AP Euro 57 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Bonus Rome
Spanish Civil War
Raising && domesticating animals
Cesare Beccaria
Crime and Punishment
Gabriel Marcel
(1887-1973) Leading existential Christian Catholic. He supported closer ties with non-Catholics.
governments took increasing responsibility during the postwar years for the health and well-being of citizens making the cold war era also the era of the
welfare state
prolific and influential Spanish artist who lived in France
The "politics of reality;" politics based on practical rather than moral or ideological considerations
Economic theory of maintaining balance of exports and imports. The opposite of socialism and communism.
A group consisting of puritans, country land owners, and town based manufacturers, led by Oliver Cromwell; fought against the Cavaliers during the English civil war
Treaty of Luneville
Ended the Second Coalition
a political or social philosophy advocating the freedom of the individual, parliamentary systems of government, nonviolent modification of political, social, or economic institutions to assure unrestricted development in all spheres of human endeavor, and governmental guarantees of individual rights and civil liberties.
France: Claimed area around St. Lawrence RIver for France
Elizabethan Settlement
required outward agreement and conformity to the church of England and uniformity in all ceremonies.
Jethro Tull
inventor of the seed drill
groups of 18th century french economists led by francois quesnay. critize mercantilist regulations and call for free trade
David Hume
Scottish philosopher whose sceptical philosophy restricted human knowledge to that which can be perceived by the senses (1711-1776)
Frederick III
ruler of Palatinate, coverted to Calvinism in 1559, one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Empire
Balance of Power
An international equilibrium of political and military forces that would discourage eaggression by any combination of states.
Study of Hare
nature, prints made extremely detailed
Old Believers
protested the reform of Russian orthodox Chruch. led by Patriach Nikon. Persecuted.
The process that introduced systematic observation of nature, a mathematically rational conception of the world, and significant new theories in astronomy is commonly referred to as "The __________."
Scientific Revolution
Black Hand -
Ultra Nationalist, Serbian Society founded in 1911. Secretly supported by members of the Serbian government.
Utopian socialism
Philosophy introduced by the Frenchman Charles Fourier in the early nineteenth century. Utopian socialists hoped to create humane alternatives to industrial capitalism by building self-sustaining communities whose inhabitants would work cooperatively
George Sorel
This French Political Theorist applied the ideas of Bergson and Nietzsche to politics and believed that socialist goals could be accomplished through violence
Form of govermant which followed the directory -established by Napoleon-ended when Napoleon was crowned emperor.
Boxer Rebellion
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops. Sparked by imperialism
Henry VII
Tudor Renaissance King of England. Rebuilt the monarchy by improving the economics, crushing the Irish, the marriage of his daughter to the Scottish King.
expression by Hitler to describe what he saw as the most dangerous criminal and enemy of the Third Reich, the enemy who must be annihilated at any cost. Nazi propaganda equated Jews with communists
Jethrow Tull
developed seed drilled which allowed for sowing of crops in a straight row rather than scattering by hand
Franz Kafka
one of the major German-language fiction writers of the 20th century. Kafka's works - including the stories Das Urteil (1913, "The Judgement"), In der Strafkolonie (1920, "In the Penal Colony"); the novella Die Verwandlung ("The Metamorphosis"); and unfinished novels Der Prozess ("The Trial") and Das Schloß ("The Castle") - have come to embody the blend of absurd, surreal and mundane which gave rise to the adjective "kafkaesque".
John Calvin
Wrote Institutes of the Chrisitian Religion
Predestination of the "Elect"
Work is Worship
Star Chamber
the judgement room of Henry VII
Star Chamber
law court of the king
Lord Nelson
When Napoleon tried to bring his Mediterranean fleet around Gibraltar to northern France, a combined French and Spanish fleet was, after a series of mishaps, virtually annihilated by Lord Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar on October 21, 1805. invasion of England was henceforth impossible. Renewed fighting had its advantages, however, for the first consul used the wartime atmosphere to have himself proclaimed emperor in late 1804. (715)
Mary Wollstonecraft
This was an English feminist who supported the women's revolution in France
This was the royal dynasty of electors in Prussia
Alphonse de Lamartine
French poet and politician (1790-1869) he was a "political" republican who came to political prominence during the 1848 French Revolution. As the head of the Constituent Assembly he opposed Louis Blanc and pushed for the abolition of slavery and the death penalty; he would later run for president against Napoleon III and only got 18,000 votes.
Muhammad Ali
Egyptian army general who stepped into power after the French left. He reformed the army, the land, and the communication of Egypt
transportation penalty
crime rose 300% during the industrial revolution, the jails were becoming too full, criminals were sent to australia instead
-Franco-Prussian War
Prussia win, but the Prussians even force the French into unconditional surrender via the Siege of Paris (not very pretty, people were eating their dogs and cats). Then, to add insult to injury, the French pay a huge indemnity, have to give up Alsace-Lorraine, and must watch Willhelm get crowned Emperor of Germany at Versailles!
a book by Sir Thomas More (1516) describing the perfect society on an imaginary island
sinn fein founded in 1905 strove to obtain independence for ______
Vasco da Gama
This Portuguese explorer rounded the Cape of Good Hope and crossed the Indian Ocean in 1498.
Alfred Dreyfus
A Jewish military captain in the French Army, he was falsely accused of treason, and his affair split France apart
Hungarian Revolution
1956. Led by students and workers, installed Liberal Communist Imre Nagy. Forced soviet soldiers to leave and promised free election, renounced Hungary's military alliance with Moscow. Revolution was crushed by the Soviet Union.
[ Nietzsche ] Also known as Overman, who would embody horoism and greatness. However, he was critical of racism and anti-semitism.
Scandinavian example
1. found a middle ground between communism and laissez faire
2. Raised taxes and provided social welfare
3. Between1900 and 1939 Swedenhad a greater rise in real wages than any other European country
the entente cordiale
an informal agreement between Britain and France
A movement to create a Jewish homeland in Palestine
Augsburg Confession
an Imperial Diet in 1530, called by Charles V in hopes to halt the spread of religious division, where the Protestant princes presented a Lutheran statement of faith to the Emperor. The___________ remained an authoritative statement of belief for many Lutheran churches for centuries.
Peace of Utrecht
Ended Louis XIV's attempts to gain military power and land. Marked the end of French expansionist policy. Ended the War of Spanish Succession.
City on the Niger River in the modern country of Mali. It was founded by the Tuareg as a seasonal camp sometime after 1000. As part of the Mali empire, this city became a major major terminus of the trans-Saharan trade and a center of Islamic learning
Ukrainian Famine
The forced famine of Ukraine by Stalin over not producing enough grain
"San Culottes"
They were urban poor people in the third estate that joined Robespierre and Danton to lead the Mountain, purging the Girondists out of the National Convention. They wanted reform as the rapid inflation and food shortages took a toll on the poor families. They were called by this term because they wore trousers and not Culottes.
Paul von Hindenburg
President of the Weimar Republic of Germany who appointed Hitler Chancellor in 1933
Georges Boulanger
He was a French soldier and general who was among France's Third Republic that attacked and destroyed the Paris Commune. He also introduced various reforms all on the path for better rights and benefits for the soldiers.
Russian Modernization
The most of these were economical and not political, and even then were mostly only halfway efforts
putting out system
a term used by contemporaries to describe the key features of 18th century rural industry.the two main participants were merchant capitalists and the rural worker. the merchant loaned raw materials to the rural worker who processed it and returned the finished product to the merchant
Wilson's Fourteen Points
This included an end to secret alliances, freedom of seas and trade, self determination for colonies, and a League of Nations. It did not work, however, because France and Britain wanted revenge on Germany and refused to cooperate
October Manifesto
Gave full Civil Rights and promised a popularly elected Duma (Parliment) with legislative power
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Paris massacre of Protestants which took place on August 24, 1572
Combination Acts
1799 and 1800 - made trade unionism illegal.
Edict of Nantes
(1598) the edict of Henry IV that granted Huguenots the rights of public worship and religious toleration in France
Cesare Borgia
son of Pope Alexander VI who aided his father militarily and politically. He became the hero of Machiavelli's "The Prince" he was like a lion and fox and united the peninsula by conquering and demanding total obedience from the people to make the Papal States.
Treaty of Nanking
A treaty with Britain and China that gave Hong Kong to Britain and opened 4 cities for trade
Ernst Roehm
Leader of the SA. He didn't want to gain power through legal means like Hitler. When Hitler becomes chancellor, a close group of advisors said he should break off with Roehm. On June 30, 1934, Roehm and 75 other people were killed (purge of the party) mainly by SS.
The Law of Suspects
enactment passed on September 17, 1793 during the course of the French Revolution. It allowed for the creation of revolutionary tribunals to try those who were suspected of treason against the Republic and to punish those convicted with death.
victor emmanuel II
He was king of Sardinia, Piedmont and Savory until 1861 when he was crowned the first king of a united Italy
William of Orange "The Silent"
Chosen to rule northern provinces, Urging unified political structure under house of orange, Received nickname because in political discussions he would hardly say anything, Charming, wise, shrewd, Eventually assassinated because Philip II put a bounty on his head
The Pragmatic Sanction
Charles VI pushed for this to pass and was successful in order to keep the Habsburgs in power and put his daughter, Maria Theresa on the throne
War of Austrian Succession
This war was over the inheritance of the throne by Maria Theresa, for the Salic law prevented a woman from solely ruling the state
Since England blockades Germany with ocean minefields and navy, Germany blockades England with submarines
How did Unrestricted Submarine Warfare factor into American joining into WWI?
Berlin Conference of 1885
Jules Ferry of France and Otto von Bismarck of Germany arranged an international conference on Africa in Berlin in 1884 and 1885. The conference established the principle that European claims to African territory had to rest on "effective occupation" in order to be recognized by other states. It established the principle that European claims to African territory had to rest on "effective occupation", which made it so that no single power could claim all of Africa. It also agreed to work to stop slavery and the slave trade in Africa.
Russia after Crimean War
Defeat in this war made Russia want to industrialize and advance
Defence of the Realm Act
act enacted in Great Britain to deal with domestic instability and anti-war protesters; this act allowed public authorities to arrest those against the war as traitors; later, this act allowed for the censorship of newspapers, the deleting of "objectionable material," and also the suspension of newspaper publication
Franco-Prussian War - Causes & Outcomes
The reason behind the war was because a war would bring the Southern German states into the Prussian state, and the French wanted to teach Germany a lesson. It ended up that the Germans kicked butt, and the French were humiliated, and the German plan worked completely
18th and 19th Century decline in the Ottoman Empire.
Ottoman empire was way behind in science, industrial skill, military, technology and trade.
conservative...landed aristocracy...supported Corn Law of 1815...
changing between beliefs,opinions,conditions
Council of Pisa
tries to depose other pope and elect a new one, but now there's a third pope
Council of Pisa
Russian Communist Revolution (formation of USSR)
Voltaire, satirizing society and organized religion in Europe.
Urban and Rural poor
Homeless beggars
Renaissance writer; formerly a politician, wrote The Prince, a work on ethics and government, describing how rulers maintain power by methods that ignore right or wrong; accepted the philosophy that "the end justifies the means."
Jean-Paul Sartre
(1905-1980)-French existentialist most famous for his statement that "existence precedes essence"-i.e., first we exist and then our decisions and choices shape our character or essence
The Rational Dictionary of the Sciences, the Arts, and the Crafts - The ultimate strength of the French philosophes was their greatest achievement was a group effort. It was edited by Denis Diderot. The Encyclopedia showed that human beings could use the process of reasoning to expand human knowledge. (p.609)
Frederick the Great
-acquired Austrian land Silesia
-created alliance with nobility
-got them involved in government
capable of producing crops; suitable for farming
A utopian socialist movement started by Charles Fourier. He wanted to counter the current industrial system to replace boredom of factory life. He advocated different forms of work each day as well as relatively free sexual activity.
A system of local-self government instituted by Alexander II of Russia; however, after the October Revolution, the system was shut down. They consisted of a representative council and an executive board.
French philosopher from 1713-84 who composed a 28 volume encyclopedia that included and spread many Enlightenment ideas
an individual can experience God themselves
Jane Seymour
Third wife of Henry VIII
form of architecture based on the principle that a building should be designed for its specific use.
attitude that tends to find the ultimate explanation of everything and the final end of human beings in what reason and the senses can discover, rather than in any spiritual or transcendental belief
jean-jaques roussean
book: social contract 1752- society corrupts mankind. book: emile- advocated progressive education students learn by working at own pace.
(1890-1960) Russian author of Dr. Zhivago, a novel condemning the brutality of the Stalin era.
Boris Pasternak
Estates General
The legislative body of France. Composed of representatives from the three estates which are Clergy in the First Estate, Nobles in the Second Estate, and peasants in the Third Estate. Each Estate is entitled to one vote on legislative matters. The Estates General was never as strong as the British Parliament of the American Congress.
This was the man who discovered Americas while originally looking for a faster and all-sea route to the East but instead landed in the West Indies.
William Laud
Archbishop of Canterbury who denied Puritan rights and tried to impose a form of the Book of Common Prayer on the Scots
The socialist idea that we should embrace socialism in a gradual advance, with no bloody war
Civic Religion
teaches citizens to worship their country as God Purp.- create virture
Francisco Franco
Fascist leader of the Spanish revolution, helped by Hitler and Mussolini
European Economic Community
caused by the Marshall Plan.
intended to use more land rationally and to achieve greater commercial profits. this involved the fencing of common lands, the reclamation of previously untilled waste, and the transformation of strips into block fields.
Warsaw Pact
Joined together central and eastern commie states
proposed the increased tax on nobles and blames Louis for the debt of the country because most of it resulted from helping America in the American War of Independence
Marshall Plan
U.S. Secretary of State urged Americans to offer economic aide. Refused by Stalin.
John Cabot
Venetian seaman who explored the New England coastline under a license from King Henry VII of England.
Victor Emmanuel III
(190~1946)King of Italy who asked Mussolini to form a cabinet in 1922, thus allowing Mussolini to take power legally
the period of European history at the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern world
This class of people continued to make up the majority of the Russian population in 1900.
travelers tales
there are other ways of oeganiziing society - sense of skepticism - truce of society structure
This was the ruling class of Russia after the Cossack Rebellion
Nicholas II (of Russia)
tzar of Russia during WWI
at the Diet of Speyer (1529) princes who favored church reforms along Lutheran lines protested decisions of the Catholic princes; hence, initially, Protestant meant Lutheran, but as other groups appeared, the term Protestant meant all non-Catholic Christian sects. (p. 462)
Catherine de' Medici
Controlled her three weak sons: Francis II, Charles IX, and Henry III. She was Italian, so she used Machiavellian policies.
conciliar movement
an unsuccessful attempt to solve the problem by creating a council to rule the church instead of one Pope.
Prussian Army
The Prussian army was really strong. It reestablished control of the nation and reversed the pro-polish legislation of the assembly.
Spanish Inquisition
This was the harsh and violent conversion of Spain back into Catholicism. They used several versions of torture and fear tactics to convert people back to Catholicism
community controls
describes the pressuring of an unwed couple who is expecting a child, reflected through low rates if illegit birth and large numbers of pregnant brides, illegit births viewed as threats to stability of a tight community
coup de erat
Putting own supporters into political seats the opponents had won. Directors did this in 1797 and called Napoleon back to France to guarantee success of the coup
Rump Parliament
After much of Parliament was killed for voting against the trial of Charles I, the remainder did their best to hold it together, until Cromwell took control and started a new Parliament.
iron curtain
A metaphor used by Winston Churchill used to describe Soviet Influence over Eastern Europe.
It was the rising demand of Asian and African people for national self-determination, racial equality, and personal dignity. The Indian independence played a big role in decolonization. Decolonization is much of Africa proceeded smoothly. Colonies were given a choice of a total break or immediate independence within a commonwealth. This resulted in increase of western European countries' economic and cultural ties with former African colonies. (1001)
Continental System
This was an embargo set up against England by France in an effort by Napoleon to weaken England's economy.
September 1, 1939
German armies invaded Poland on this date. Cosnsidered the start of WWII:
Florence Nightingale
British nurse who became a pioneer in modern nursing
Theory of Evolution
This theory stated that animals could evolve from other animals in order to adapt to their environments. This theory was not widely accepted for it could possibly account for humans which would defeat the whole purpose of creationism
Essay Concerning Human Understanding
[John Locke] (Tabula Rasa) Insisted that all ideas are derived from experience. The initial mind at birth is just a blank slate. Theory of personal identity.
the ______ was the name of the originally secret british-french alliance begun in 1904
entente cordiale
- description of Germany Planned Economy, govt. controls anything
- similar to French Reign of Terror
"history's first Totalitarian society"
Catholic Emancipation Act
In 1829, Wellington and Robert Peel steered the Catholic emancipation act through parliament. Roman Catholics could now become members of parliament. This measure, together with the repeal in 1828 of restrictions against protestant non-conformists, ended the Anglican monopoly on British life.
lay religion
lay people who took no formal monastic vows
Algeciras Conference
A meeting held in Spain that Germany demanded in order to show its power.The meeting's purpose was to find an issue to the First Moroccan crisis between France and Germany (Germany was attempting to keep France from establishing a protectorate in Morocco). Austria sided with Germany while Spain voted with Britain and France.
Course of WWII
First war in Europe, then war in Asia
Ramifications of the plague
Jews were killed and blamed as scapegoats. Also, there were "aftershocks" almost every generation that killed people until 1771. Afterwards, surviving land owners had a great deal more money and land than before, and peasants were in greater demand. Tightening laws, however, brought social mobility to a standstill, which was very bad for peasants. Because there was less economic activity than before (because there were less people) larger taxes were imposed on those few left. There were violent uprisings in France, because between monarchs and land-owners, peasants were way over-taxed.
pacification of ghent
Agreement set forth by the Prince of Orange to unify the seventeen provinces under him, and Spain.
Federal Emergency Relief Administration
Provided funds to help states and local communities meet the needs of the destitute and the homeless.
Treaty of Utrecht
The terms of this treaty forbid the combination of the Spanish and French monarchies, ended the War of Spanish Succession, gave England the rock of Gibralter and Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and control of the slave trade with Africa(asiento), gave Austria the Spanish Netherlands, put the Bourbon monarchy on the Spanish throne, made Prussia a kingdom, and ended the wars Louis XIV.
Northwest Passage
A water route from the Atlantic to the Pacific through northern Canada and along the northern coast of Alaska. Sought by navigators since the 16th century.
John of Leyden
: led a radical group of Anabaptists to take control of the northwestern German city of Munster. He had 16 wives.
The Great Schism
Two popes are elected, one in Avignon and one in Rome, causing insecurity in the church
The Great Schism
Why the Western Front became stalemated
The western front became stalemated because it was full of trench warfare and needless death
Irish Home Rule
A desire of some people in Ireland to not be ruled by England
Catherine de Medicis
Ruled as Queen of France and fought to reconcile French and Protestant relations. Because of her fear of the Guises, she fought to maintain the monarchy. However she was forced to cooperate with the Guises. Balanced the two religious sides.
Napoleon's Hundred Days
He was sent on exile and then when he came back he fought at Waterloo. Napoleon's gamble was a desperate long shot, for the allies were united against him. At the end of this frantic period known as the Hundred Days, they crushed his forces at Waterloo on June 18, 1815, and imprisoned him on the rocky island of St. Helena, far off the western coast of Africa. (p.758)
He treated natives brutally, He forced religion on the natives, He made the natives mine gold, He brought the diseases of livestock over and caused 90 percent of pop to die,
Why was Christopher Columbus a villain?
Dante Alighieri, The Divine Comedy
A book that gave a different view of hell
What was the significance of the clock?
The measure of time helped quantify the work day for city people.
The wealth of the Eastern portions of Europe
The wealth of Eastern Europe lay in Baltic fisheries, Hungarian and Bohemian silver mines, and Russian forests, since the region was not good for agriculture.
Romanticism in Art
mix up or confuse
Enlightened Despots
religious tolleration; increase economic productivity; iministrative reform
- dramatic/emotional
- colors = brighter than bright, darker than dark
- paintings and sculptures in Churches speak to illiterate
- Ecclesiastical
Medical faculties were usually receptive to the new science.
True or False?
"Lightning War", Germany against Britain, bombing its major cities to pull soldier's moral down as well as citizens
compus; astro lab; cuadrant; lateen sail
Kronstadt Rebels
Unsuccessful uprising of sailors, soldiers, and civilians against Russian government (against Bolsheviks)
The Peterloo Massacre
-16 August 1819
-The Peterloo Massacre occurred at St Peter's Field, Manchester England
-Cavalry charged into a crowd of 60,000–80,000 gathered at a meeting to demand the reform of parliamentary representation
Talented sculptor who created David and helped create the elegant culture of high renaissance court.
Ptolemaic System
Thepre-Copernican explanation of the universe, with the earth at the center of the universe, originated in the ancient world.


in Flanders became the banking and 
commercial center of Europe in the 16th century. 
policy of postcolonial governments to remain neutral in the Cold War and playing both sides for what they could get.
Francis Bacon
English politician and writer; Very famous propagandist—he believed that in order to make scientific progress, one needs the support of the government; He also advocated a method of research that rejected Aristotelian speculation, in which he said that researchers should collect large amounts of data, compare and analyze this data, and then general principles will emerge. This form of inductive reasoning is called empiricism. SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HIS USE OF INDUCTIVE REASONING WAS INDEPENDENT OF PRECONCEIVED RELIGIOUS AND PHILOSOPHICAL IDEAS AND PROMOTED THE EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH OPEN-MINDEDLY.
1834 all major Germany states, except Austria, formed free trading union
These were the French Calvinists that were often persecuted until the Edict of Nantes
This was the philosophical belief that for every thesis ever, there is an opposing antithesis that creates a synthesis
Ferdinand Magellan
A. first to circumnavigate the world 1. crossed Atlantic Ocean 2. resupplied his fleet in Brazil 3. went all the way down and around South America 4. sailed across the Pacific Ocean 5. arrived and docked at Philippines - didn't survive the journey = his crew finished it for himB. proved the world was round C. disproved all Church's science
Adam Smith is associated with ____ economic thought and policy.
Goethe was the genius of German romantic writers, and his masterpiece, written in two parts, in______.
John Knox
created the Presbyterian Church of Scotland after ending papal authority in Scotland
William of Orange's bloodless coup in England is remembered as the "____ Revolution" because it ensured a Protestant successor to James II and guaranteed the civil liberties of the nobles.
Ethnic cleansing
The attempt to establish ethically homogenous territories by intimidation, forced deportation, and killing
Progress and Reform became important during which European era?
the Enlightenment
Progress and Reform became important during which European era?
Bhuddists do it
god created the universe but played no further role in the world allowing it to run according to its own natural laws
A local coulcil of politicians to deal with local problems in Russia
J.W.M. Turner
An English romantic painter of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, known especially for his dramatic, lavishly colored landscapes and seascapes.
Diego Velasquez
- court artist
- painted Hapsburgs in Spain
The labor servitude whereby adult male Indians would devote a number of days of labor to Spanish enterprises is known as:
A) encomiendia.
B) repartimiento.
C) creoles.
D) conquitadores.

B) repartimiento.
The chief aims of the Congress of ______ were to prevent a recurrence of the Napoleonic nightmare and to arrange an acceptable settlement for Europe that might produce lasting peace. 
John Wycliff
Attacked the backbone of the beliefs and practices of the church in 14th C
The taille and corvèes were taxes and forced labor, respectively.
True or False?
grand remorstance
200+ article summary of all the greivances parliament had about the king that was presented on Dec. 1, 1641
Catholic League
Formed in 1609 as a Catholic counter to the Protestant Union
Law of Probability
The principle stating that if there are several possible events that might happen, and no one of them is more likely to happen than any other, then they will happen in equal numbers over a large number of trials.
This man was one of the early and influential socialist thinkers who proclaimed the tremendous possibilities of industrial development
John Milton
an English poet who wrestled with the inevitable limitations on individual liberty. He wrote Areopagitica, which defended the freedom of the press. Milton served as a secretary to the Council of State during Cromwell's rule. His epic poem, Paradise Lost, was used to explain human freedom and the tragedies of rebellion.
Cartwright's Power Loom
he was an English clergyman and inventor of the power loom.
Francis I
King of France, fought at war with Charles V of Spain, supported arts.
first czar of russia
ivan the terrible or Ivan IV

Louis XI “Spider King” 

Created a large royal army 
• Dealt ruthlessly with nobles, individually, and 
within the Estates General 
• Increased taxes 
• Exerted power over the clergy 
• Actively encouraged economic growth 
Pragmatic Sanction
provided the legal basis for a single line of inheritance within the Hapsbury dynasty though Charles VI daughter Maria Theresa.
The Seven Years War
In this, the Austrians wanted to reverse the events that transpired with their defeat during the War of Austrian Succession. So, their foreign minister, Kaunite, said the need a new, powerful ally—France. The pact they make with France is called The Diplomatic Revolution. Fredrick suspects something is up, and so he attacks Saxony, where he is then attacked by the allies formed in the diplomatic revolution. Though Fredrick fights very well, he is nearly overrun several times. However, eventually Elizabeth I of Russia dies, and Peter III he successor(who admired Fredrick) refuses to carry on the fighting. The war ends in 1763 with the treaty of paris.
Napoleonic Code
This was the civil code put out by Napoleon that granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property. Napoleon also secured this by creating the Bank of France which loyally served the interests of both the state and the financial oligarchy
St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
Assassinations followed by a wave of Roman Catholic mob violence, both directed against the Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestants), during the French Wars of Religion
Napoleon III and The Second Empire
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of the French Second Republic and as Napoleon III, the ruler of the Second French Empire. He was the nephew and heir of Napoleon I, christened as Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte. Elected President by popular vote in 1848, he initiated a coup d'état in 1851, before ascending the throne as Napoleon III on 2 December 1852, the forty-eighth anniversary of Napoleon I's coronation. He ruled as Emperor of the French until 4 September 1870. He holds the unusual distinction of being both the first titular president and the last monarch of France.The Second French Empire or Second Empire was the imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second republic and the Third Republic, in France.
Most historians think Shakespeare's portrayal of Richard III is accurate and unbiased.
True or False?
Many think it is "Tudor propaganda."
Threats to Christendom (before 14th century)
-Mongols in Russia-Ottomans conquer Byzantium-Both disastrous for prosperous, expanding Europe-Authority of papacy was questioned-Protestant church emerged-religious unity disappeared
Main social differnec between East and West Europe
West-massively middle-working class suffer-business centered-middle class benefits from CR
East-either nobles or peasants-peasants suffer-agricultural based-nobles befnefit from CR 
War of Roses
(1455-1485)A. Causes 1. ambitious nobility 2. weakness of crownB. Effects 1. houses of York and Lancaster destroyed 2. Edward IV gained crown for house of York - never able to wear it securely
The War of the LEague of Augsburg(1688-1697)
France invades Alsace and Lorraine
Brings conflict between France and HREmporer Leopald I
fathered Cathlic powers into an allinace against French Protestant foreces
Catholic and Protestant enemies formed the League of Augsburg
Sweden                           VS                                  FRANCE
*William, becasue he is kingof England, sends in both Netherland and English forces 
The violence of peasant rebellions was usually directed at particular landowners.
True or False?
Peasants were more likely to attack property than people.
Thermidorian Reaction and The Directory
This was the reaction to the despotism after the Second Revolution which led to the establishment of the five-man executive that supported the French military which was not popular with the French people
The Girondists were a faction of the san-culottes within the Legislative Assembly.
True or False?
The Girondists were a faction of the Jacobins.
Parliament emerged victories from the English Civil War because:
A) The king had no support from the English people.
B) France intervened in favor of Parliament.
C) Parliament had the law on its side.
D) of the Scottish alliance and Cromwell's mil
D) of the Scottish alliance and Cromwell's military reforms.
Two Treatises on Government (John Locke)
This was the document that stated that if a ruler steps over its proper function to protect the natural rights of life, liberty, and property, than that ruler was a tyrant and must be overthrown
Which of the following is the best example of Descartes' deductive method reasoning?
A) A telescope reveals craters and mountains on the moon, therefore, matter in the celestial realm cannot be perfect.
B) The orbits of the planets can be calculated

C) "I think, therefore I am."

Descartes's method of deductive reasoning begins with a proposition that cannot be doubted and then draws a logical conclusion. "I think, therefore I am." is Descartes' most famous formulation of the method.
Which English monarchy (as in name) failed to restore Catholicism, although they tried pretty hard...
Stuarts. James II and Charles II. James tried to get people all Catholixed, but he failed.
Which English monarchy (as in name) failed to restore Catholicism, although they tried pretty hard...
Ummmm...they weren't Orange
What were some major causes of The Great Depression?
-fall in world wheat prices
-currency speculation
-high tariffs
-unregulated stock speculation
What were some major causes of The Great Depression?
Seriously, down some Prozac and get over it.
Marsiglio of Padua (b. 1270, d. 1342) = 'Defender of the Peace,' which claimed church subordinate to the state
1409 = council at Pisa1414-8 = council at Constanceunites Church under one pope Martin V; no reform; he rejects conciliar
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