-Dominated reform movement in Scotland
-Determined to structure the Scottish church after Geneva
-Persuaded the Scottish parliament to end papal authority in 1560
-Established Presbyterian Church of Scotland
-Wrote Book of Common Order (1564) which became the liturgical directory for the church
destined to go to heaven
-Translated New Testament, printed it, and had Lollards distribute it
-Executed for heresy
The illegal selling of church offices.
French humanist whose theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed Calvinism at Geneva. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion
|scandinavia, norway, sweden, denmark||
who accepts luthernism
The _______ and political struggles within the church weakened the church and allowed the Reformation to begin.
in England shared similar beliefs; thousands came to America where they founded and controlled Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware
Elizabeth and Parliament required conformity to the Church of England but people were, in effect, allowed to worship Protestantism and Catholicism privately
The practice of appointing family members to positions of favor. The practice was very common in the Catholic Church. Theocracy - A community in which the state is subordinate to the church
The leading seller of Indulgences. Infuriated Luther.
Spain's greatest writer, spent 5 years as a slave and wrote Don Quixote with little education but a lot of literature background.
bread and wine literally changes into body and blood of Christ
|Theses Number 21||
Therefore those preachers of induglences are in error who allege that through the induglgences of the pope a man can be freed from every penalty.
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
-Early Separatists from the Church of England before 1620
|Peter Paul Rubens||
1577-1640, Flemish painter, worked much for the Hapsburg court in Brussels (the capital of the Spanish Netherlands,) emphasized color and sensuality; animated figures and melodramatic contrasts; monumental size, nearly half of his works dealt with Christian subjects, known for his sensual nudes as Roman goddesses, water nymphs, and saints and angels
Became home to protestant exiles from England, Scotland, and France, who later returned to their countries with Calvinist ideas. Calvin established a theocracy in Geneva by 1540
Maximillian marries Mary of Burgundy (1477); Charles V takes over and wants to be absolute ruler (1519)
King Christian IV raised an army to fight HRE in the ______ Phase of the Thirty Years' War.
Founded the Society of Jesus, resisted the spread of Protestantism, wrote Spiritual Exercises.
killed for not supporting Henry's Act of Supremacy
the belief that what happens in human life has already been determined by some higher power
king of England. long time catholic but will break from catholic church.
|Pope Paul III||
Italian pope who excommunicated Henry VIII, instituted the order of the Jesuits, appointed many reform-minded cardinals, and initiated the Council of Trent.
|Differences between Calvin & Luther||
-C thought church should dominate state, L disagreed
Oct. 31, 1517; Luther criticized the selling of indulgences but went further than others before him by questioning the scriptural authority of the pope to grant indulgences; whether Luther actually nailed his 95 Theses to the Wittenberg church door, or sent them to his resident bishop instead, is a matter of historical dispute; the printing press facilitated the spread of Luther's work with astonishing speed
|Leage of Schmalkalden||
Alliance formed by protestant princes to protect themselves from Charles V (tried to catholize Germany).
|pamphlets of 1520||
-outline new theology (2 sacraments, no priests)
-"Christian freedom"- Christianity frees you from sin
-against murderous and theiving hordes of peasants. lolz...
The bread and wine undergo a spiritual change.
|Habsburg Valois Wars||
Wars between the French and Germans when the French returned to Italy.
1529, called by Philip of Hesse in attempt to bring German and Swiss reformers, Luther and Zwingli (see above).
|cuius regio eius religio||
prince determines religion of his region (Catholic or Lutheran only)
The law of the Roman Catholic church. Originally a loose collection of papal decrees and edicts from church councils about the rules and practice of the faith, canon laws became a means through which the papacy asserted its authority over the church and medieval society.
|Papal Index of Forbidden Books||
-Published by Church
-Included all Protestant writing
wrote: Address to the Nobility of the German Nation, Babylonian Captivity of the Church, On the Freedom of the Christian Man, the German translation of the New Testament, hymns, Against the Robbing and Murdering Hordes of Peasants Salvation: faith in God in Jesus & in life brings salvation, good works follow naturally as a result, but not as a precondition Sacrament: Last Supper (Communion): Christ is physically/mystically present in the bread/wine Pope: authority is not biblically ordained 7 Traditional Catholic Sacraments: just baptism/communion (biblically justified), no images but yes to music, no to celibacy, each priest must work for themselves
a Spaniard who was among the chief thinkers for the Anti-Trinitarians. He was executed in 1553 in Geneva for "blasphemies against the Holy Trinity." This thinker was among the strongest opponents of Calvinism, especially its belief in original sin and predestination and has a deserved reputation of defending religious tolerance.
|Who was Pope Paul III?||
Pope who led the Catholic reformation
Son of Louis VII whose reign as king of France saw wars with the English that regained control of Normandy, Anjou and most of Poitou (1165-1223).
|Francis I of France||
assists the Turks in fighting the Spanish in Italy, sides with Protestant Princes in the Holy Roman Empire, and aids the Schmalkaldic League
|"priesthood of all believers"||
part of Luther's theology of reform: the church is not a hierarchical structure
|Diet of Worms||
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
|Theses Number 6||
The pope has no power to remit any guilt, except by declaring and confirming that it has remitted by God. [God is the one who forgives your sins, not the pope]
|Catholic vs. Protestant Leagues||
1609 Catholic Leagues formed by Max I, duke of Bavaria to counter Protestant alliance formed under leadership of Calvinist Elector Palatine, Frederick IV. Beginning conflict of thirty Years War.
|Development of the Church of England||
Henry VIII - wanted annulment from Queen Catherine of Aragon, after waiting several years for the pope to grant the annulment, he has Parliament declare him head of the Church of England (1533). He marries Anne Boleyn and is excommunicated by the Pope from the Roman Catholic Church. Two speak courageously against him - Thomas More (former lord chancellor) and John Fisher (Bishop of Rochester) both are beheaded for speaking against Henry's actions. Following Henry's declaration of himself as head of the church of England, new ways of practicing Christianity emerge, eventually the Church of England is found
|Frederick the Wise of Saxony (mid 1400s-early 1500s)||
Supporter of Luther who sheltered him from Charles the Fifth