AP Euro 14 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Loyalists
?????
Italy's flip-flop
vv
Erasmus
Dutch humanist/theologian
leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe
Criticized the Church but condemned Luther
Liberal Political Change
Metternich battled...
Indendents
officials of French Monarchy
Versailles
This enormous, ostentatious monument to the power of the French Monarchy, built by Louis XIV over a long period of time, served as a manifestation of the power of absolute monarchy. Meant to impress and scare nobility, foreigners, and commoners alike, this palace was where Louis XIV moved his court in order to keep them under his control and away from the uncontrollable social scene in Paris.
puritans
English Protestant dissenters who believed that God predestined souls to heaven or hell before birth. They founded Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629. (p. 487)
John Calvin
Theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion
WWI was a war of
attrition
Laos and Thailand
Just know something important..
Waterloo
Napoleon Bonaparte's last battle, the end of the '100 days' and Napoleon's rule in France. After the battle, he was exiled for good, and Michael Nay was sentenced to be executed for treason.
Ideas of Thomas Hobbes
-not enlightenment thinker
leviathan
man pursues survival at the expense of others, everyone fights each other in the state of nature, nasty poor violent horrible
-people form govt to create order
-abs monarchy
Kulturkampf
Bismarck's attack on the Catholic Church
Bacon's works
Advancement of Learning (1605)
Novum Organus (1620)
New Atlantis (1627)
Chamber of Deputies
universal senate, male suffrage
Balkan Wars
Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria took Macedonia from the Ottomans in 1912. Serbia then fought Bulgaria in the second Balkan War. In 1913 Austria intervened to stop the war.
Cervantes
Spanish writer best remembered for 'Don Quixote' which satirizes chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form (1547-1616)
Francois I
built the Chateau de Chambord
Entente Cordial
Britain gained control of Egypt. France gained control of Morocco. But not a written alliance only and agreement. Basically against Germany.
1588
philip sent the spanish armada to england in ____ where its 130 ships, 30,000 men, and 2,400 artillery naval unit was significantly weakened by the smaller, swifter 200 english ships
John Hus
czech catholic priest, key contributor to protestant movement whose teachings had a stron influence on the states of europe.
Charles VII
(1483-1498) Louis XI's son. was determined to expand his dynasty's territory and in 1494 led an army into Italy at request of duke of Milan. Settled in long struggle with Habsburgs for 65 years for control of Italy. This ended in defeat for French. Yet, the war gave the kings, as commanders in time of war, an opportunity to consolidate royal power at home.
public opinion
the distribution of the population's beliefs about politics and policy issues. caused by print culture
Liberalism
19th century high tide for liberalism. Liberal concern for individual rights, representative government, economic freedom, and the expansion of opportunity.
munster
site of anabaptist uprising - became haven for them - later many were killed there
Holy Alliance
Alliance among Russia (Alexander I), Prussia, and Austria in defense of religion and the established order; formed at Congress of Vienna by most conservative monarchies of Europe (on the face of it a statement of Christian purpose and international concord but gradually became an alliance for the suppression of revolutionary and even liberal activity)
Castiglione
Book of courtier, instructing how to live an active life like the middle ages. said one should be sprezzatura: make things appear effortless.
Petrarch
The Italian father of humanism who created the sonnet.
physiocrats
French thinkers who thought about the economy.
encomienda
the obligation of an individual to work for nobles in the new world (kind of like feudalism)
Indulgences
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.
Condottiere
A mercenary soldier of a political ruler
Anschluss
Union between Austria and Germany, a violation of the ToV and Austria refused so Germany invaded.
18. I believed in predestination or the "doctrine of the elect"
John Calvin
Puritan Revolution
reference to the English Civil war (1642-1646) waged to determine whether sovereignty would reside in monarch or Parliament
Karl Marx
founder of modern communism; wrote the Communist Manifesto with Engels in 1848; wrote Das Kapital in 1867
Atlantic Charter
August 1941; called for peace without territorial expansion or secret agreements, and for free elections, and self - determination for all liberated nations.
Reformation Parliament
Nickname for the Parliament that was called for a 7 year session that began in 1529. During this period, it passed legislation that harassed and placed royal reins on the clergy. This meant that whenever fundamental changes are made in religion, the monarch must consult w/ and work thru Parliament.
michelangelo
artist - sistine chapel and statue of david
Revolution of 1905
wave of political terrorism, strikes, peasant unrest, mutinies, both anti-government and undirected, that swept through vast areas of the Russian Empire, leading to the establishment of the State Duma of the Russian Empire, multi-party system and the Russian Constitution of 1906.
Emile Zola
This was an influential French writer who wrote about naturalism and was often criticized
Maximilien Robespierre
"The incorruptable;" the leader of the bloodiest portion of the French Revolution. He set out to build a republic of virtue.
heliocentric theory
The theory that the planets revolve around the sun as opposed to the Earth.
countries in War of Austrian Succession
Austria and HRE
Alexander II
A Russian Tsar who implemented rapid social change and general modernization of Russia.
1450
year that Venice went to war against Milan in protest against Francesco Sforza's acquisition of the title duke of Milan
Lajos Kossuth
This man was a Hungarian nationalist leader who demanded independence and a constitution
Luftwaffe
the German air force before and during World War II
When did the Alliance of the Three Emperors end
1887
michael servetus
he fled spain because he was a protestant and went to geneva, but calvin didn;t agree with his ideas so we was executed
Duke of Parma
Philip II's nephew who crushed the Dutch revolts by seiging Antwerp.
Edict of Emancipation
Reform that rid Russian peasantry of serf dependence by granting the full rights of free citizens to serfs and decreeing that peasants could buy land from landlords. Not a smooth reform, despite nobility being paid in government bonds- the bonds quickly fell in value.
thirty years war
War within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain; ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia
Theory of Evolution
This theory stated that animals could evolve from other animals in order to adapt to their environments. This theory was not widely accepted for it could possibly account for humans which would defeat the whole purpose of creationism
5 powers of Italy
Papal states, Florence, duchy of Milan, Kingdom of Naples, Republic of Venice,
Levee en Masse
Law that abligated all French men between certain ages to enlist in the army.
Chinese Nationalist revolt
Secret societies called fists led to nickname boxers, resent missionaries and modernization, killed Christians while destroying factories. Had a rebellion where they besieged British Embassy. Caused US/Europe troops to land and to occupy Beijing. China forced to pay 330 million indemnity. Put an end to partition of China
1759 known as what in british history for victories of canada and india
wonderful year
David Lloyd George
This British politician was crucial to the Treaty of Versailles, playing a moderate role between the extremely punitive George Clemenceau and the lenient Woodrow Wilson in deciding what to do with Germany. He was also responsible for the "People's Budget" of 1908 which imposed a tax on the very wealthy.
labor aristocracy
highly skilled workers, made up 15% of working class, made more money, usually managers or supervisors in factories, devoted to family and economic improvement
*shows there are different classes within classes and they set moral code for working class
Ems Telegram
A telegram which the French gave to the Germans in anger over the Succession of the Throne in Spain, but the Germans altered it to look like the French were rude and evil. The French declared war.
serfdom
The use of serfs to work the land in return for protection against barbarian invasions
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521 where Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
Constituent Assembly
This was an assembly put into place by the National Assembly to make sure the Constitution was made. They forced Louis XVI to sign this constitution, which stated that only the National Assembly could make laws and the King was still the head of state.
peace of ryswick
1697. Ended War of League of Augsburg at Ryswick in Netherlands. L lost most of gains made in war but did get to keep Alsace and Strasbourg., the secured the borders of Holland and ended Louis XIV's expansion into Germany
Habsburg State. 5 Parts
1. Austria, syria, tyrol
2. 300 german states that want autonomy
3. Spanish Netherlands
4. Bohemia
5. Hungary-Taken from the ottoman turks
Catherine de Medici
wife of Henry II, influenced her sons after the end of there father's rein. She placed an alliance with the ultra-Catholics (the militant Catholics), which was led by the second most powerful family in France, The Guise Family. She permitted the Guise Family their own independent army,which they would use to take out the other religions residing within the French Borders. This led to the civil wars in France and also the St. Bartholome's Day Massacre.
Martin Luther
This was the most famous and one of the first concrete reformer who began to reject some of the more obscure and selfish laws of the Catholic Church
Ferdinand II
Was HRE for most of 30 Years War (1618-1648)

Issued the Edict of Restitution, then annulled it with the Peace of Prague, reconciling with belligerent Saxons and Bohemians.
Test Act of 1673
This was the bill passed that those who did not receive the Eucharist of the Anglican Church had little rights
Theory of Class Struggle
This was the theory that two opposing classes have always battled against eachother to form another class that will battle against its antithesis until the synthesis is one equal class working with each other for each other
European Economic Community
intro to free trade in the 50s between the Benelux, France, Italy and W. Germany; a TRUE step towards the European Union
WWI - Long Term Causes: Nationalism
1. France: In the Franco-Prussian War (1771), they lost Alsace and Lorraine so they want revenge.
2. Serbia: They don't like Austria-Hungary. They want to expand and unite the Slavic people through pan-Slavism (unite all Slavic people into one big country).
3. Subject-nationalities: The ethnicities want independence - their own nation state. Subject-nationalities are people who are subjects of someone else not like you (in terms of ethnicity).
What did the pope sell indulgences to pay for?
construction of St. Peters Basillica
Migration: Who went where, and why? (demographics)
1/3 of European migrants came from British Isles; less that ½ went to the US; most often a small peasant landowner/village craftsman; left because they were threatened by industrialization; many returned to their homelands
What happened at the Battle of Austerlitz
The French scored a victory against the Russians and Austria [1805]
Lack of strong mid class, because of inquisition, Population decline, Intellectual isolation, decline in trade, mining profits reduced, Nobles increased rents, Poor leadership, in bred, spanish pessimism
What were the seeds of the decline of Spain?
Belarus
Minsk
Presbyterians
scottish calvanists
price revolution
high inflation
Cannon Law
Against the bible
spirit of the law
montesqieu
mulattos
mixed with european and blacjk
ethereal
heavenly, unusually delicate, light, lacking material substance, intangible
Crocker
-philosophes united by the Encyclopedia, their agreement on what the problems/questions were, and that man must control his own destiny for the sole purpose of a better life
-also all saw Church as a foe
Charles Fourier
French social theorist-criticized capitalism-wanted socialist utopia and emancipation of women. Theory of Four Movements.
David Hume
Scottish philosopher whose sceptical philosophy restricted human knowledge to that which can be perceived by the senses (1711-1776)
Count Cavour
(1810-1861) Italian statesman from Sardinia who used diplomacy to help achieve unification of Italy.
Because of the reluctance of universities to rapidly assimilate the new science, its pioneers established what have been termed "institutions of __________" that allowed information and ideas associated with the new science to be gathered, exchanged, and
sharing
Popolo
The "Plaza del ____", meaning "People's Plaza", is a large open plaza in Rome, Italy.
Salons
Informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophes, and others exchanged ideas
Ulrich Zwingli
(1484-1531) Swiss reformer, influenced by Christian humanism. He looked to the state to supervise the church. Banned music and relics from services. Killed in a civil war.
Creoles
descendents of Spanish-born BUT born in Latin America; resented inferior social, political, economic status
Paris Commune
The revolutionary municipal council, led by radicals, that engaged in a civil war (March-May 1871) with the National Assembly of the newly established Third Republic, set up after the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco- Prussian War
Union of Utrecht
(1581)the declaration of independence of the seven northern provinces from Spanish rule.
aristocrats
these people get the privileges by birth to be in the house of lords, inherit estates, money etc.
Virocha
Creator-god of the Incas. When the Spanish invaders landed they said they were sent by God, which the Incas associated with this god.
Disraeli
first only jewish prime minister. main reason conservative dominate 20th century., British Conservative-extended vote to all middle class male workers, needed to broaden aristocratic voter base.
otto von bismarck
German statesman under whose leadership Germany was united (1815-1898)
Six Acts
laws that intimidated agitators and limited their freedom of speech.
Ferdinand and Isabella
lead to united Spain 1469
French Classicism
Art, literature, and advancements of the age of Louis XIV.
Women gain right to vote in GB
1918
Francisco Pizarro
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541)
Thomas More
English statesman who opposed Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon and was imprisoned and beheaded, He was a English humanist that contributed to the world today by revealing the complexities of man. He wrote Utopia, a book that represented a revolutionary view of society. (p.437)
Boniface VIII
1204-1303, struggle between papacy and secular monarchs that began during his reign, dealt with taxes imposed by king Philip IV
Nicolae Ceausescu
he was the iron-fisted communist dictator of Romania who combined Stalinist brutality with independence from Moscow. When revolts broke out in Romania, he ordered his security to slaughter thousands, sparking an armed uprising. As result, he and his wife were captured, tried, and executed.
MAry 1
..., "Bloody Mary" daughter of Catherine and Henry VIII. When Edward VI died MAry came into power.
communists
Those socialists who after 1840 (when the word was first used) advocated the abolition of private property in favor of communal, collective ownership.
Totalitarianism
A more extreme form of absolutism, in which the authority holds power over all aspects of a state's culture-- art, education, religion, the economy, and politics
Leon Blum
Leader of the French socialist party Popular Front, made first and real attempt to deal with the economic and social problems
paulette
A French tax on officeholders in the government, which provided about 1/3 of the royal income. It was initially implemented by Henry IV to demonstrate his power over nobility, but became useful in a more practical sense later on.
Joan of Arc
French peasant girl and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king and helped French win key battles in Hundreds Years' War. English captured her and France didn't fight back. English condemned her as a heretic in 1431 and burned her at stake in Rouen marketplace.
Social Democrats
The largest political party in Sweden, who pushed for social reform legislation, and drew support from community and socialist and capitalist working together.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty between Bolsheviks and Germans to get Russia out of the war. 1) Russia lost 1/3 of her population. 2) height of German success in WWI. Signed by Lenin.
Stalinization of culture
The acceptance of Stalin though propaganda
enclosure acts
Parliament passed acts by which the old common lands and unfenced fields were enclosed/ Small farmers now could not make a living from their own plots (losers), and land ownership became concentrated in the hands of a relatively small class of wealthy landlords (winners), with land rented out to a small class of substantial farmers/ productivity of land and labor was increased
Lawrence of Arabia
British military officer who incited the Arabs in Arabia to revolt against their Turkish lords
Joseph II
(Son of Maria Theresa) *Best example of an enlightened despotism (& its limits)
Mary Wollstonecraft
A woman determined to be independent and defy social constructs, she reacted to Burke's book by writing "A Vindication of the Rights of Man" she also advocated sexual equality in her next work
7
In the decade before 1914, G. Britain was investing __ percent of its annual national income abroad, slightly more than it was investing in its entire domestic economy.
Great Purge
In 1932, Stalin became aware that opposition to his policies were growing, thus demanding that the critics should be arrested and executed. Ex: His close friend, Sergey Kirov, became a suspect through the eyes of Stalin in trying to become the leader of the party, thus he ordered Yezhov (head of Communist Secret Police) to assassinate him.
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon
Lusitania
Sunk in 1915 by a German submarine. 139 American killed. Forced Germany to stop submarine warfare.
reinsurance treaty
This was created to restore German relations with Russia. It was created because Russia refused to renew its membership in the alliance of the three emperors. Bismarck negotiated it and both powers promised to remain neutral if either was attacked. It was ended in 1890 when Emperor William dismissed Bismarck because of Bismarck's friendly policy towards Russia.
Roaring 20's in Europe
characterized by Jazz music, dance crazes like the Charleston...Josephine Baker popularized "Negro" Jazz music
Miguel de Cervantes
Spanish writer wrote Don Quixote (hero of romance)
Oath of Supremacy
Declared Henry "the only supreme head in earth of the Church of England."
Polish Corridor
The strip of Poland that the Germans wanted to take, specifically Danzig
Paris Accord
A peace treaty signed in November 1990 by delegates from 22 countries affirming European borders and scaling down European armed forces. This treaty effectively ended World War Two and the Cold War.
Tennis Court Oath
This is the oath that the representatives of the third estate took when they swore that they would never disband until they had proper representation
sovereignty
the ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states
Wars of the Roses
(1455-1471) Civil war in England between the York and Lancastrian branches of the royal family.
Civil Code of 1804
French legal system
Single unitary legal system for all of France
Equality of all people
Safeguard property holders
Paternalistic nature of French society
Aristocracy based on service to the state
Navigation Act of 1651
prohibited Dutch merchants from the colonial trade and gave English traders a monopoly by requiring that goods importated into England or its American settlements be carried on English ships.
Mikhail Gorbachev
after the death of Yuri Andropov, this man took over the Soviet Union. He came into power saying that Russia had fallen behind the West and that changes needed to be made. He had three methods of revitalization: "Perestroika" meaning re-structurization (here, prices were eased on goods, thus giving more freedom to state enterprise), "Glasnost" meaning openness [cultural change] (This created free speech, freedom of the press, etc.), and Democratization (totally free elections for the first time since 1917). The only one of his policies that was actually rational was the ending of the arms race and pulling the Soviets out of Afghanistan. HE IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HE BASICALLY SINGLE HANDEDLY LAID DOWN THE FOUNDATIONS FOR THE COLLAPSE OF THE SOVIET UNION.
Alexander I
This czar of Russia wanted to restore the kingdom of Poland, which he wanted to bestow the benefits of his rule
Normandy invasion, June 6, 1944
American and British forces under General Dwight Eisenhower landed on the beaches of Normandy, France, in history's greatest naval invasion. In a hundred days more than 2 million men were dead. (987)
Remilitarization of the Rhineland
Hitler sent his army into the Rhineland on March 17, 1936 and reoccupied the area which by the Treaty of Versailles was forbidden.
Heinrich Himmler
German Nazi who was chief of the SS and the Gestapo and who oversaw the genocide of six million Jews (1900-1945)
Edict of Worms
Decree issued at Diet of Worms that prohibited anyone from defending or helping Luther, and proclaimed him a heretic that needed to be detained.
Debt Peonage System
-similar to tenant farming
- work on someone's land who pays for the worker, worker must pay (usually in debt)
"Liberty, Equality, Fraternity"
The motto of the French Revolution and the demands of the popular people
Peace of Utrecht
a treaty Louis XIV was forced into which was to cede Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and the Hudson bay area
Kristallnacht, nigh of broken glass
A night of violence and vandalism against Jews
Richard III
He was the last king from the House of York, and his defeat at the Battle of Bosworth marked the culmination of the Wars of the Roses
"republic of letters"
A term referring to the huge amount of correspondence between the various Enlightenment (#50) writers. Now, it is often applied to the Internet.
Turkish Revolution of 1908-1909
The Young Turks in the Ottoman Empire began the Turkish Revolution of 1908-09. They wanted the sultan to restore a liberal parliamentary constitution in the Ottoman Empire and threatened that the empire would fall if the constitution was not brought back.
Brothers of the Common Life
Group of people who imitated the life of Jesus by serving others.
The Treaty of Rapallo
was an agreement that was made in the Italian town of Rapallo on April 16, 1922 between Germany (the Weimar Republic) and Soviet Russia under which each renounced all territorial and financial claims against the other following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and World War I.
"total war" & measures to prosecute it
This was the effort to completely involve every person and aspect of the economy into the war
Which event was part of the 2rd Balkan Crisis?
Germany's issuance of the"blank check" to Austria
42. War broke out between the U.S. and Britain in 1812 because
- all of Europe was already at war with America
- America could neither trade with Britain nor Europe without upsetting a side
Paris
France
Watt
steam engine
The Continental Blockade
...
1492
Fall of Grenada; Columbus
emigres
counterrevolutionaries who flee france
City-States
Organization of Italy during Renaissance.
natural law
distinguishes right from wrong
pogroms
organized campaigns of violence against Jews permitted by Russian government officials; spread the persecution of Jews
Marshal Michel Ney
One of Napoleon's Generals
In _________, new constitutions were declared in Tuscany and Piedmont, with the goal of overthrowing their Austrian masters.
Italy
Interregnum
The period of Cromwellian rule (1649-1659), between the Stuart dynastic rules of Charles I and Charles II.
Vatican
recognized as a tiny independent state
Destalinization
Khrushchev's policy of purging the Soviet Union of Stalin's memory; monuments of Stalin were destroyed; Stalin's body was moved outside the Kremlin Wall; Khrushchev did this because he disliked Stalin for jailing and killing loyal Soviet citizens
Post-Impressionism
An artistic movement that expressed world that could not normally be seen, like dreams and fantasy.
jansenism
response to pietism. catholic pietism. by cornelius jansen; accepts predestination and emphasis on heavy sin; pagan practices; urban phenomenon; stern religious values.
Decemberists Revolt
Army officers supported Constantine over Nicolas for Russian throne, and demanded a constitution to modernize Russia. Was put down by army units.
Wet-nursing
Suckling the child of another mother.
-widespread business in the 1700s
-women of all classes hired wet-nurses
-high infant mortality rate
Francis Bacon
English politician and writer, advocated that new knowledge was acquired through an inductive reasoning process (using specific examples to prove or draw conclusion from a general point) called empiricism; rejected Medieval view of knowledge based on tradition, believed it's necessary to collect data, observe, and draw conclusions. This was the foundation of the scientific method
Adam Smith
influential philosophe who wrote on the economic work and social progress of European countries; believed economic liberty was the foundation of a natural economic system and urged the mercantile system to be abolished; the mercantile system hindered the consumers' interests; the earth's resources were boundless and should be used to their fullest potential; great advocate of the four-stage theory or the movement of societies from hunting and gathering to pastoral or herding to agricultural to commercial
Tolerant religious policy
Mostly Dutch reformed church. Catholics were the minority. They found it more important to make bank.
People involved in the movement for social reform called the __________ were among the few who considered change desirable.
Enlightenment
Bloody Sunday
In Russia 1905 Russian soldiers inadvertently opened fire on demonstrators, turning them against the tsar. Possibly the start of the Revolution
-Logical Empiricism
school of philosophy that combines empiricism—the idea that observational evidence is indispensable for knowledge of the world—with a version of rationalism incorporating mathematical and logico-linguistic constructs and deductions
Post-impressonism
arose in France (again) and retained emphasis on light/color and revolutionized it by paying more attention to structure and form.
Philip III
Spanish monarch who expelled all converted Muslims from Spain
agricultural production
it was forced collectivization but there was no motivation for farmers to work. was a complete failure
Romantic literature
Example = William Wordsworth, Walter Scott, George Gordon (Lord Byron), Percy Bysshe Shelley, Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas
Young Plan
(post WWI) initially transferred $100 million to Germany; Germans saw 20th century stretching out before them as year after year of nothing but payments... to make matters worse, in 1928, American private loans shriveled in Germany as investors sought higher yield in the booming stock market at home
Laissez Faire
the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs
Dreadnought
A dreadnought is a battleship designed but the British at first to maintain their powerful navy over the rest of Europe. The ship had ten guns and was bigger and faster than previous ships.
Thomas Hobbes
wrote "Leviathan" and believed people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish; he also believed only a powerful governemnt could keep an orderly society
Potosi
a silver mine in Peru; very lucrative
Leopold II
He, Leopold II of Belgium (r. 1865-1909), formed a financial syndicate to send Henry M. Stanley to the Congo basin to establish trading stations, sign treaties with the African chiefs, and to plant Leopold's flag. In "retaliation", France sent an expedition under Pierre de Brazza (873)
Harvey
This was the man who first detailed the accounted for the circulation of blood flow
Corn Laws
These laws forbade the importation of foreign grain without the prices in England rising substantially
"Iron Law of Wages"
Economic principle developed by Ricardo. Natural wages and market wages tend to be similar. When market wages are high, workers have more children. More children mean too many workers, which causes wages to decrease. Because of this cycle, families will ultimately remain just a poor-off after wage increases.
The Stuarts
This was the Scottish royal family that ruled England after Elizabeth I
Eisenhower doctrine
1958, assert American primacy in the Middle East, offer protection against communism to said states
-Cuban missile crisis
Khrushchev dishonored his country by taking the missles back, and backed down to jfk
consubstantiation
the belief that the Eucharist and the wine are not literally transformed but that the spirit of christ is present
Renaissance popes
Sixtus IV and Julius II: commissioned sistine chapel. Renaissance popes were more interested in politics, military and art than religion and morals.
Jules Mazarin
An Italian cardinal who led the government when Louis XIV became kind of France in 1643 at the age of four.
Masaccio
He used light and dark imagery to illustrate different feelings and emotions
Willy Brandt
German statesman who as chancellor of West Germany worked to reduce tensions with eastern Europe (1913-1992)
prussian constitution
refused to approve taxes to expand army because it would put too much power with the monarchy
Tsarina Alexandra
highly unpopular wife of Tsar, German born, lead to suspicion of her being a spy, had close ties with Rasputin
Predestination
This was a theory created by John Calvin that your fate had been chosen before you were born. Therefore, you could only get into heaven if you had been pre-selected before birth.
Zemstvo
A local coulcil of politicians to deal with local problems in Russia
Bishop Bossuet
tutor of louis XIV who taught about the divine right of the monarchy, which helped secure louis' ideal of absolute monarchy
Battle of Rossbach
Frederick the great won a spectacular victory at this battle. Under the attack from three different forces,however, the forces of Frederick II were gradually worn down and faced under defeat when they were saved by the death of Tsarina Elizabeth which brought her nephew, Peter III to power.
Geocentric Theory
Earth is the center of the universe. Aristotelian.
Cahiers de dolenaces
This literally means a "list of sorrows." Before the third estate met, the third estate composed a list of grievances they would like to present to the government.
Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
A secret agreement between the Germans and the Russians that said that they would not attack each other
Jeremy Bentham -
He was a radical philosopher who influenced Edwin Chadwick, one of many Benthamites. He taught that public problems are supposed to be dealt with on a rational, scientific basis and according to the "greatest good for the greatest number" ideology. Applying these principles, Chadwick became convinced that death and disease caused poverty, because someone sick was unemployed, and orphans were poor.
Vincent Van Gogh
A Dutch expressionist who painted a "moving visions in his mind's eye"
purity of blood
idea that even though they converted Jews were still inclined by nature to act in old ways which led to increase in national supremacy
Dawes Plan
US gives loans to Germany to stabilize economy
Taming of the Parliament
Bismark relized that nationalism was not necessarily hostlike to conservative, authoritarian government; each state retained its own local gov, but eh kind of Prussia became president of the confederation
single cals male sufferage
Francis I
French king captured by Charles V at the Battle of Pavia
Battle of Stalingrad
Turning point for Germany in the war.
Civil Constituion of the Clergy
Biships and priests became elected, salaried officials; ended papal authority over French churhc and dissolved convents and monastries
balance of power
setting limits on the extent to which any one power could expand
Battle of Verdun
one of the costliest battles in WWI, was mainly useless and just people died
Cogito, ergo sum!
I think, therefore I am. ---- A rationalistic argument used by French philosopher René Descartes to attempt to prove his own existence.
F-D Toussaint L'Ouverture
Former slave in Haiti who conducted a full fledged rebellion against French rule. To cool down the rebellion, the French abolished slavery. However F-D's army soon had control of the entire island but kept ties with France.
Church of England/Angelicanism
Set up like a Lutheran church, ideas of Protestant, English main language, no saints, clergy married, dogmas broad so all people could be accepted
Treaty of Vernins
A treaty between France and Spain, the catholic and the protestant worlds. A cold war still continued but formal fighting stopped
The Black Death
between 1347 and 1352, a half to a third of Europe's population died because of this. It was a mixture of bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic plagues. This was carried by the fleas of infected rats, and came from the caravan routes of Asia soon landing in Sicily. It spread from Italy to the rest of Europe devastating the population.
The "Big Four"
The big 4 were US, Britain, France and Italy
July Bolshevik coup attempt
When the govt. did not topple, the Bolsheviks wanted to chase out Kerensky, but didn't have enough support, so they went into hiding. But, people are getting more upset with Provisional Government, because they were not making helpful reforms.
On the Origin of Species
book written by Charles Darwin that set forth the theory that higher life forms had evolved trhough random mutation and adaptation
Five Year plans - objectives, methods & success
Objectives were to increase industrial output by 250% and agriculture output by 150% and have 1/5 of Russian peasants on collective farms. The methods were forced farming and scare tactics like gulags. The success was that of industry, which produced 4 times as much as before
Paris Student Revolts, 1968
May 1968 was, in its origins, a revolt against the stifling papa-knows-best conservatism, and dullness, of General Charles de Gaulle's economically booming 1960s France. It was, at one level, a catch-up, fast-forward revolution for the right to wear long hair and purple trousers. It began in March, at the new Nanterre University west of Paris, as a demand for the rights of boy and girl students in their late teens and twenties to sleep together.
Describe three actions of Parliament following the ascension of William III to the throne.
Act of settlement: no king can be catholic; Bill of rights: due process, no taxes/army without parliament consent, no suspension of laws by king; alliance with scotland
Indian Ocean (Red Sea, Arabian Sea and the Pacific), China, India, Middle East, Africa, and Ottoman and Persian Empires
What were the Medieval Trade or Pre-Columbian Trade Networks?
Odessa
Ukraine
Czech Republic
Prague
Revolutions of 1830
1830s
humanism
Renaissance intellectual movement; thinkers studied classical texts, focused on human potential and achievements
Alexander III
(1881-1894-Politically reactionary czar who promoted economic modernization of Russia
incipient
beginning to exist or appear
Metternich
Austrian foreign minister who basically controlled the Congress of Vienna. Wanted to promote peace, conservatism, and the repression of libaral nationalism throughout Europe.
Rafael
Who painted School of Athens?
Simony
traffic in ecclesiastical offices or preferments
Cosmopolitanism
Urban growth during the agricultural revolution. It dealt with the migration from rural to urban areas.
Dante
Florentine writer (The Divine Comedy, Inferno) who used the Italian vernacular for his writing.
Robert Owen
Scottish industrialist who pioneered industrial relations by combining firm discipline with a concern for health, safety, and work hours of workers
Land, peace, bread
Slogan of the Bolsheviks
Cabral
Portugal; Claimed present day Brazil for Portugal
pietism
revival of protestantism in germany; three aspects: enthusiam, priesthood of all believers, and power of christian rebirth in everyday affairs
Sir Thomas More
(1478-1535) Englishman, lawyer, politician, Chancellor for Henry VIII. Wrote Utopia which presented a revolutionary view of society, in which the problems of society were caused by greed. Executed by Henry VIII for not compromising his religious beliefs.
intendants
french royal officals who supervised provincial governments in name of king. big role in french absolutism
Concordat (1801)
Napoleon's arrangement with Pope Plus VII to heal religious division in France with a united Catholic church under bishops appointed by the government
Education during Renaissance
arete - excellence through individual
Parlements/Estates General
French parliaments were their law courts and the Estates General was another representative body.
Cervantes's most famous work is __________.
Don Quixote
Socialism
a theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
Nikita Khrushchev
ruled the USSR from 1958-1964; lessened government control of soviet citizens; seeked peaceful coexistence with the West instead of confrontation. Blamed for Cuban Missile Crisis.
asunder
in separate parts; apart from each other in position
Bougeoisie
Comfortable members of the 3rd estate. Basically middle class, wanted the privileges of the nobility and upper clergy.
Probate Inventories
Inventory of belongings of dead, basically a grouping of things on their will.
Dante Alighieri
Early Renaissance writer. Wrote The Divine Comedy in Italian. Bridge between medieval and modern styles. Both religious and secular.
New Economic Policy
1921. Lenin. Reestablished limited economic freedom in an attempt to rebuild agriculture and industry. Temporary. Grain tax.
wet-nurses
women hired to breast feed other womens babies, similar to putting out system
Anabaptists
reject trinity, do not believe in infant baptism
Commendum
Holding two offices at the same time
Mestizos
people of mixed European and Indian background
Admiral Tirpitz
Germany's decision to add a large, enormously expensive fleet of big-gun battleships to its already expanding navy also heightened tensions after 1907. German nationalists, led by the extremely persuasive Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, saw a large navy as the legitimate mark of a great world power and as a source of pride and patriotic unity. (894)
Modernization
An occurrence in Russia that lead to the increase of its stature in world power standings and revitalized the economy and industry
Botticelli
The artist shows the ideal for female beauty in the Renaissance in this work: slender, pale skin, a high forehead, red-blond hair, and sloping shoulders
Catholic Centre Party
Catholic political party in Germany that wanted Catholic power in a primarily Protestant state. Strongly opposed by Bismarck.
Rhineland remilitarization
when Germany moved into the Rhineland and beefed up the military, Britain and France still wanted appeasement and did nothing
war communism
the economic policy adopted by the bolvesheks in the Russian civil war to sieze banks, heavy industry, railroads, and grain
growth of middle class
before had been independent, self-employed, new breeed of managers and experts replaced traditional property owners, grew massively
Examples of rebellion
Portugal and Catalonia against Spain, English Revolution
hitler made his greatest mistake by invading the _____ in june 1941
soviet union
Arminians
Those who believed in the teachings of Joseph Arminius, who modified the doctrine of predesination.
Hyperinflation
When the German economy tried to print bills to pay off their debt, inflation rates of 40% a day
Fashoda Incident
Conflict in Africa between France and Britain.
henry cort
(1740-1800) in 1784 introduced a new puddling process that is a new method for melting and stirring molten ore. his process allowed the the removal of more slag and thus the production of purer iron. also developed a rolling mill that continuously shaped the still-molten metal into bars, rails, or other forms.
Raymond Poincare
French Prime Minister who moved and occupied into the Ruhr to collect war reparations
Cornelius Vermuyden
a Dutch engineer who directed large drainiage projects in Yorkshire and Cambridgeshire
Erich Ludendorff
This German, along with his partner Hindenburg, essentially ran Germany during the end of the war
Phillip of Burgandy
son of Maximilian and Mary, marries Joanna of Castile (daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella)
Louis XIV
King of France who ruled as an absolute monarch, even as a child.
Mary, Queen of Scots
Catholic relative to Protestant Queen Elizabeth I of England. She allegedly plotted with Spain's Philip II to overthrow Elizabeth and reassert Catholicism in England. Elizabeth had her beheaded.
Varieties of Socialism
There were the early French socialists who believed in economic planning and argued that the government should rationally organize the economy and not depend on destructive competition to do the job. There was also dialectic socialism in which the followers believed that eventually, the proletariat will battle against the bourgeois to create one single class
Ten Hours Act 1847
This was the proposition, which disallowed women and children to work for more than 10 hours, as more than 10 hours was harmful for health.
Victor Emmanuel III
King of Italy who gave Mussolini legitimacy as dictator
Father Gapon
He was a Russian Orthodox priest who organized the Assembly of Russian Factory and Plant Workers, an organization formed to defend worker's rights and elevate their moral and religious status. He was the one who presented the peaceful petition to the Tsar on Bloody Sunday - after which he called on radicals to violently overthrow Tsar Nicholas II.
Cosmo deMedici
One of the members of the banker family of Florence that ruled behind the scenes of the government
Fourht Coalition
The war in which Napoleon was finally defeated-it was comprised of Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Great Britain)
Thomas Newcomen/improved by James Watt
inventor(s) of the steam engine
working class
people who work for wages such as factory workers
Collective Behavior
The spontaneous behavior of a group of people responding to similar stimuli
Treaty of Versailles
Negotiated by the Big Three; Germany was stripped of colonies; Alsace and Lorraine given back to France. Poland was reconstituted as a state. Polish corridor would split Prussia from Germany. The Saar region would be French for 15 years. Heavy repercussions (not specified until later.)
Surplus Value
The true value of a product is labor, and because the worker only receives a small portion of his just labor price, the difference was stolen from him by the capitalist.
Midwives and Nurses
rich sent babies to wet nurse- high infant mortality
Catherine the Great
This was the empress of Russia who continued Peter's goal to Westernizing Russia, created a new law code, and greatly expanded Russia
who does phillip send to fight the dutch
duke of alli
Cahiers de doléances
The lists of grievances drawn up by each of the three Estates in France, between March and April 1789, the year in which the French Revolution began. Their compilation was ordered by King Louis XVI, to give each of the Estates the chance to express their hopes and grievances directly to the King.
"dictatorship of the proletariat"
(marxism) they want social equality so they end private property ending social classes which will end history
French Civil Wars
Went into many civil wars between 1562 and 1593, As many as 8 happened, Many historians view this as one great civil war
Anglican Book of Common Prayer
the book the Anglican Church prayed with
Treaty of Versailles terms
These terms said that Germany had to pay money, that Germany had to give up land, and that Germany had to keep its army size down
Upset at France because Napoleon the III sent letters to Bismarck asking for land in Bavaria
Bismarck's preparation with Southern German Countries for second stage of German Unification
Rosie the Riveter
one of the best known symbols of the US war effort in ww II. She symbolized how women could go into factories and support the men in war
Court of the Star Chamber
Created by Henry VII who sent lords there when they refused to give up thier private armies (Livery and Maintinance). This asserted overall authority over the lords.
What was Germany's biggest economic problem during WWI?
Supplying their people with food. An estimated 750,000 Germans died of hunger during WWI
Great Depression - Causes, efforts to deal with
The immediate cause was the American using margin buying to buy shares of stock that they could not pay back, and forced a mass selloff of shares, which collapsed the stock market and the economy. The efforts to deal was the New Deal in America, and different stances of social programs and socialism in Europe.
1. ballots not bullets, most men can vote, can peaceably create reform
2. tangible benefits from govt., social security, pension
3. Patriotic Education, nationalism used by govt. in education
4. Working class not homogenous, Marx's predictions false, work
Why did the Socialist parties of Europe, which grew greatly in size, become revisionist?
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