AP Euro 52 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
European Unity
study of knowledge
Louis XIV
Created centralized monarchy.
Prince Klemens von Metternich
mothers increasingly breastfed their own children as opposed to having wet nurses do it
is a radical, authoritarian nationalist ideology that aims to create a single-party state with a government led by a dictator who seeks national unity and development by requiring individuals to subordinate self-interest to the collective interest of the nation or race.
Albert Einstein
German-Jewish physicist that undermined Newtonian physics and developed theory of relativity
Louis XIV (1661-1715)
Famous absolutist- “L’etat, c’est moi." Made war an activity of the state, constantly either at war or preparing for war. Was involved expansion into the Netherlands and the HRE, in the Dutch War and the War of the League of Augsburg, and the War of Spanish Succession. Built the city and palace at Versailles. Employed Colbert as a economist. He revoked the Edict of Nantes in 1685 and administered a system of conversion of French Protestants.
The intellectual revolution of the eighteenth century in which the philosophes stressed reason, natural law, and progress in their criticism of prevailing social injustices
Village commune where the emancipated serfs lived and worked collectively in order to meet redemption payments to the government.
Jean Jaures
French revisionist socialist who repudiated revisionist doctrines to achieve a unified socialist state
occupation and annexation of Austria into nazi germany
Works Progress Administration, set up in 1935. The most famous of Roosevelt's New Deal programs, it employed one-fifth of the entire labor force at some point in the 1930s, constructing public buildings, bridges, and highways. (p. 946)
"The Prince"
Ends justify the means
Challenged religion and welcome the prince to do whatever must be done for his people, for the goal.
William Harvey
Englishman who announced blood circulates throughout the body.
Star Wars
President Reagan's proposed weapons system to destroy Soviet missiles from space.
after Cromwell's reign, it occurred when Charles II, an English monarch was reinstated to the throne
An artistic movement that had a purposely nonsensical name, expressing its total rejection of previous modern art.
The last aristocratic revolt against a French monarch.
the Spanish soldiers and explorers who conquered the Americas after Columbus's discovery, best known were Hernando Cortes (Aztec Empire) and Francisco Pizarro (Inca Empire)
French peasant revolts due to the plague/ 100 years war and over taxation
The British monarch during the American Revolution was King __________.
George III
polish shipyard where people began to demand to form unions.
-Berlin Blockade
first major international crises of the Cold War and the first resulting in casualties. During the multinational occupation of post-World War II Germany, the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway and road access to the sectors of Berlin under Allied control. Their aim was to force the western powers to allow the Soviet zone to start supplying Berlin with food and fuel, thereby giving the Soviets practical control over the entire city
Don Quixote
work by Cervantes that demonstrated tensions between high ideals and real life
diplomatic revolution
France and Austria became allies because they decided that prussia was the greatest threat to the balance of power
Max Planck
German physicist who developed quantum theory and was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 1918. (p. 774)
French-Algerian War
Brutal war of terrorism, guerilla warfare and torture, Algeria gets independence in 1962
Baruch Spinoza
A Spanish-Born Dutch Philosopher who agreed with Descartes and called for toleration of all beliefs and said that human understanding advances through inner reflection.
Neville Chamberlain
Great British prime minister who advocated peace and a policy of appeasement
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679
Political theorist advocating absolute monarchy based on his concept of an anarchic state of nature.
Estates General
an institution from medieval times that consisted of a three-house body made up of clergy,nobility, and commons
brezhnev doctrine
gorbachev ends the ________ which said the Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they saw the need.
Benito Mussolini
Fascist Dictator of Italy that at first used bullying to gain power, then never had full power.
Ming dynasty
A major dynasty that conquered the Mongols and ruled China from the mid-fourteenth to the mid-seventeenth century. It was marked by a great expansion of Chinese commerce into East Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia.
Giuseppe Mazzini
Renowned for efforts to help bring about Italian Unification. Member of the Carbonari, as well as the founder of Young Italy. Also helped with movement for popular Democracy in European Republican States. Believed that Italian Unification could only occur through popular uprising, and encouraged revolts throughout Italy and nationalism.
This was the political idea in which the people regarded tradition as the basic source of human institutions and the proper state and society remained those before the French Revolution which rested on a judicious blend on monarchy, bureaucracy, aristocracy, and respectful commoners
Leon Trotsky
He joined Lenin's movement in 1917, and soon became his right hand man. He was the "Father" of the Red Army. A brilliant organizer and theorist, Trotsky was also brusque, and some felt overbearing.Chariman of the Petrograd Soviet.
Headed the early Brest-Litovisk negotiating team
Served as Foreign Commissar. Became involved in the power struggle with 3 other men after Lenin's death in 1925. By 1927 Trotsky was removed from all of his offices, expelled from the party, and exiled to Siberia. In 1929, he was forced out of Russian, and eventually he moved to Mexico, where he was murdered in 1940 by one of Stalin's agents. Trotsky's death put Stalin in complete control of the Soviet Union.
5-year plans
Stalin outlined the first of several Five-Year Plans for the development of the Soviet Union's economy. The Five-Year Plans set impossibly high quotas, or numerical goals, to increase the output of steel, coal, oil, and electricity. To reach these targets, the government limited production of consumer goods. As a result, people faced severe shortages of housing, food, clothing, and other necessary goods.
D. Erasmus
Dutch writer, humanist first person to translate the New Testament into Greek. Scholar of the northern renossance.
Francis Bacon
inductive method and wrote the "Great Renewal" but didn't understand the role of mathematics
These were the liberals of France who did not want to execute Louis XVI, but The Mountain did anyway
A coalition of German states formed to manage economic policies. Originally made to bind ties with the Prussian territories.
education act
made the government responsible to run the elementary schools in Britain
Where was the peace treaty negotiated that ended WWI?
Paris (Versailles)
May Laws
These required Prussian priests to be educated in Germany and abolished the power of the pope and transferred it to the state
"Crush the infamous thing!"
Voltaire- interpreted as addressed either against the church or against the ancien régim
Treaty of Villafranca
where the Austrians agreed to an armistice. Austria handed Lombardy over to France, who later passed it to Sardinia (Piedmont) but retained Venetia. The rulers of the central Italian duchies were restored. Piedmont acquiesced and CAVOUR resigned.
Declaration of Pillnitz (1791)
Austria and Prussia agreed to intervene in France to end the revolution with the unanimous agreement of the great powers
belief in the existense of a God on the evidence of reason and nature only, with the rejection of supernatural revelation
Johann Gutenberg
Man who created the printing press and changed the production and reading of books
In wich country would you find the government practicing autarchy - absolute independence from foreign trade?
Hitler's Germany
cardinal richelieu
regent of Louis XIII - france supports protestanst in 30 years war - increased power of king
Vernacular Literature
is the writing in the common language. It allowed the spreading of ideas in different languages.
This was the group of people in the National Assembly that met to discuss the political questions of the day
English Royal Society
Founded in November 1660, it was granted a Royal Charter by King Charles II, it's a learned society of science.
Joseph Joffre
French general led the French at the Battle of the Marne.
Philip II
king of Spain and Portugal and husband of Mary Tudor
Gdansk Agreement
a working class revolt in the Lenin shipyards of Gdansk that resulted in the workers gaining their revolutionary demands including the right to form free trade unions, freedom of speech, release of political prisoners, and economic reforms.
1859 Garibaldi's invasion
An energized movement of radicals from Sicily to the mainland and gaining land for unification
mary stuart
the queen of scots who was next in line for the english crown. when she was kicked out of Scotland and came to england, elizabeth executed for her allegedly plotting against her life
Prince Henry the Navigator
Captured te North African Muslim city of Ceuta. His motives were mercenary and religious. Both a quest for gold and spices and the pious owrk of saving the souls of Muslims and pagans who had no knowledge of Christ.
Germany's Schlieffen Plan
Germany was to knock out France first before turning to Russia.
Edict of Restitution 1629
Outlawed Calvinism in the Empire and required Lutherans to turn over all property seized since 1552
King of Sweden and France (also controlled Swedish army financially) enter because they fear growing power of the Hapsburg family
Ranjit Singh
This man was the first Maharaja of the Sikh Empire in India
Constitutional Democrats
Also known as the Cadets, the party of the liberal bourgeoisie in Russia
William II of Germany
In 1890 the new emperor, the young, idealistic, and unstable William II (r. 1888-1918), opposed to Bismarck's attempt to renew the law outlawing the Social Democratic party. Eager to rule in his own right and to earn the support of workers, William II forced Bismarck to resign. After "dropping of the pilot," German foreign policy changed profoundly and mostly for the worse, but the government did pass new laws to aid workers and to legalize socialist political activity. Yet William II was no more successful than Bismarck in getting workers to renounce socialism. (p.843)
The Public Health Act of 1875
this prohibited the construction of new buildings without running water and an internal drainage system in Britain
1908 Young Turks Revolt
- seized power and forced sultans to make reforms
- helped prepare the way for the birth at modern secular Turkey after collapse of Ottoman empire in WWI
Committee of Public Safety
This was the group that carried out the Reign of Terror
Grant National Consolidated Trade Union
one of the largest and most visionary trade unions, made by Robert Owen in 1834, collapsed, which led to fear of trade unions so more people turned
All of the following contributed to Spain's decision to launch its Armada against England EXCEPT
England's mutual defense pact with Switzerland
Most court cases dealing with same-sex relations involved
an adult man and an adolescent boy
What did Louis XVI do in 1775 that hadn't been done since 1614? What did his actions appear to do?
-he summoned the Estates General because of the economic hardship and financial chaos.
-this action appeared to many as the only solution to France's deepening problems.
English church
periods between reign
Peace of Augsburg
(1596-1650) French philosopher, discovered analytical geometry. Saw Algebra and Geometry have a direct relationship. Reduced everything to spiritual or physical.
free french
french who fought nazis
Sought church reform through assemblies representative of all Christians. Believed the Pope derives authority through Christian people
Many _____ called themselves "swallows" because of their pattern of seasonal migration, which they used to maximize income.
Italian for fifteenth century(1400s). It was in this period in Italy that the Renaissance really gathered full steam.
System designed to perpetuate Western Economic domination and undermine the promise of political independence. It extended to Africa and Asia the economic subordination that the U.S had established in Latin America. (1003)
socialist president of france in 80s.liberal measures to aid workers; increase minimum wage; centralization & decentralization; Socialists become convinced to enact more radical reforms which fail & lead him to turn back to private enterprise; decline continues until conservative party gains votes
Governmental policies by which the state regulates the economy, through taxes, tariffs, subsidies, laws.
Doctors' plot
1953-Jewish doctors suspected of trying to poison Stalin and Kremlin leaders, did not, they are freed
Charles IV
Holder of the Bohemian crown, he combined French and Czech traditions by importing artisans, architects, and artists. He was known to have taken a more active role in the cultural renewal, and built up an education system.
result of more people having disposable income, commercialization increasing purchasing of items
Bourbon Restoration
(1814-1830) The re-establishment of the Bourbons to lands they had lost from the French Revolution/Napoleonic eras. Primarily referring to Louis XVIII's placement on the French Throne in 1815. (but could include Ferdinand VII's restoration to Spanish throne in 1814, and Ferdinand I's restoration as king of Naples and Sicily
Black Hundreds
fanatical Russian nationalists who were extremely violent towards Jews
-made up of small traders and agricultural labors and probably urged by Orthodox priests
Platonic Academy
15th-century discussion group in Florence
Boris Yeltsin
Highly successful in politics. Opted for breakneck economic liberalization of 1992. in 1993 he won in a struggle between those who wanted a strong presidency and those who wanted a strong parliament. Military steadily declined under his rule. He wanted to create conditions that would prevent forever a return to communism and would also right the faltering economy. (1049-1050)
Sir Thomas More
(1478-1535) Renaissance humanist and chancellor of England, executed by Henry VIII for his unwillingness to recognize publicly his king as Supreme Head of the church and clergy of England
Rich peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labour. They were their own class.
A community, such as Calvin's Geneva, in which the state is subordinate to the church.
The intellectuals of the 18th century enlightenment
Bolshevik (October) Revolution
Replaces the Provisional Government with Lenin's forces
Enabling Act
gave Hitler absolute dictatorial power for four years
Otto von Bismarck
German Political mastermind who spearheaded Prussian expansion
Jacques Necker
-Swiss Protestant banker, appointed by Louis XVI as financial minister with Turgot only to arouse opposition among traditionalist factions within the court.
This scientist spread the word about the experimental method and formalized the empirical method and combined his thinking with Descartes to form the scientific method
Benjamin Disraeli
Prime Minister of Great Britain, Conservative (1804 - 1881)
German composer of operas and inventor of the music drama in which drama and spectacle and music are fused
Ramsay McDonald
a British Labour politician, who served two separate terms as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. He rose from humble origins to become the first ever Labour Prime Minister in 1924.
Avignon Papacy
successful in concentrating the vast legal and financial power of the Church to the Papal office but less so at exerting power and political control
Congress of Berlin
(1878) Assembly of representatives from Germany, Russia, Hungary, Britain, France, Italy, and the Ottoman Empire. Meeting was to reorganize the countries of the Balkans - led to greater nationalism.
Robert Boyle
Irish chemist who established that air has weight and whose definitions of chemical elements and chemical reactions helped to dissociate chemistry from alchemy (1627-1691)
The sensuous and dynamic style of art of the Counter Reformation. (See Appendix.)
Could kill germs in a liquid by heating it.
The idea formed by Theodor Herzl that advocated the creation of a Jewish state.
corn laws
These laws forbade the importation of foreign grain without the prices in England rising substantially
"White Collar"
lowly jobs that bacame avaliable to women
French New Deal
Program for workers which established the right of collective bargaining, a forty-hour work week, two-week paid vacations, and minimum wages.
led by Lech Walesa, this group of workers organized their free and democratic trade union and quickly became the union of a nation with a full-time staff of 40,000 and 9.5 million union members by March 1981. (p. 1031)
Developed the first modern theory of a sun-centered universe
Thomas Newcomen
He invented the first practical steam engine for pumping water. He was known as an ironmonger by trade and a Baptist lay preacher by calling.
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
Metric System
established by the Assembly to provide the nation with uniform weights and measures.
This is a monastery and palace in central Spain, near Madrid, built in the late 16th century by Philip II.
Spanish Civil War
Franco with nationalists who wanted fascist-style government against the Republic, Hitler and Mussolini sent men and supplies to support the nationalists, Russia supported the Republic, German planes bombed Guernica, fascism/Franco won
Diet Of Worms
a meeting of the German nobility.
Yevgeny Yevtushenko
Russian poet. Most of his works are directed toward people who grew up in the Soviet Union after World War II ended in 1945. Yevtushenko is a master of technique and uses straightforward language. Yevtushenko became famous in the West as one of the first writers in the Soviet Union to criticize Soviet society. (World Book Encyclopedia)
Byzantine Empire
same as Eastern Roman, Later Roman, or Greek Empire; capital = Constantinople; most direct continuation of ancient Middle East civilizations
westernize russia
what did Peter the Great institute in Russia to make it a great power
Partition of Germany
USSR, U.S, Britain, and France each occupied a part of Germany and would make sure it would no longer become a threat
Northwest Passage
This is the passage that many European explorers attempted but never succeeded to navigate to reach other nations more quickly
New Economic Policy
Policy proclaimed by Vladimir Lenin in 1924 to encourage the revival of the Soviet economy by allowing small private enterprises. Joseph Stalin ended the N.E.P. in 1928 and replaced it with a series of Five-Year Plans
Charles II
left will starting the war of Spanish Succession gave territories to Louis XIV's grandson
General Joseph Joffre
Commanding French general - did not listen to subordinates who predicted a German attack thru Belgium - was afraid France might violate Belgian neutrality by accident.
The Directory
The chief threat to the Directory was from the royalists because they hoped to restore the Bourbon Monarchy so they could have stability.
Clement V-
He was the new pope after Pope Boniface VIII who moved the papacy to the city of Avignon, which was under French control. Thus, French popes and clergy controlled the Church for 70 years.
David Llyod George
A British leader who strongly opposed Germany's building navy in his "People's Budget"
Council of trent (counter- reformation)
ends pluralsim and enacts clerical reforms, reaffirms traditional doctrine.
18th Century Dutch land
-leaders in the East
-captured vital ports, lucrative islands
Treaty of Troyes
Henry V forces french king Charles VI to sign away his kingdom, seemingly making France and England one kingdom
Reichstag fire & fallout
Hitler used this to launch his dictatorship and used this to give him power. It was a fire of a capital building
Military-Industrial Complex
beginning in the Cold War ear, can be defined as a corporate empire and Armageddon. A war was used in place of culture.
James I
the first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1925 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625, son of Mary Queen of Scots who succeeded Elizabeth I; alienated Parliament by claiming the divine right of kings (1566-1625)
what did erasmus think the key to reforming society was
to reform education
Invasion of Russia (1812)
Napolean set out to conqure Russia with his grand army; the Russians merely retreated into their vast landscape. When He reached Moscow in September he found it in ruins; with no enemy and few supplies he turned back; harsh winter and Russian attacks cut his forces down to 40,000
Extension of suffrage in Britain
suffrage was extended to more middle class men in Britain so that they conservatives would get a stronger base
Women Control of the Household
They had control of the finances, education, servants, and food. The "power behind the throne"
Ulster revolt of December 1913
The Irish people was outraged when a bill was passed different from what they had accepted. (p.846)
Military coup attempt under General Kornilov
Kerensky and Kornilov stage a fake coup, but Kerensky gets cold feet and tells people to stop Kornilov, allows the Bolsheviks to step up and become heroes. But people find out what Kerensky did, and get angry at PG.
Two Treatises on Government (John Locke)
This was the document that stated that if a ruler steps over its proper function to protect the natural rights of life, liberty, and property, than that ruler was a tyrant and must be overthrown
Q. 9, 1: What were the major reasons for European expansion in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries?
Not motivated by popualation.New, brave explorersDesire to spread christianityconvert muslims, muslims entrenched all around the worldFocus became africa and america
What two big wars did the US fight to try to stop the spread of communism?
1. Korean War (1950-1953)
2. Vietnam War (1961-1973)
Geneva was ___
did predestination lead to fatalism?
This English playwright lived and wrote in Elizabethan times, and his works reflected the world of a strong monarchy. Some plays showed how a single flaw in a ruler can be a disaster, while others had exemplary monarchs with great power and virtue.
Luther rejected authority in church ___
A Christian movement following the teachings of Czech reformer Jan Hus, who became one of the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation. This predominantly religious movement was propelled by social issues and strengthened Czech national awareness
Early Italian Humanist. example of both humanism and vernacular writings.
domesticated animals
These included cattle, horses, and pigs, and were a contribution to the Americas from the Columbian Exchange that changed the agriculture, diet, and even warfare among the Native Americans.
In the 18th century, this important beverage shot up in popularity. It was imported from China and was paid for with bullion until the English realized that the Chinese had an affinity for opium. While coffee was important to the wealthy, tea was essential to the diet of all English people. Also, as sugar became more abundant, the two agricultural products encouraged one another's popularity.
Christian III, of...
Denmark, secularized church property and set up a Lutheran church
Lutheranism subordinated ___ leaders to ___ leaders
church / secular
The transformation of a society from close identification with religious values and institutions toward non-religious (or "irreligious") values and secular institutions
The boil that resulted from catching the Bubonic Plague, gave the plague its name and caused agonizing pain
One of the 5 major Italian city-states.
1) was the home-base for the Medici family. The most powerful banking family in Europe.
2) had the appearance of a Republic, but was really an oligarchy of businessmen
3) was the center of the cultural renaissance.
Henry VIII
This king of England founded the Anglican Church and split from the Roman Catholic Church. He did so for personal and political reasons: both to gain the money and power the Church was taking from him (in taxes, tax exemptions, etc) and so that he could divorce his first wife. Because he had six wives and two of his daughters became queens of England (Elizabeth I and Mary Tudor), there has been a lot of historical focus on his personal life.
Priesthood of all Believers
Luther said/realized that everyone should follow their calling and find their own faith through scripture, which meant that no one could achieve a higher level of spirituality because of a church position.
This was the ancient science that was often incorrect, but was taken for granted by the educated people of Europe. One such idea was that the sun revolved around the Earth.
city governments in Germany expressed resentment of clerical ___ and ___ even before Luther.
privilege and immunities
The Courtier
A book by Castiglione, about the perfect elite person. He said that a coutier was born, and should be "endowed by nature... with talent and beauty of person and feature." This book detailed proper etiquette and education, but said that the most important thing about a gentleman was sprezzatura, or natural ease and superiority.
Dalimil Chronicle
The first chronicle or story written in Czech language. It was created in verses by an unknown author at the beginning of the 14th century
Antipope Clement VII
(1342-16 September 1394) ***elected to the papacy as Clement VII by the French cardinals who opposed Urban VI ***the first Avignon claimant of the Western Schism ***He was succeeded by Benedict XIII
(349): System of Spanish rule of the new world. Conquestadors were given a free-hand in governing the native peoples. Very Feudal structure.
Elizabeth I
The daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn (who was beheaded for incest and adultery that she most likely did not commit), who assumed the throne when Mary Tudor died. She was a Protestant and returned England to the Anglican Church, which had been established under her father. This ended the disconcerting switches the people and clergy of England had experience during the reigns of her father and half-sister, though this second reformation was more extreme than the first, and included Calvinist principles.
why taxes increased
The central governments needed cash to keep standing armies for their relatively new absolute monarchs, and to run a central government. They had to support many free-loading courtiers, and provide those who had their "favor" with an opulent lifestyle.
wealth of Eastern Europe
The North-Eastern corner of Europe, especially Denmark, were very rich and powerful because of their position to trade on both the Baltic and North seas. Poland-Lithuania was an enormous territory went from the Baltic to the Black Sea.The boundaries of Europe were formed by the wealthy and powerful Ottoman, Russian, and Mongol Empires.
at the Diet of Worms,
Luther challenged the Pope's authority, and so later was excommunicated
reasons population changed
Because of recurring waves of plague, the population declined drastically between 1350-1450. These waves were especially bad about every six years, and after a century of this, Florence had lost ¾ of its population. Because of all the death, the economy was rendered rather stagnant and until the late fifteenth century, when population began to rise again.
Edward III
(13 November 1312 - 21 June 1377) ***Transformed England into a major military power in Europe, ***Reign saw vital developments in legislature and government and black death ***1338 declared himself rightful heir to French throne, started Hundred Years War
Treaty of Tordesillas
(cw) : Settlement of the divisive issue of New World ownership between the Spanish and the Portuguese. It was brokered by the Pope based on faulty maps. Spain got the majority of South America. Portugal got modern day Brazil. Guess which country in South america speaks portuguese today? no really, guess.
The Imitation of Christ
(1418) Written by Thomas A. Kempis, this book is all about how to be Christ-like. It is a guide to Catholic behavior and how to have a relationship with God, covering both personal and social aspects of pleasing God, and was very important to the New Piety, a movement among Catholics to be more spiritual.
Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis (1559)
This ended 60 years of conflict between the Valois (Charles VIII, then Francis I, then Henry II of France) and the Hapsburgs (Charles V). At this point, both sides were spent in money and energy, and there was no clear winner. Only Henry II celebrated, viewing the treaty as a victory, and he died in a celebratory jousting tournament.
importance of italian cities
Much more numerous and populated than cities in other countries, Italian urban centers allowed for more division of labor. As people became more specialized and common people traded in their daily lives, wages and productivity went up. The Italian cities were also hubs of cultural change during the Renaissance that eventually affected all of Europe.
Statute of Laborers 1351
A law enacted by the English parliament under King Edward III in 1351 in response to a labour shortage. It was introduced by John Hale. The statute set a maximum wage for labourers that is commensurate to wages paid before the Black Death
Battle of Poltava (1709)
In this battle, Peter the Great of Russia crushed King Charles XII of Sweden. He captured several officers, whom he later toasted for teaching him battle tactics (he had studied their strategies, and lost to them many times previously). As a result of their victory, the Russians gained control of several Baltic Sea ports which were crucial to trade with the West.
John Calvin agreed with Luther in ___.
consubstantiation (Christ present in spirit)
Joan of Arc
(1412 - 30 May 1431) ***A peasant girl born in eastern France ***Led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years' War ***Was indirectly responsible for the coronation of Charles VII *** Captured by the Burgundians, sold to the English, tried by an ecclesiastical court, and burned at the stake when she was nineteen years old
Conditions of Europe that hindered unification
In the Iberian Peninsula, until the Reconquista, religious differences and the connection of religion and state made unification very difficult. France was surrounded by enemies who fought it constantly, while internally, semi-independent princes ruled their own provinces. Nobility did not want to give up power, and peasantry were suspicious of monarchy. Also, many regions were separated by very distinct dialects, so that translators were needed. The conditions were similar in England and other countries. Somehow, though, England, Spain and France were united.
in ___, ethnic unrest of the ___ majority fused with resentments of the ____ church
Bohemia / Czech / Roman
Dialogue Between the Two Great Systems of the World
This book by Galileo contained his ideas on the universe, which was generally that the planets, including the earth, orbit the sun. This defied the Papacy, the Bible, and Aristotle, and so he was forced to recant the entire thing.
anabaptist idea of _____ was rejected by others because they thought it would ______
separation of church and state / lead to a secular government
Maximilian I
Act of Supremacy
architectually designed and artistically decorated to proclaim the glory of Louis XIV
used to exert political control over nobles
$$- consumed more than half his annual revenues
organized life at court around his daily routine
kept nobles busy so they had little time to plot revolt
Giuseppe Verdi
Italian operatic composer (1813-1901)
French government dominated by Napoleon from 1799 to 1804


Reaction against the Renaissance ideals of balance, 
symmetry, simplicity and realistic use of color 
• High Renaissance had taken art to perfection; 
there was little that could be done to improve it; 
thus, mannerists rebelled against it 
Michelangelo’s Pieta 
Oliver Cromwell
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
a French essayist whose attitude expressed skepticism.
he always asked "what do i know" and then responded with "nothing." 
Thomas More's ____ depicted an imaginary society based on reason and tolerance that overcame social and political injustice by holding all property and goods in common and requiring everyone to earn their bread by their own work.
The Edict of Restitution (1629) exacerbated Catholic-Protestant conflict by claiming that Calvinism was _____, and ordering the return of all Catholic church lands acquired by the Lutherans since 1552

Civic Humanism

idea that education should prepare 
leaders who would be active in civic affairs 
Priscilla Wakefield
1751-1832: English author & philanthropist
Metternich's bestie might have been...?
Edmund Burke
Metternich's bestie might have been...?
ummmm....? Just study this one
glorious revolution
england; limit power of monarch, 1678-1777, constitutional monarch goverened by arestocratic oligarchy
Karl Lueger
Mayor of Vienna whom Hitler idolized
The two rival communists groups. One weree true revolutionary Marxists, and the other were revisionist socialists.
Guise family
French family, powerful in Eastern France, militant, very Catholic, Catholic family, had the loyalty of Paris and northern and northwestern France, support from the papacy and support from the Jesuits.
mysterious holy man, who gave advice to alexandra suppposedly had supernatural and prophetic powers, cured her son of hemophillia
Just before the French Revolution, interest and payments on France's royal debt totaled over ___ of the entire budget.
One half.
the east took on more european approaches became closer with europeans (russians)

Alphonso d’Albuquerque

Laid the foundation for Portuguese imperialism 
in the 16th and 17th centuries 
• Established strategy of making coastal regions 
(that had been won from the Muslims) a base 
to control the Indian Ocean. 
determines altitude of sun and other celestial bodies, enable people to plot latitude
Bartholomew Dias
From Portugal
Discovered S Africa in 1488 
Eastern European Serfdom
created out of peasants; bassically slaves
Matthew Perry
This American naval officer was the driving factor in Japan's opening by using gunboat diplomacy
Robert Castlereagh
This British foreign minister was a supporter of Metternich
Leonardo Da Vinci
exhibited Renaissance ideals more than any other person
advocated scientific experimentation, dissected corpses, and was a botanist

Mona Lisa- shows his skill in conveying inner moods through complex facial expressions
social democrats
founded in 1883, also known as marxists
*in 1415, henry V defeated the french and went on to recapture Normandy-then paris
the name for the great russians who lived around muscow

Filippo Brunelleschi

Il Duomo (1420-34) atop Santa Maria del Fiore is 
his masterpiece; it was the largest dome in Europe 
at the time of its construction (See right) 
b. Considered the “father” of perspective 
Brunelleschi’s dome atop Santa 
Maria del Fiore 
Dutch east India Company
Netherlands dominated European economy 1650, gov't sponsored company
Louis XIV's monarcy could be called...?
Absolutism, fo sho!
Louis XIV's monarcy could be called...?
It describes a type of government...
to support or recommend as an idea or cause
This was the new feeling of pride for one's country after the Napoleonic era
George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
German philosopher and author. A believer in universal consciousness, he also believed that history was a goal- driven process. A part of this process was the dialectic, which implied that all of history was an unfolding of events in a clear direction, or that all things happen for a reason. He believed that history takes place because of deep structural changes rather than by individuals or chance events, and that ideas precede and generate actualities.
Dutch Rebellion Causes
A. Causes
    1. Phillip left and didn't come back, leaving regents in control
        a. regents mistreated them
    2. distrust of foreigners = the regents
    3. disliked religious policies a. the Netherlands was Protestant - Protestantism was repressed there 
    4. Spanish policies there lacked understanding of local conditions
        a. all decisions to do with the Netherlands were made in Spain - decisions were made without actually knowing firsthand what was going on = unfair
    5. Dutch wanted a say in their own govt.
A style of art in the mid-to-late 16th century that permitted artists to express their own "manner" or feelings in contrast to the symmetry and simplicity of the art of the High Renaissance.
Lord Protector
the title of Oliver Cromwell, that he tried to rule under after abolishing the Rump Parliament
c. ____ Europe was on the rebound (renaissance, exploration, reformation)
c. 1500
George Marshall
The US Secretary of State that gave aid to Western European countries in order to stop the spread of communism
Western Europe earned the loyalty of their citizens by...?
-letting guys vote
-getting colonies from Africa
-publically edumacating
-legalizing trade unions

But, they didn't divide farmland equally between poor people. That's just being TOO nice.
Western Europe earned the loyalty of their citizens by...?
Again, several reasons...
Reasons for Russian weakness
These were the reasons of bad leadership, and lack of organized or effective army
Erosion of traditional powers of aristocracy/towns
1. religious wars transferred power to the king
    - required so much money and arms that no one could pay for that except the govt. = govt. ruler
Historian Jacob Burckhardt:
A) has been criticized by other historians for ignoring the Christian elements of Renaissance humanism.
B) emphasized similarities between the Italian Renaissance and other, earlier "renaissances."
C) emphasized the cont

A) has been criticized by other historians for ignoring the Christian elements of Renaissance humanism.
liberum veto
the free veto, used to break up a diet
open field method
For a thousand years, arable lands in England had been laid out in fields around villages. Each landowner had narrow, long strips of land for planting that covered both the best and worst ground. Farmers agreed which strips were in production, which were fallow, and shared in the plowing.
Elector of Brandenburg
had the right to help choose the Holy Roman Emperor, which bestowed prestige, but this official had no military strength of his own.
Structure of German government
They had a strong top government and they had a Reichstag, or the lower house of parliament
Vasco de Gamma
(after Diaz made it to Cape) in 1498 V.d G rounded Cape and made it to India (to Calicut on the Malabar coast) He was Portuguese sea captain. Brought back ship loaded with Eastern goods worth many times (x60) cost of expedition. 2nd. trip - used brutal means to establish Portuguese interest there (Arabs, Egyptians, Venetians et al interested in maintaining their monopoly.) Significant because established Portuguese interest in east - first all sea route to valuable trade sites.
By the early 18th century, the kingdom whose political system afforded the greatest amount of self-rule to its subjects was:
A) England.
B) France.
C) Brandenburg-Prussia.
D) Austria.
E) Russia.
A) England.
The constitutional monarchy and the rule of law that resulted from the English Revolution of the 17th century guaranteed its subjects of France lived under an absolutist regime constructed by the Bourbon monarchy.
What did Giuseppe Mazzini do?
Founded the Young Italy Society for driving Austrians out of Italy and creating a republic in Southern Italy.
What did Giuseppe Mazzini do?
Southern Italy
The Reform Act of 1832
Reform Act 1832, was an Act of Parliament that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of England and Wales. According to its preamble, the act was designed to "take effectual Measures for correcting divers Abuses that have long prevailed in the Choice of Members to serve in the Commons House of Parliament.The Act which finally succeeded was proposed by the Whigs extended voting rights
What were some of Luther's main ideas?
-Bible is ONLY source of information-Faith alone needed for salvation-Every person his own priest-priest is not necessary to get to heaven
King James the 1. What did he do, and what family did he belong to?
Wrote a bible, and he was a Tudor.
King James the 1. What did he do, and what family did he belong to?
Oops, I tooted.
The Spanish encomienda was the:
A) land grant given by the king.
B) right of exploration in the Americas.
C) right to establish colonies in the name of a monarch.
D) right to native labor in an area for a certain time.
D) right to native labor in an area for a certain time.
John Stuart Mill, that fancy pants, who was he?
Questioned private property, equality, and personal freedom. Wrote "On Liberty." He was a socialist, which sucks because then you can't be rich...
John Stuart Mill, that fancy pants, who was he?
Wanted to help those nasty poor people
"mark" of the holy roman empire
name for a bordering state of the holy roman empire
List the efforts of the Hapsburg's to preserve their holdings.
In 1714, the Treaty of Rastatt with France allowed the Spanish Netherlands to extend their domains. They had banded with the Grand Alliance for security.
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