter, mass transit
Main component of municipal solid waste
Paper
Madrid Protocol
(1991) Suspension of minderal exploration for 50 years in Antarctica
Outer Core
High temperatures make iron molten, circulation of molten earth's magnetic field
Mantle
Dense, hot, pliable layer of rock, less dense then core because has elements like oxygen, silicon, magnesium, iron, aluminum; most of earth's mass, mostly dense
Nitrogen Fixing
because atmospheric Nitrogen can't be used directly by plants it must first be converted into ammonia by bacteria
Greenhouse Gases
Examples: H2O, CO2, O3, CFCs, MethaneEffect: trap outgoing infrared energy, causing Earth to warm
Causes of Ozone Depletion
CFCs attack stratospheric ozone
Natural Pest Control
better ag. practices, genetically resistant plants, natural enemies, biopesticides, sex attractants
Incineration Disadvantages
toxic emissions; scrubbers needed; ash disposal
Parts of Hydrologic Cycle
evaporation, transpiration, runoff, condensation, precipitation, infiltration
Define Ecology.(1)
Study of interactions of living organisms with one another and with their non-living environment of matter and energy.
All organic compounds contain the element _____?(14)
Carbon (C)
Monorovici Discontinuity
Usually referred to as the Mono, boundary between Earth's crust and the mantle, separates crust and the mantle, separates crust from mantle
Age Structure Diagrams
broad base=rapid growth; narrow base= negative growth; uniform shape=zero growth
Postindustrial Stage
low birth and death rates, population growth low
Nuclear Fission
nuclei of isotopes split apart when struck by neutrons
Eutrophication
rapid algal growth caused by an excess of nitrates and phosphates in water
Ways to decrease birth rate
family planning, contraception, economic rewards and penalties
Salinization of Soil
in arid regions, water evaporates leaving salts behind
Sanitary landfill problems and solutions
Leaching-liner with collection systemMethane gas- collect gas and use as fuelGarbage- compact and reduce
Montreal Protocol
(1987) phase out of ozone depleting substances
Conservation
allowing the use of resouces in a responsible manner
Invasive/Alien/Exotic Species
non-native species to an area; often thrive and disrupt the ecosystem balance EX. kudzu vine, purple loosestrife, African honeybee "killer bee", water hyacinth, fire ant, zebra mussel
Transpiration
process by which water is absorbed by plant roots, moves up through plants, passes through pores(stomata) in leaves, evaporates into atmosphere as water vapor
Surface Mining
cheaper and can remove more minerals; less hazardous to workers
Emigration
migration of people out of a country to leave their previous residence
Effects of Ozone Depletion
increased UV, skin cancer, cataracts, decreased plant growth
Incineration Advantages
volume of waste reduced by 90% and waste heat can be used
Point vs. Nonpoint Pollution
Point sources can be easily identified, like a pipe. Nonpoint are difficult to pinpoint like run-off from a parking lot
Clean Water Act
(1972) set max permissible amounts of water pollutants that can be discharged into waterways; aims to make surgace waters swimmable and fishable
Carrying Capacity
the number of individuals that can be sustained in an area
Negative Feedback Loop
when a changing in some condition triggers a response that counteracts the changed condition
Food Quality Protection Act
(1996) set pesticide limits in food and all active and inactive ingredients must be screened for estrogenic/endocrine effects
LD 50/ LC 50
the dosage (LD) or concentration (LC) of a chemical needed to kill 50% of the organisms in a test population
During a non-El Nino Year
easterly trade winds and ocean currents pool warm water in the western Pacific, allowing upwelling of nutrient rich water off the west coast of South America
Cone of Depression
lowering of the water table around a pumping well
Replacement Level fertility
number of children a couple must have to replace themselves
Crude Birth Rate
The number of live births per 1,000 ppl in a population any given year
Percent water on Earth by type
97.5% Saltwater, 2.5% freshwater (only 1% usable)
What are the two most common types of particles emitted by radioactive isotopes?(16)
Alpha and Beta
Zero Population Growth (ZPG)
State in which the birth rate + immigration equals the death rate + emigration, so the population of a geographic area is no longer increasing
How excess phosphorus is aded to auatic ecosystems
runoff of animal wastes, fertilizer, discharge of sewage
What does the atomic mass units (AMUs) tell you about the sub-atomic makeup of an atom?(11)
# of protons & neutrons
What is a synergistic effect?(8)
The sum of the effect is larger than the individuals
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