AP Euro 110 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
1347-1352
plague
Departements
administrative units
Tudor
English Family Dynasty
Simony
selling of church offices
Lenin
Who created first single-party state?
James Hargreaves
Creator of Spinning Jenny
children
economic burden in family economy
conservatism
political philosophy in nineteenth century support legitimate monarchies, landed aristocracies, and establish churches. conservatives favor gradual change in social order
Quetzalcoatl
Aztec nature god, feathered serpent, his disappearance and promised return coincided with the arrival of Cortes
Yassir Arafat
The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) leader who called for the destruction of Israel
Jan Hus
Czechoslovakian priest like Wycliffe. He denounced superstition, sale of indulgences, and other abuses. He defeated transubstantiation and insisted Church authority derived from the Scripture alone.
Orders
The medieval system of social differentiation. There were three groups: those who pray (clergy), those who fight (nobility), and those who work (the rest). The groups were called orders or estates. (France and the Low Countries were organized as such in their representative assemblies.)
Sudetenland
Hitler wanted German speaking people in West Czech; this would be given to Germany.
Louis' Military Reforms
Professionalized the army, standardized weapons and uniforms, employed soldiers by the state
Whigs
The Whigs were originally colonists supporting independence. In the mid 1830s, the Whig Party opposed Jackson's strong-armed leadership style and policies. The Whigs promoted protective tariffs, federal funding for internal improvements, and other measures that strengthened the central government. Reaching its height of popularity in the 1830s, the Whigs disappeared from the national political scene by the 1850s.
Castlereagh
British representative at Congress of Vienna.
Entrepot;
Big commercial center for importing and exporting commodities.
Oliver Cromwell
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I; as lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator
Miasmatic Theory
Early reformers such as Chadwick handicapped by the prevailing miasmatic theory of disease-the belief that people contract disease when they breathe the bad odors of decay and putrefying excrement-in short the theory that smells cause disease. The miasmatic theory was a reasonable deduction from empirical observations: cleaning up filth did produce viable results. (p.792)
Elector of brandenburg
FREDRICK WILLIAM (Hohenzollen) elector of the holy roman empire, was able to use and expand the office ultimately resulting in the consolidation of the Prussian state
General Will
A concept in political philosophy referring to the desire or interest of a people as a whole. As used by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who championed the concept, the general will is identical to the rule of law.
Gothic genre
The Gothic Medieval artistic and architectural movement was revived by Romanticism. Gothic art is often religious, depicting Biblical stories and often embodied in Cathedral architecture. The Gothic genre was developed by Gothic novels that sprung out of the Romantic era and tended to have dark themes and strong emotions. Jane Eyre (Charlotte Bronte) and Wuthering Heights (Emily Bronte.)
Hitler Youth
Nazis indoctrinated German youths with views of German radical superiority and Jews as the sources of German problems
Petite Bourgeosie
French term which described white collar workers
Jesuits
Members of the Society of Jesus, staunch Catholics. Led by Loyola.
pragmatic sanction
stated that Habsburg possessions were never to be divided
Huguenots
These were the French Calvinists that were often persecuted until the Edict of Nantes
Republic
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
Eastern Question
Bismarck said the Eastern Question, "is not worth the healthy bones of a single Pomeranian Musketeer." A way of simply stating it's not worth it to become involved and risk getting into the fighting.
Werner Heisenberg
A German physicist that speculated that there was no real certainty in where an electron was, and only tendencies. This broke down Newton's dependable laws to only probabilities.
Scramble for Africa
(late 1870s-1900) European powers sought to maximize their control of African territory & raw materials
SS Organization
The chief vehicle of police surveillance units commanded by Heinrich Hmmler (1900-1945). This group originated in the mid-1920's as bodyguard for hitler. "protective force" In 1933 there were approximately 52,000 members. This group carried out the blood purges of the party in 1934.
Tyndale
printed the New Testament in English 1525
"Blood and iron"
Refers to Prussian tactics brought about by Otto von Bismarck; his unification of Germany was through a policy of "blood and iron".
Charles II
Charles I's son, people cheered his return, had fled to France in the Civil War, made the English court became like the French court of Louis XIV, restored theater, restored sports, restored dancing, restored public drunkedness, called "The Merry Monarch", good relationship with Parliament, didn't believe in the divine right, tolerant of religiion
The Spirit of Laws
Montesquieu, about separation of powers.
war communism
in World War I Russia, government control of banks and most industries, the seizing of grain from peasants, and the centralization of state administration under Communist control
Stalin's rise
He was totally focused on himself, double and tripled crossed, rose by gaining support of party
Cosimo de' Medici
Italian financier and statesman and friend of the papal court (1389-1464)
ferdinand magellan
Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain
Consubstantiation
The bread and wine undergo a spiritual change.
Gustavus Adolphus
France pays Sweden to enter conflict led by King THIS PERSON aka THIS PERSON; minor innovator, mobility on the battle field, constant training of forces (significance); **KING of spain in 30 years war
Four humors
Blood, yellow bile, phlegm, and black bile in which a balance of the four is wanted.
Leon Trotsky
Lead the Bolsheviks of Russian along side Lenin. He was a spellbinding revolutionary orator and independent racial Marxist, who brilliantly executed the Bolshevik seizure of power by convincing the Petrograd Soviet to form a special military-revolutionary committee and make him its leader. His soldiers joined with the Bolsheviks to overtake members of the provisional government and win the vote of the Congress of soviets. He was also leader of the Red Army in the civil war.
Machiavellli
Wrote the Prince, a book about using politics as a science. "feared rather than loved" and "fox and lion"
Renaissance popes
Nicholas V and Pius II- scholars, Innocent VIII-first to dine out with women, Alexander VI-exploited office to benefit family, Julius II- capable general, Leo X- patron of architects and painters
Edict of Nantes [1598]
Toleration of Calvinism adn recogninzing the rights of French Protestants
Gresham College
Located in England. Leading place for the advancement of science. First time scientists had a honored roll in society; center of scientific activity.
Beer Hall Putsch
Hitler's attempt, in 1923, to overthrow the Weimar Republic when he fired his pistol in the ceiling of a Munich beer hall
Thomas Newcomen
1705 invented steam engine that used coal, very inefficient.
favorable balance of trade
exporting more than importing (selling more than buying on a national level).
Cardinal Richelieu
This was the man who influenced the power of King Louis XIII the most and tried to make France an absolute monarchy
Dawes Plan
A plan to revive the German economy, the United States loans Germany money which then can pay reparations to England and France, who can then pay back their loans from the U.S. This circular flow of money was a success.
characteristics of dutch golden age
-unparallel flowering of Dutch scientific, artistic, literary achievement
-dutch ideas and attitudes played a profound role in shaping a new and modern world view
-united provinces(netherlands) model of the development of the modern constitutional state after winning independence from Spain
"dropping the pilot"
William II forced Bismarck to resign in 1890.
eugene was turned down by who... so fought with who
france british
Michael Romanov
Selected to be tsar by the Zemsky Sobor (a group of landholders). Made peace with the Swedes.
deism
God built the universe and let it run. Clockmaker theory.
Puritan
This was one of the reforms in England in which the leaders wanted all Catholic elements in the Church of England eliminated
steelmaking, chemicals and petroleum
first major industries in europe between 1860 and 1914
Social Democratic Party
a political party in Germany and Britain (and elsewhere) founded in late 19th century. originally Marxist; now advocates the gradual transformation of capitalism into democratic socialism
Battle of Lepanto
A battle between the turkish and Spanish navies in which the Spanish came out on top. Slaughtering many turks
Cult Of Supreme Being
Established by Robespierre to move the people away from what he thought was the corrupting influence of the church; turned Notre Dame into a Temple of Reason
Frederick William, Great Elector
ruler and first king, kaiser, of Brandenberg-Prussia during second half of the 17th century
Theobald von Bethman-Hollweg
German chancellor who hoped for WWI to happen, but without Britain
the diet of worms
1521 where Holy Roman Emperor Charles V asks Lutgher to recant & declares him an outlaw when he refuses
Catherine the Great
ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796, added new lands to Russia, encouraged science, art, lierature, Russia became one of Europe's most powerful nations
Thomas R. Malthus
Author of "Essay on the Principle of Population"
Bill of Rights
with this, William III and Mary II agreed to respect parliamentary sovereignty and English liberties
Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438)
statement of French king Charles VII asserting royal control over church appointments and the superiority of a general council over the papacy
Battle of Milvian Bridge
- last battle for Constantine in his effort to unite the empire
- against his rival Maxentius
- became champion of Christianity
- when Constantine was emperor he did not abolish the imperial cult or any part of the pagan state of religion when it was obvious that he was Christian
Frederick William IV
This king of Prussia was the king who gave into Prussia's constitution
Structure of German government
They had a strong top government and they had a Reichstag, or the lower house of parliament
Flemish School Of Painting - vanEyck, Durer, Brueghel, Holbein
realism and attention to human personality
Isolation & "Opening" of China and Japan
Isolation to protect against the corruptive west, and a forced opening for reasons of trace
Grand Alliance - members & goals
The members of the Grand alliance were America, Britain, and the Soviet Union; their goals were to Smash the aggressors, Europe first, then Asia
What was the effect of the Peace of Westphalia?
United Provinces were independent and the Habsburg power was limited. France's size increased and so did Swedish. Also stated that the Augsburg agreement of 1555 would stand permanently-and Calvinism was legal.
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