AP Euro 32 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Spain
Madrid
Elizabeth I
...
1513-book
Machiavelles the prince
John Knox
overthrew Mary Stuart
Catherine parr
outlived henry VIII
which parliment executed the king
rump
Pascal (1623-1662)
Math/Physical scientist
Wanted to refute Jesuit dogmatism/skepticism
called jesuit castiuary a distortion of bible.
Jansenist suporter
Reason should lead people to faith/God, of whom they are unworthy
Worked to combat false optimisim in new science
Bruni
1370-1444
Chancellor of the Republic of Florence; first modern history
Reichstag
The parliamentary body for Germany
Armistice
Great Britain, France, and Russia directed Turkey to accept an...
self determination
_____________ of eastern european nations = right to become their own countries
One of the theoretical underpinnings of Louis XIV's absolutism was the concept of "divine right of kings," articulated most clearly by political theorist Bishop Jacques-Bénigne __________ .
Bossuet
Collectivization
Putting smaller farms together into one large farm so as to increase productivity
Inductive Reasoning
Baconian empiricism. Based on speculations on other situations.
Patrons
a person who supports artists, especially financially
Laissez-faire capitalism
Minimal governmental interference in the economic affairs. Adam Smith and Francois Quesnay.
Triple Alliance
Alliance between Germany, Italy, Austria Hungry
Edmund Burke
1729-1797) Member of British Parliament and author of Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790), which criticized the underlying principles of the French Revolution and argued conservative thought.
July Ordinances
edicts that Charles X issued; demolished the Charter, censored the press, reduced the electorate
ghettos
distinct district of cities where the Jews under the Old Regime lived apart from non-Jewish Europeans
Baroque
Art movement started by the Catholic period to inspire belief and amazement
Ernest Rutherford
British physicist (born in New Zealand) who discovered the atomic nucleus and proposed a nuclear model of the atom (1871-1937)
John Calvin's reform movement
converted to Protestantism
-establish a christian society ruled by God through civil magistrates and reformed ministers
-institutes of christian religion on abs sovereignty and omnipotence of God and the total weakness of humanity
-predestination
-Geneva-model, perfect school of Christ
Socialism
advocated for a utopian society and various champions of which were: Henri de Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, Robert Owen
brezhnev
Soviet Dictator from 1964 to 1982; brought an end to the Dethawing of the Cold War, instituted his doctrine of intervention in Eastern Europe; invaded Afghanistan in 1979
Catholic Reformation
1517- sought renewal through the stimulation of a new spirtual fervor.
Witch
a being (usually female) imagined to have special powers derived from the devil
Amerigo Vespucci
Florentine navigator who explored the coast of South America
Lollards
People who were unhappy with the church, led by John Wyclif
Fronde
1648-53. Brutal civil wars that struck France during the reign of Louis XIII.
Neville Chamberlain
1938; gullible British Prime Minister; declared that Britain and France would fight if Hitler attacked Poland.
Tycho Brahe
studied star positions every night .Book of starcharts., Influenced by Copernicus; Built observatory and collected data on the locations of stars and planets for over 20 years; His limited knowledge of mathematics prevented him from making much sense out of the data.
Christian Humanists
Critics of the Northern Renaissance that questioned the validity of the "Latin Vulgate" or Catholic Bible. (Renaissance Humanism)
Sans-culottes
The working people of Paris who were characterized by their long working pants and support for radical politics.
Klemens von Metternich
This was Austria's foreign minister who wanted a balance of power in an international equilibrium of political and military forces that would discourage aggression
Electric Streetcar
This invention in the 1890s was instrumental in public transportation in Europe. They became immensely popular.
James Watt
1769 invented the steam engine that did not waste energy like those of thomas squared, used a vacuum and a complex engine
German social legislation
Bismarck placed high tariffs on imported goods, and tried to stop socialism with government measures that banned the socialist party
Auburn System
A prison model established in Auburn Prison in New York which separated prisoners from each other during nighttime, but allowed them to associate while working during the day
Henri Bergson
A French philosophy professor who said that personal experiences and intuition were more important than rational thought and thinking
Giotto
The son of a farmer, this Florentine painter and sculptor was one of the earliest Renaissance artists. His subjects were religious, but he made them life-life, unlike medieval art. He was well-known and honored during his lifetime, and there were many stories about his skill as an artist(1267-1337).
Rationalism
The application and use of reason in understanding and explaining events
Four Freedoms
Declared by President FDR; 1. Freedom of speech and expression; 2. Freedom of every person to worship in his own way; 3. Freedom from want; 4. Freedom from fear
Pale of Settlement
Jewish area of Russian occupied Poland
Seven years war
Worldwide struggle between France and Great Britain for power and control of land
Louis Pasteur
Created the Germ Theory and studies fermentation. He realized that if you heat up a liquid you kill the bacteria inside of it. Thus- pastuerization
representative government
system of government in which public policies are made by officials selected by voters and held accountable in periodic elections
The Prince
Most of the lasting book of renaissance, and it was poetical satire, but he was trying to suck up to medici
Teresa of Avila
Spanish mystic who formed the Carmelites who dedicated their lives to a life of contemplation and service
June Days
3 days when the working class was fighting against the gov & peasants because the gov had stopped national workshops and forced workers to join the army or go to workshops in other provinces. The government won.
Significance: The revolution was a fail and it was the end of the Second French Republic. It was also a sign of hatred between class and in the country. It contributes to the fall of France in the 1940's.
Peace of Westphalia
(1648) The treaty ending the Thirty Years' War in Germany; it allowed each prince-whether Lutheran, Catholic, or Calvinist-to choose the established creed of his territory.
Babylonian Captivity
The period when all popes were French and resided in Avignon, France, starting with Clement V. This angered Italians and led to the Great Schism.
Eli Whitney
This man invented the cotton gin which allowed for the faster picking of cotton in the Americas
Reign of Terror
the period, from mid-1793 to mid-1794, when robespierre ruled france nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed
Georges Haussmann
This was the man who planned the reconstruction of Paris
This work by Charles Darwin applies his theory of evolution to human development. Which of the following is that work?
Descent of Man
Congress of Vienna
This was the meeting between the Quadruple Alliance in order to formulate a peace agreement and to balance the victories of the Napoleonic wars
England, Royal Council
established by Henrey VII, only royal people were in it.
Fulgencio Batista
He was a pro-American dictator of Cuba before Castro. His overthrow led to Castro and communists taking over Cuba, who was now friendly to the Soviets.
Act of Supremacy (1534)
English Parliament declares Henry VIII is head of English Church, not pope
Georg Hegel
This man believed that each age is characterized by a dominant set of ideas, which produces opposing ideas and a new synthesis
"Separation of powers"
This was the theory developed by Montesquieu that political power should not be divided and share by a variety of classes and legal estates holding unequal rights and privileges
The Great Famine
The result of four years of crop failure in Ireland, a country that had grown dependent of potatoes as a dietary staple. (p.777)
Hall of Mirrors
most known room in Versailles, full of mirrors
The Dawes plan
an attempt following World War I for the Allies to collect war reparations debt from Germany. The Dawes Plan provided short term economic benefits to the German economy. It softened the burdens of war reparations, stabilized the currency, and brought increased foreign investments and loans to the German market.
Clement V
moved the Papacy to France when he was elected as pope. He was close to Phillip IV of France and had no desire to be like Pope Boniface VIII.
Battle of Poltava
Peters wins and gains access to the Baltic Sea. "Window to the West." Joins Western Europe
Martin Luther
This was the most famous and one of the first concrete reformer who began to reject some of the more obscure and selfish laws of the Catholic Church
quality of life
People had hope for the future as health improved and life expectancy increased.
catherine de' medici
the wife of henry II and mother of charles IX and henry III
Berlin conference
held in 1884 and 1885 in order to lay down some basic rules for imperialist competition in sub-Saharan Africa, it established the principle that European claims to African territory had to rest on "effective occupation" in order to be recognized by other states.
Five Great Farms
This area of France was set up by Jean-Baptiste Colbert without tariffs in order to enhance trade.
Imperial Free Cities
a city that was a small republic that only owed allegiance to the distant emperor
Reasons for and against German unity
Upper class and Conservatives did not want unification because they would have less power, but the rest of the people wanted it because of nationalism and German identity
Mussolini's Rise - role of Black Shirts
These were Mussolini's bullies who pushed socialist out of Northern Italy
Two Treatises on Government (John Locke)
This was the document that stated that if a ruler steps over its proper function to protect the natural rights of life, liberty, and property, than that ruler was a tyrant and must be overthrown
The selling of indulgences as a fund raising device
This is why Luther criticized the RCC
Fuggers
bankers
Assignats
government bonds
Hohenzollern
Prussian Family Dynasty
Francesco Petrarch
father of humanism
Carl Jung
collective unconsciousness, spiritual SOCIAL SCIENTIST
Vingtieme
Translates to "twentienth"; a theoretical income tax paid by the nobility, but rarely actually paid.
Christopher Wyvil
led Yorkshire Association Movement
junkers
prussia landowning nobility. support monarchy and served in army in exchange for absolute power over serfs
Astrolabe
An instrument developed by Muslim navigators in the twelfth century and used to determine the altitude of the sun and other celestial bodies, permitted mariners to plot their latitude, or position north or south of the equator.
European Union
an international organization of European countries whose ancestors were formed after World War II, reducing trade barriers and increasing cooperation among its members
Textile Industry
REvolutionized by new innovations, produced cheap cotton goods, utilized child labor (underwear!!!!!!!!)
Tanzimat
1839-1876: Period of reforms that occurs in the Ottoman Empire. Called for equality for Muslims, Christians, and Jews before the law. Removed tariffs on imported goods. Elite and middle class begin embrassing Western education and accept secular values to an extent.
Munich Conference
An agreement/conference that gave Germany the Sudetenland
Intendants
Royal commisioners who delivered royal orders to cities, were often appointed to the robe nobility by the monarch. Their three main tasks were to undermine the local nobility, inform the central government about settlements, and enforce royal orders.
Karl Marx
German journalist and philosopher, founder of the Marxist branch of socialism. He is known for two books: The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (Vols. I-III, 1867-1894). (p. 709)
Encyclopedie
Collection of works compiled during the Enlightenment- explained many aspects of todays society
Adam Smith
Scottish professor of philosophy. Developed the idea of free enterprise, critical of mercantilism. Wrote Wealth of Nations.
Impositions
Impositions were customs duties in England that placed a tax on commodities that were imported. However, unlike the milliones, they were only placed on luxury commodities.
My Secret Life
The anonymous eleven volume autobiography of an English sexual adventurer from the servant keeping classes
Puritans
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
Legitimacy
The principle that rulers who have been driven from their thrones should be restored to power. For example, the Congress of Vienna restored the Bourbons to power in France
"Concert of Europe"
(Aka. "Congress System") Established at the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815,) European powers agreed to have future Congresses to enforce treaty and address issues as they arise. Ended with the Congress of Verona (1822,) ultimately failed to progress toward international order since the Congress stood for nothing but the status quo.
Fascist Italy
Depression in 1919 caused nationwide strikes and class tension. Wealthy classes fearful of communist revolution
Philadelphia System
the prison reform system where prisoners were kept separated at all times
Usury
The practice of lending money for interest.
Poltava
site of battle in which Peter's revamped army defeats Charles' army in 1709
Emile
This work advocated breast feeding and natural dress and that boys' education should have plenty of fresh air and exercise and he said a women's nature was a life of marriage and child rearing
Machiavelli
Prince: outlines a vision of power that rests on realistic understanding of political enviroment. Humanism
Reflections on Violence
Georges Sorel's Reflections on Violence (1908) remains a controversial text to this day. It unashamedly advocates the use of violence as a means of putting an end to the corrupt politics of bourgeois democracy and of bringing down capitalism.
Pius IX
Pope who denounced unification and published the Syllabus of Errors
Hitler-Stalin Pact-
Nonaggression pact between Germany and the U.S.S.R. which shocked the world in 1939
Although he hated the Soviets, Hitler did this in order to preclude any alliance between the West and the Soviet Union (which would create the danger of a two-front war),
Although he hated the Nazis, Stalin did this in order to stall for time (y'know, since he just purged his military leaders)
John Maynard Keynes
(1883-1946) A prominent British economist. He advocated active government intervention in the economy in his "General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money." He believed the market would not always operate automatically and urged government spending to expand overall demand during an economic downturn. Keynes was not a socialist but believed that the Great Depression demonstrated the economic crises could be so severe that private investment would simply not take place and thus could not generate new economic activity that would revive and employment and lift the economy out of depression. Keynes's book did not influence many policies during the Great Depression, but after WWII, many western governments devised economic policies along the lines which he advocated.
Politiques
moderates in France (Cath & Protest); wanted strong monarchy, Henry of Navarre
Louis Phillipe
Rules after Charles X. Accepts the Constitutional Charter of 1814. The voting doesn't change for the middle class though and the wealthy are still in control.
Significance: Because he didn't change much, the middle class was still unsatisfied which led to more revolts in 1848.
John Wycliffe
He went directly against what the church was doing by blaming it for being wealthy and too powerful, and attacked the political base of the church. He said that the god gave rights to individuals to exercise them but they lost their right if they were sinful. He also stated that Christ was in the Eucharist by spirit only, and that indulgences didn't help you forgive your sins. He was only allowed to live because the English liked him and allowed him to preach. His teachings were strongly believed in bohemia, were they were taking place as revolts started to take place. Also was a oxford theologian.
Natural Law
Universal law that could be understood by applying reason; letting people govern themselves.
boer war
fought between the British and the Boers over who was going to get South Africa. It was fought from 1899-1902, British eventually won and deciding to combine old Cape Colony and the Boer republics. To please the Boers the decided that Africans wouldn't be able to vote since Boers disliked all Africans
Quadruple Alliance
This was the alliance between Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia after the Napoleonic era
Tudors
English rulers who ruled after the war of the Roses
antwerp
a port in northern Belgium on the Scheldt river, commercial and financial capital of Europen world
Defenestration of Prague
The throwing of Catholic officials from a castle window in Bohemia. Started the Thirty Years' War.
Battle of Lepanto
naval victory over the ottoman empire
Principia
Newton's book in which he spells out the mathematical proofs demonstrating his universal law of gravitation.
1.railroads for troop mobilization
2. pontoon bridges
3. breach-loading rifles
Keys to Prussian Victory
Charles de Gaulle
French general and statesman who became very popular during World War II as the leader of the Free French forces in exile (1890-1970)
Simony
Buying or selling a church office, was a crime that was not stopped
Catholic League
formed by the Guise; dominated the eastern half othe country for several years; 1584, allied with Spain's Philip II to attack hersey in France and deny the Bourbon Henry's legal right to inherit the throne
Isaac Newton
English scientist. 3 Laws of motion. Mathematics Principal of Natural Philosophy (1687).
Mary Wollstonecraft
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
Northwest and Northeast Passage
After the Treaty of Tordesillas(below) and Magellan's pioneering of Southwest passage, north European powers (English, French and Dutch) became more concerned with trying to find a NW or NE passage to the orient. Explorers such as Cabot (for England), Cartier (for France) and Hudson (for the Dutch) sought a NW passage. English explorers reached as far as Archangel while searching for a NE passage. None was successful but all helped establish claims and later trading routes were established.
Khedive
This was the equivalent of a king in Egypt
Louie Napoleon Bonaparte
(1808-1873) Nephew of Napoleon I. He came to power as president of the Second French Republic in 1848.
Christine de Pisan
Female who received a fine humanist education
Wrote "The City of Ladies" which countered the idea that women were incapable of making moral choices
"European Family Pattern"
dates back to 17th century. Europeans married later and a large number never married. young people wanted to learn skill and save money. contraception practiced by upper classes in early 18th centry. during French Revolution practice seemed to spread to other countries.
who was victorious over battle of glencoe
england over scotland
Cardinal Richelieu
He tried to control the Hapsburgs to prevent Germany from gaining to much power. This would give France an opportunity to rise up instead.
depositories
n. A place where anything is kept in safety.
Dawes Plan
The American plan to loan money to Germany, who would pay their reparations to France and Britain, who would pay back their debt to America, which created a win-win for everyone, and made they people happy and thought that peace was possible
limited hunting and game to land owners
british game law
Otto von Bismarck
Chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire
Catherine de Medici
Looked to protestants for help issued the January Edict, Protestants have freedom to worship outside of towns.
Abbe Sieyes (1748-1836)
lower clergyman who wrote a pamphlet about the 3rd Estate: What is the Third Estate? Everything. What has it been in the political order up to the present? Nothing. What does it ask? To become something.
Pope Alexander VI
This was the pope that granted power to Ferdinand and Isabella to appoint bishops to the Spanish territories and also settled the argument between Spain and Portugal over South America
Committee of Public Safety
the more moderate party in the Legislative Assembly, representing more provincial areas outside of Paris; they wanted to spare the king's life and maintain the possibility of a constitutional monarchy
Kellogg-Briand Pact
Was a pact that said that just said was bad, but did not outline any method for preventing war.
Renaissance Art
An art of line and edges, figures from the bible,classical history, and mythology, commisioned portraits, use of perspective, chiarascuro (light and dark) to achieve rounded effect, secular backgrounds and material splendor. Values: secularism, individualism, virtu, balance, order, passivity and calm.
Examples of authors of the Realistic Novel
Gustave Flaubert (Madame Bovary)
William Thackery
Charles Dickens (The Old Curiosity Shop)
Partitions of Poland
the weak monarchy of this country made it easy for Catherine and Frederick the Great to, in 1764, turn Poland into a weak dependent; appealed to Russia as well; in 1772 the 3 powers divided this country among them
Saddam Hussein
- Was a dictator in Iraq who tried to take over Iran and Kuwait violently in order to gain the land and the resources. He also refused to let the UN into Iraq in order to check if the country was secretly holding weapons of mass destruction.
Power of the Purse
the ability of one group to manipulate and control the actions of another group by withholding funding
War of Spanish Succession
This was the war between France and Spain in order to unite the two states under one ruler, Phillip V
Irish Home Rule
A desire of some people in Ireland to not be ruled by England
80 Years' war
It began as a revolt of the 17 Dutch Providences against Philip II of Spain. William of Orange helped win the war, also called the Dutch War of Independence
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
This was the work that started the tabula rasa theory where the human mind is blank until it is filled with experiences that allow a person to think differently
Liberty Leading the People (Delacroix)
This work of art shows the glory of the French Revolution
What was the government like in the city of Geneva?
Theocracy: Calvin was the presider and there were 12 laymen plus the Company of Pastors.
Enclosure
...
Utopian socialism
...
Donatello
1386-1466 Florence Sculptor
infernal
extremely evil or cruel
Egalitarian
asserting, resulting from, or characterized by belief in the equality of all people, esp. in political, economic, or social life.
Sigmund Freud
devleoped pychoanalysis-the the therapist attempted to see what was going on with the patient, wrote iterpretation of dreams.
Prussia
The Hohenzollern's eastern European state.
1848 Austrian revolution
Liberal revolt, defeated
college
combined work of English Grammar school with what corresponded to first year or two of university work at Oxford or Cambridge. Of 167 existing by time of Fr. Rev. in 1789, 92 established in France betw. 1560 & 1650.
bourgeoisie
French term for the middle class.
collectivization*
combining small farms into large, factory-like farms run by the government. (resulted in millions of deaths of Soviet farmers or kulaks)
Einstein
physicist born in Germany who formulated the special theory of relativity and the general theory of relativity
Guillotine
Fast and relatively humane-used for mass executions.
Lamarck
French naturalist who proposed that evolution resulted from the inheritance of acquired characteristics (1744-1829)
Ulrich Zwingli
(1484-1531) Swiss reformer, influenced by Christian humanism. He looked to the state to supervise the church. Banned music and relics from services. Killed in a civil war.
guilds
Who maintained order in different trades in towns
James Hargreaves
About 1705 invented spinning jenny
Conciliar Movement
The conciliarists believed that church authority rested in the council's representing the people, not the authority of the pope.
indigenous
native, characteristic of a region or country
Atauhualpa
Emperor of the Incas, captured and killed by Pizarro.
pietism
belief in a direct relationship with God
Zollverein
German tariff that was established to encourage capital investment in German industry
Thomas Edison
Invented the lightbulb, which opened homes and cities to illumination by electric lights.
Agricultural Revolution
the application of new agricultural techniques; created a large increase in production (esp. during the 18th century)
Ptolemy
An ancient Greek astronomer, living in Egypt, who proposed a way of calculating the movements of the planets on the assumption that they, along with the sun and the stars, were embedded in clear spheres that revolved around the Earth. His beliefs prevailed for nearly fifteen hundred years, until the modern model of the solar system, with the sun at the center, was developed from the ideas of Copernicus.
Boyle
This was the physicist who said nothing can be known beyond all doubt
Expressionism
supposed to express feelings that a scene arouses
Peterloo Massacre
An organized rebellion against the Corn Laws that was broken up violently by the English cavalry. The Peterloo Massacre is important because it shows how governments were willing to violently suppress internal opposition.
Allied Powers
France, Britain, USSR, United States, and China as well as 45 other countries that opposed the Axis powers in World War II
Bacon
This scientist spread the word about the experimental method and formalized the empirical method and combined his thinking with Descartes to form the scientific method
predestination
the notion that God foreknows and forejudges each individual prior to birth
Leonardo Bruni (1370-1444)
Wrote "On Learning and Literature." Civic humanist.
Fyodor Dostoyevsky (690)
Russian author Crime and Punishment, ex of realism
sir francis bacon
inductive thinking leads to scientific method. books: adv. of learning, novum organum, new atlantis. knowledge comes from environment and experience (nurture)
Georges Sorel
A French socialist who thought there socialism would come from a general strike of all workers that would cripple the capitalist system. Thought that socialism was an improbable religion rather than accepted truth. Thought that the new socialist governments would not be democratic, rather controlled by a small revolutionary elite. He did not like democracy.
Jethro Tull
English inventor advocated the use of horses instead of oxen. Developed the seed drill and selective breeding.
Physiocrats
This was the group of economists who believed that the wealth of a nation was derived solely from the value of its land
Cartesian Dualism
Separation of mind and matter, allowed something to be investigated independently by reason
The Social Contract
Rousseau, suggestions in reforming the political system and modeled after the Greek polis. [Scientific Revolution]
Domestic Service
A critical source of hoousehold labor, (MAID, BUTLER)
Desiderius Erasmus
Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe, Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe although his criticisms of the Church led to the Reformation, he opposed violence and condemned Martin Luther. he wrote The Praise of Folly, worked for Frobein and translated the New Testament from Greek to Latin(1466-1536)
Enabling Act
Chancellor (at the time) Adolf Hitler legally obtained plenary powers and that is through which he established his dictatorship. He basically planned the burning of the Reichstag to stage his big political event in which he eventually obtained all his powers.
Green Party
founded in Western Germany by the young activists called the "Greens," this political party fought for environmental causes. Some local and national representatives were elected and similar parties developed elsewhere. THEY ARE SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE THEIR FOUNDING LED TO THE FOUNDING OF SIMILAR PARTIES IN EUROPE AS ENVIRONMENTALISM BECAME A LEADING SOCIAL CONCERN.
Kaiser Wilhelm II
Germany. Dismissed Bismarck in 1890. Did not renew Bismarck's treaty with Russia and "Forced" Russia to look for another ally, France.
Domestic system
The manufacture of goods in the household setting, a productdon system that gave way to the factory system
Lusitania
Sunk in 1915 by a German submarine. 139 American killed. Forced Germany to stop submarine warfare.
I was Napoleon's 2nd wife and mother of his son
Marie Louise
Warren Hastings
This man was the first governor of British Bengal
catherine the great
tried to be enlightened despot but failed. W.O.W. on black sea.
Council of Constance
ended schism between the Avignon and Roman papal courts; removed authority from all three popes, elected Pope Martin V; 1417
Chamber of Deputies
..., Italian body to which Mussolini was elected
English Royal Council
The Royal council handled any king business, executive, legislative, and judicial business. It conducted negotaions with foreign government. and it was the center of royal authority. It also secured the internatial recognition of the marriage of Arthur, VII's eldest son to catherine of Aragon daughter of Ferdinand. It revealed the distrust of the nobility.
German peasant revolts (1525)
widespread uprising of German country people protesting economic and social injustices, and justifying the revolt with (a misinterpretation of) Luther's doctrine. (p. 463)
Sir Thomas More
Wrote Utopia, what a perfect society would be like.
Louis Blanc
This man urged people to agitate for universal voting rights and to take control of the state peacefully
Mikhail Gorbachev
becomes head of Soviet Union in 1985; was key in the collapse of Communism and the Soviet Union; two basic policies were glasnost and perestroika
Goldhagen Thesis v. Browning
Hitler gave orders vs. bureaucracy gave orders
Louis XIV of France
Th sun king; build versailles(aww factor) complete distrust of nobility b/c of fronde
Ecclesiastical reservation
part of the Peace of Augsburg, saying that if the leader of an HRE territory should change religion, they must move to a territory supporting them, rather than changing their territory
Ecclesiastical reservation
limit of choosing religion
National Workshops
This was the group that gave work to the unemployed
tabula rasa
John Locke's concept of the mind as a blank sheet ultimately bombarded by sense impressions that, aided by human reasoning, formulate ideas.
world war 1 ending
Treaty of Versailles ended it. However they said the military in Germany had to be reduced, Germany was the cause of the war.Germany was in really bad debt, they needed a leader and along came Hitler. He became chancelor of Germany after the previous chancelor's house "mysteriously" was burned down.
Edict of Fontainebleau 1685
Revoked Edict of Nantes and provided for the destruction of Huguenot churches and the closing of Protestant schools.
Vasco de Gama
A Portugese sailor who was the first European to sail around southern Africa to the Indian Ocean (1498)
Civic Humanism
the use of classics for the good of the public and society
North German Confederation Constitution
This stated that local government had some power, but that ultimate power rested in the hands of Bismarck and William
German Peasants Revolt
What event led to the fall from grace for Martin Luther?
Seditious Meetings Act
This act made it illegal to meet with a group of more than fifty people
liquid asset
an asset in the form of money, or one that can be converted quickly into money
Meiji Restoration of 1867
This was a replacement of the Japanese government with the emperor, done so by samurai
War vs. the league of Schmalkaldic
(aliance of what would be protestant leaders in german states) fought the supporters of the catholic church led by HRE Charles V
What was Institutes of the Christian Religion about?
Institutes of the Christian Religion was Calvin's book. It stressed the universalism of religion, was written in Latin..also stressed basic theological themes.
Sisters and Brothers of the Common Life
lived communally, took no vows, worked at relieving the poor of their suffering and teaching, organized schools with separate classes based on age
What did John Locke state in the Second Treatise of Civil government?
People set up civil governments to protect life, liberty, and property. Governments that overstep their power become a tyranny and the people have a right to rebel against tyranny
Duma
Popular parliament.
Paul Cézanne
6
Michelangelo
(1475-1564)
sculptor of David
Sistine Chapel
hume
wrote of miracles (rejecting miracles)
"Rush to War"- July 1914
v
Warsaw Pact
organization of communist states
Voltaire
French philosopher and writer whose works epitomize the Age of Enlightenment, often attacking injustice and intolerance.
Commonwealth
a republic government proclaimed after the death of Charles, thus ending the Kingship
League of Nations
An inter-governmental organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles. At its highest point it had 58 members, although the United States was not one of them. Some of its goals were disarmament, preventing war through collective security, settling disputes between countries through negotiation, diplomacy and improving global quality of life. It was the brainchild of US president Woodrow Wilson. It proved ineffective at preventing WWII, and was replaced by the United Nations at the end of that war.
Engels, Frederich
Young, middle-class German who coauthored the Communist Manifesto with Marx and shared many of his ideals such as class conflict.
German colonies
Togo, Cameroons, Southwest Africa, East Africa
The Romantic Movement
Emotional exuberance, unrestrained imagination, spontaneity, rejection of materialism, yearning, and love of nature, and rejection of modern industry
proletariat
new industrial labor force. Marx equated the fate of the proletariat to the fate of humanity itself. Therefore, liberation of proletariat = liberation of humanity
Continental System
(1806-12)French economic plan to cripple Britain. Russia's refusal to conform led to the Russian campaign.
second front
The Russians were suffering heavy casualties fighting the German invasion of Russia. Stalin urged the Allies to open a "__________" in the west to relieve the pressure on the Russians. The Allies did so, but only after a long delay.
Anton Denikin
Lieutenant General of the Imperial Russian Army and foremost general for the White Russians in the Russian civil war.
What were the causes, events, and results of the Thirty Years' War?
#8
Francisco Franco
Fascist leader of the Spanish revolution, helped by Hitler and Mussolini
Mongols
a large collection of nomadic tribes that lived north of china in the "steppes" who were later united by Genghis Khan
colonialism
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
Ptolemy's System
Last great ancient astronomer; there was a place for God. Complicated rules used to expalin minor irregulatiries in the movement of the planets.
Jacques-Louis David
My personal favorite painter and bridge between neoclassicist (#88) and romantic schools, David (1748 - 1824) was first the artistic chronicler of the Revolution (with paintings such as Death of Marat and Marie Antoinette on her Way to the Guillotine), then a neoclassicist icon (Leonidas at Thermopylae, Belisarius, Oath of the Horatii, The Intervention of the Sabine Women), and finally the Romantic court painter for Napoleon (Napoleon Crossing the Alps, Coronation of Napoleon, Napoleon in his Study). His paintings are probably the easiest to recognize among the whole pantheon of art in the post-Renaissance era.
education
The most successful reform in India imposed by the British. Helped Indians gain advantages.
stalemate
when there was no movement/gain of land during trench warfare. both sides would gain some land, but lose it again because of poor conditions & different technologies which were introduced during those times
Eugene Delacroix
French romantic painter, master of dramatic colorful scenes that stirred the emotions. Greatest romantic painters. Fascinated with remote and exotic subjects. Masterpiece: Liberty Leading the People
renaissance person
castogliones the book of the courtier
leonardo da vinci
michelandglo
El Alamein
Combined German and Italian forces were beaten near Alexandria, which lead to the Allied taking of Morocco and Algeria
structured
the old regime was very _______ with everybody in particular groups like the church nobles and third estate (everybody else) and each get rights based on those groups
English Civil War
tested whether sovereignty in England was to reside in the king or in Parliament
Idealistic patriot devoted to the principle of united and republican Italy in a world of free states.
Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872)
Navigation Acts
1651, Oliver Cromwell passed this that required all English goods to be transported on English ships. It boosted the development of the English merchant marine.
Adolphe Thiers
Leader of the National Assembly in France, he ordered the Paris Commune to be crushed. He also declared the Third Republic of France, because it "divided France the least"
Shakespeare
This man wrote several plays and poems and is regarded as one of the best writers of all time
Bernard De Fontelle W
Published "Conversation of the PLurality of Words"
Sergei Kirov
A Political opponent of Stalin's who was executed for being more popular that Stalin
Matthew C. Perry
U.S. captain who started lobbing cannon balls into tokyo harbor, demands negotiation, then Japanese agree to open two ports, with more to come. Japanese humiliated.
infer
to derive a conclusion from facts or premises
Absolutism
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
Friedrich Engels
Condition of Working Class in England- society's problems caused by capitalism and competition. Colleague of Karl Marx.
yalta
Meeting site of the Big Three at which the idea of the United Nations was proposed
liberty and equality
the two ideas that fuelled the revolutionary period in both America and Europe. (p. 691)
Council of Trent
an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trent in three sessions between 1545 and 1563 in response to the Reformation
the Schlieffen Plan
The plan that Germany would attack France quickly and then move towards Russia
goa
Island off the coast of India that was the base of Portuguese trade
Battle of Austerlitz
This massive victory by the French caused Russia and the Austrians to suspend their support against France
Battle of the Somme
Failed allied offensive that resulted in a lot of loss of life
1. bypasses Reichstag and simply declares the taxes for a stronger army
2. Passes all of William I reforms.
Military Reforms of Bismarck
Nicholas II
Last Tsar of Russia, he involved the Russians in WWI
Petition of Rights: 1628
Kind couldn't demand loan w/out consent of Parliament, outlawed martial law against civilians, prohibited king to imprison someone w/out due cause, gov't couldn't house sailors or soldiers in private homes w/out owner's consent
Micheal Servetus
This man was a Spanish theologian and physician who was called a heretic by both Catholics and Protestants, and was ultimately executed by Genevan Calvanists. His unorthodox religious views were confusing and disliked by Catholics and Protestants. He said that God's Word is eternal, while the Holy Spirit is current motion, and Jesus was the meeting of Word, Spirit, and the human world.
Maria Theresa (1740-1780)
Was one of most capable Habsburg rulers. Rallied Hungarian Army and fought Prussia during the War of Austrian Succession (Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle) and Seven Years’ War (Peaces of Hubertusburg and Paris).
Who were the Popolo?
a new force htat was disenfranchised and heavily, taxed, resented exculsion from power, took over using violence
Psycho-social impact of WWI
Social Impact was impact on social class structures and breakdown of aristocracy and other inter class structures. After the war more people did not have servants. The Psycho impact was that people viewed humanity as both savage and pointless, because they just fought a pointless war
Ostrogoth, Visigoth, Huns
- Ostrogoths lived a long the middle and upper Danube
- were being pushed hard by their western cousins; Visigoths
- Visigoths were driven from home in Urkaine by the Huns
- Huns are nomadic people from central Asia
Scramble for Africa
This was an event where Europe tried to claim Africa as quickly as it could
Decembrist Revolt 1825
When Alexander I died in 1825, the Decembrist Revolt agitated for the accession of Constantine, rather than his brother, Nicholas.
Battle of Sevastopol
The Siege of Sevastopol took place on the Eastern Front of the Second World War. The campaign was fought by the Axis powers; Germany, Romania and Italy against the Soviet Union for the control of Sevastopol, a port in the Crimea on the Black Sea. On 22 June 1941 the Axis invaded the Soviet Union under Operation Barbarossa. The Axis land forces reached the Crimea in the autumn, 1941, and overran the area. The only objective not in Axis hands was Sevastopol. Several attempts were made to secure the city in October and November 1941. A major attack was planned for late November. Under the command of Erich von Manstein, the Axis forces were unable to capture Sevastopol. The Soviets launched an amphibious landing on the Crimean peninsual at Kerch in December 1941, to relieve the siege and force the Axis to divert forces to defend their gains. The operation saved Sevastopol for the time being, but the landing was checked and repulsed in May 1942.
Whigs and Tories
These were the two parties in the Parliament. The Whigs were mostly liberal and wanted change while the Tories wanted to keep the government as it was
Frederick William (The Great Elector)
This was the man who starting absolutism in Prussia by uniting the three provinces of Prussia under one ruler.
Collapse of the Congress System
Represented the old status quo, unable to accommodate to new realities/ It propped up corrupt governments unable to stand alone and fought change/ Members supported their own interests rather than the ideal of cooperation
Virginia Woolf-"A Room of One's Own"
Disagreed that women should be inferior to men. Believed that women would have to isolate themselves from men in order for their abilities to be appreciated.
Discourses on the Origins of Inequalities
Rousseau, discuss the innocence of man and his corruption by society. [Scientific Revolution]
What were the three interrelated ideas that were central for Vladimir Lenin
1] Lenin stressed that capitalism could only be destroyed by violent revolution2] under certain conditions a socialist revolution was possible in a backwards country-because peasants were poor and potential revolutionaries3] emphasized the necesitty of a highly disciplined worker's party which was strictly controlled by a dedicated elite of intellectuals and full time revolutioanries who saw the long term goals
The 4 Families of Central Europe and what they held
The Hasburgs held Tyrol, Carinthia, Carniola, Styria, and Austria; the Luxembourgs held Bohemia, Brandenburg, Brabant, Silesia, Luxembourg, and Moravia; the Wittelsbachs held Bavaria; the Anjous held Anjou, Provence, and the Kingdom of Naples.
The Soviet Union's 1st Five Year Plan was designed to
turn the USSR into an industrial power and collectivize the nation's agriculture
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