AP Euro 60 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Skopje
Macedonia
Huguenots
French Protestants
Beer Hall Pustch
1923
simony
selling of church offices
The duke of Alba
...
Cheka
The old Tsarist secret police
Plebiscite
A vote of the people.
Hans Holbein
Who painted The ambassadors
Wagner
German composer of operas and specialized in music dramas. Some of his works were "The Flying Duchmann" and "Tristen and Isolda" which was a romantic love story.
Significance: His use of chromaticism and huge orchestras made him one of the key figures during the romantic period.
Boyars
Land owning aristocracy in early Rrussia.
Incas
Civilization in Peru that was conquered by Pizarro
Luddites
group of people that attacked factories against technology advancement.
Population growth
caused by Agricultural innovation brought on by the need to feed more people. The new amounts of food being produced kept people more healthy and allowed for a lower mortality rate and a longer life expectancy. Also the population growth could be attributed to better hygiene practices and better medical practices. The trend is important because it allowed for the development of agriculture which allowed for significant developments in a person's ability to have a safe and stable life.
Robert Blakewell
(1725-1795)- A British agricultural improver, who pioneered animal breeding that produced more and better animals and more milk and more meat.
Leviathan
Hobbes, , Written by English philosopher Thomas Hobbes, maintained that sovereignty is ultimately derived from the people, who transfer it to the monarchy by implicit contract. YES TO ABSOLOUTISM!
Rabelais
French satirical author. Gargantua and Pantagruel.
parlements
french regional courts dominated by hereditary nobles. parlement of paris claimed right to register royal decress before they could become laws
Oliver Cromwell
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
Transubstantiation
the Roman Catholic doctrine that the whole substance of the bread and the wine changes into the substance of the body and blood of Christ when consecrated in the Eucharist
Schleswig-Holstein
Two duchies located south of Denmark. In 1863 Schleswig was annexed by Denmark prompting Bismarck's Danish War
Convertible Husbandry
cultivate land every year, Added fertilzer and livestock, cycle of surplus
Senate and colleges
-Peter completely reorganized the government creating colleges or departments to oversee government affairs; those who were in charge of colleges were loyal to the tsar
-colleges were bureaus of several people operating according to written instruction rather than departments headed by a single minister
-oversaw matters such as collection of taxes, foreign relations, war, and economic affairs
In response to the __________ Act, American colonists agreed to refuse to import British goods.
Stamp
Napoleon Bonaparte
dominated French and European history from 2799-1815; brought the French revolution to an end in 1799; born into nobility, commissioned as a lieutenant in the French army in 1785; rose quickly through the ranks of the French army, won the confidence of his men with energy, charm, and ability to make quick decisions; these and his intelligence, ease with words, and confidence won people's support; 1797 a conquering hero in France, but 1799 abandoned his army against British; took part in the coup d'etat in Paris that overthrew the Directory; a new government called the consulate was proclaimed--first consul, controlled entire government, appointed members of bureaucracy, controlled the army, conducted foreign affairs, and influenced the legislature; In 1802, consul for life, in 1804 crowned himself Emperor Napoleon I; ideal of republican liberty had been destroyed by Napoleon's takeover of power; most French were Catholic so to restore stability to France, in 1801 agreed with the pope to recognize Catholicism as religion of the majority of French people, and pope wouldn't ask for the return of church lands from the revolution; Catholic church no longer enemy of French gov't, and those owning church lands were avid supporters of his regime; completed 7 law codes, most important Civil Code, or Napoleonic Code, which recognized the equality of all citizens, the right to choose a profession, religious toleration, and the abolition of sefdom and feudalism; property rights carefully protected, outlawed trade unions and strikes; woman were less equal than men; promotion was based on ability only; created a new aristocracy based on merit in the state service; insisted that all writing be inspected by the gov't; defeated Prussia, Austria, Russia, and Sweden; sought to spread equality, religious toleration, and economic freedom; nobility and clergy lost their special privileges
Polish Corridor
Versailles gave Poland the territory of Poznania and much of Pomeriania. Led to the Baltic Sea and devided East Prussia from the rest of Germany.
gentry
the most powerful members of a society
Estates General
Not called since 1614-finally called by Louis XVI at the advice of his financial minister-demanded control over the King's finances -he refused and dismissed them-sat as three segregated groups.
Black Hand
the Serbian terrorist group that planned to assassinate Franz Ferdinand, part of the Pan-Slavism nationalist movement, with the intention of uniting all of the territories containing South Slav populations (Serbs, Croats, Macedonians, Slovenes, etc) annexed by Austria-Hungary.
Ferdinand and Isabella
Spanish Renaissance Rulers. They increased royal power by limiting the power of the nobles and church. They used the Spanish Inquisition to throw our Jews, Muslims, and Protestants.
Kristallnacht
"Night of broken glass" during which Nazi troops stormed Jewish ghettos in Germany, killing or capturing approx. 30,000 Jews, and destroying synagogues, homes, and property
William Pitt
English statesman who brought the Seven Years' War to an end
Ricardo
raising wages allows workers to buy more food= more children=oversupply of workers. "Iron law of wages"
Peace of Augsburg
German Princes pick region religion
Aragon and Castille
two major kingdoms of Spain
Aragon and Castille
Spanish
"Illegitimacy explosion"
The period between 1750 and 1850 marked by a high number of illegitimate births - by the 1840s, as many as one birth in three was occurring outside of wedlock in many large cities. (p.805)
Erich Ludendorff
This German, along with his partner Hindenburg, essentially ran Germany during the end of the war
Emile Zola
This was an influential French writer who wrote about naturalism and was often criticized
Sit Thomas More
Wrote Utopia. Critical of injustices of society.
Revanchisme
The French idea of revenge for what Germany did in the Franco-Prussian war
Mussilini
facist ruler of Italy during the early 20th century came to came by appeasing the crowd and being really nationalistic. got power than killed everybody
-Metternich
Defense of status quo, was a an aristocrat, firmly believed in liberalism.
___________ led to the English victory at Agincourt in 1415
Henry V
the russian revolution of 1905 began on a day referred to as _________ a massacre of demonstrating workers by russian troops outside the winter palace in st. petersburg
bloody sunday
Council of Troubles
Alba's "Council of Blood" that executed nobles, seized property, and applied new taxes.
Franz von Papen
Chancellor of Germany who succeeded Bruning
Directory
Group of five men who served as liasons between Robespierre and the Assembly. Overthrown by Napoleon.
richard arkwright
invented the water frame his invention was patented in 1769 but then his patent was revoked and then other manufacturers were allowed to use his invention freely.
Cartel of the Left
coalition government in France composed of the Radicals and the Socialists--governed from 1924-1926
war communism
in World War I Russia, government control of banks & most industries, the seizing of grain from peasants, & the centralization of state administration under Communist control
Michael Servetus
in the mid 16th century, this Spanish humanist became famous for his publications denying the Christian dogma of the Trinity. Arrested in the Inquisition, but escaped to Geneva were he was quickly rearrested. At his trial, stuck to his guns and denied the Trinity, as well as challenging infant baptism, saying that no one could commit a mortal sin under the age of 21. He begged to simply be banished, but was instead burned at the stake
Asistotelian World View
Motionless earth was fixed at the center of universe, God was beyond.
Philip III
Spanish ruler who agreed to a truce with England in 1609 that recognized the independence of the United Provinces (the Netherlands).
James Joyce
An Irish novelist who wrote Ulysses, a stream of consciousness book that mirrored Homer's book
September Massacres
This was a time during the revolution in which violence overtook Paris. The imprisoned aristocrats were rumored to be planning counter-revolutionary actions, causing the angry commoners to invade the prisons and murdering half the prisoners.
Dawes Plan
The American plan to loan money to Germany, who would pay their reparations to France and Britain, who would pay back their debt to America, which created a win-win for everyone, and made they people happy and thought that peace was possible
Count Di Cavour
He was a Sardinian diplomat under Victor Emmanuel, although he had more power than the King, and he wanted to unite northern Italy under Sardinia; however, he knew that Sardinia alone could not kick out the Austrians. Therefore, he made a secret alliance with Napolean III of France. Cavour goaded Austria into attacking Sardinia, leading to France and Sardinia winning. France lost many troops making France decide that the country doesn't want to lose any more forces, leading them to back out of war. Cavour was outraged about France retreating, causing him to resign. Nationalists in Italy topple the Central Italian States, wanting unification with Sardinia. In 1860, Cavour returns as minister and again allies with Napoleon, leading to the unification of Northern Italy.
Woodrow Wilson
American president at the time of WWI who came up with 14 points
Coercive Acts
Acts which closed the port of Boston, curtailed local elections and town meetings, and greatly expanded the royal governors power.
The Great Rebellion
A rumor that spread of rifle cartridges being sealed with beef/pork fat caused the sepoy soldiers to rebel and seize parts of the company. The British exploited the Hindu/Muslim split and then took direct control of much of India.
Congress of Vienna
An assembly of European leaders that met after the Napoleonic Era to piece Europe back together.
Second Industrial Revolution
Steep growth in industry and the production of steel, petrolium, electric power, and the machinery to produce other goods
"Peace, Bread, and Land"
Lenin's slogan in the Revolution. Peace from the war; Land for the peasants; Food for all.
Caspar David Friedrich
Painted Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog, Polar Sea, and Cloister Cemetery in the Snow.
Francois le Tellier
secretary of state for war under Louis XIV, viciously recruited soldiers, army grew incredibly, imposed new levels of professionalization, executed louis plan to its 'natural borders'
Liberalism (Classical Liberalism)
This was the political idea in which the government did not intervene in the economy and liberty and equality were stressed
did calvin believe in separation of church and state?
no but luther did.
Laws of Planetary Motion
In astronomy, Kepler's laws give an approximate description of the motion of planets around the Sun.
The Tudors
Won war of the roses and became the royal family in england.
Treaty of Utrecht
ended the War of Spanish Succession by saying Phillip would become king, but France could not gang up with them and they would also have to give up some of their territories in Canada; recognized Prussia as a power
Millenary Petition
a list of requests given to James I by Puritans in 1603 when he was travelling to London in order to claim the English throne. It is claimed, but not proven, that this petition had 1,000 signatures of Puritan ministers. This carefully worded document expressed Puritan distaste regarding the state of the Anglican Church, and took into consideration James' religious views as well as his liking for a debate
Wilhelm II Mustafa Kemal
the so called "father of the Turks," he founded what is now known as Turkey and defended against British attack
grown in India, once it was smuggled in by British, created a stable demand
Describe Opium in China...
Peace of the Pyrenees
Ended the war between France and Spain in 1659.
saint teresa of avila
is a mystical friend of Saint John the cross. She is a doctor of the church and the patron saint of headache sufferers. She reformed the Carmelite Order.
the pursuit of happiness
the human right to carry out ones life the way they wish for their own enjoyment
Liberty Leading the People (Delacroix)
This work of art shows the glory of the French Revolution
- hold geographic center of Russia (capital moved to Moscow)
- unified, defined political goals
- Great leadership (Trotsky)
- terror (police
- Foreign intervention to help whites stimulate nationalism against whites
- mobilized economy successfully - war
Why did the Reds win the civil war?
Wood
depleted resource
anschluss
annexation of austria
Jesuits
society of Jesus, establishes schools, missions, characterized by extreme faith in the church, become involved politically, ultramontanistic
Jesuits
society of Jesus
Descartes
(1596-1650) French philosopher, discovered analytical geometry. Saw Algebra and Geometry have a direct relationship. Reduced everything to spiritual or physical.
John Calvin
Theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed Calvinism at Geneva. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion
Protestant Majority
England, Switzerland, Netherlands, Scandinavia, North Germany
Zwingli
Lead Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, disagreed with Luther about communion: believed it was only a symbol. Rejected more catholic teachings than Luther
Crimean War
(1853-1856)-Conflict ostensibly waged to protect Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire, in actuality to gain a foothold in the Black Sea. Turks, Britain, and France forced Russia to sue for peace. The Treaty of Paris (1856) forfeited Russia's right to maintain a war fleet in the Black Sea. Russia also lost the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia
Philosophes
The philosophes, or intellectuals were the ones who accepted and embraced many of the new ideas of the revolution. Philosophe is the French word for "philosopher" and it was in France that the Enlightenment reached its highest development. Philosophes asked fundamental philosophical questions about the meaning of life, God, human nature, good, evil, and cause and effect. (p.607)
Papal Bull:
Charter issued by a pope.
Voltaire
"the greatest"; wit of philosophies; wrote number of satires and plays to encourage religious toleration, press for enlightened rule, and against wars
Nikolai Bukharin
..., Bolshevik revolutionary and political and intellectual thinker for Stalin. Supported the NEP
blizkrieg
"Lightning" warfare where the enemy was not forewarned. The idea was to knock out enemy quickly, as in the German attack on Poland in 1939
organic statute
Legislative acts dealing with non-constitutional matters,Statute: formal decision put in place by legislative body -Organic statutes are laws put in place by a legislative boy that refer SPECIFICALLY to constitutional matters. -can be referenced and enforced by a court of law -help us understand where we are and where/how society can grow. Help us create a better system of government and laws.
Montesquieu
(1689-1755) wrote 'Spirit of the Laws', said that no single set of political laws was applicable to all - depended on relationship and variables, supported division of government(separation of power)
hanseatic league
a commercial and defensive confederation of free cities in northern Germany and surrounding areas
Tyndale
translated the New Testament into English
Herman Hesse
(1877-1962) A German born poet, novelist, and painter, his most famous works include Steppenwolf, Siddhartha, and The Glass Bead Game.
Getulio Vargas
Vargas Getulio (1883-1954), served as president of Brazil from 1930 to 1945 and from 1950 to 1954. He was the governor of Rio Grande do Sul for two years before he seized the presidency in 1930 with a group of reforming army officers. Vargas was forced out by an army ultimatum in 1945, but he was elected president again in 1950. He was born in Sao Borja on April 19, 1883. He committed suicide when the army demanded his resignation again in 1954. (World Book Encyclopedia)
Preacherships
offices, endowed by laypeople in many German towns, that required holders to give informed, well-prepared sermons; they helped pave the way for Protestant worship in which the sermon is the main part of the service
Impressionism
An artistic movement that sought to capture a momentary feel, or impression, of the piece they were drawing
(1588) Spanish vessels defeated in the English Channel by an English fleet, thus preventing Philip II's invasion of England.
Armada
Thermodynamics
A series of laws investigating the relationship between heat and mechanical energy (i.e. steam engines) based on Isaac Newton's laws of mechanics. This includes the law of conservation of energy (energy cannot be created or destroyed but only converted into different forms) and demonstrated the triumph of hard science in 1840-1890, after the age of romanticism.
D-Day
The most important battle in the European part of the war, allies stormed beaches and made it through to the mainland, landing in France and moving towards Germany
Japanese-Russian War
over north korea, caused revolutions in Russia, shocked Europeans
Romanticism
This was the response to the Enlightenment in which they believed that not everything could be measured, because of the passion of emotion
Deism
belief that God created the universe based on natural law, but doesn't effect the daily lives of humans
Stalingrad
Decisive battle in German invasion of Russia, the Germans were surrounded and systemically destroyed
Triple Entente
1914, Great Britain, France, and Russia.
Henry the Navigator
(1394-1460) Portuguese prince who promoted the study of navigation and directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of Africa. (p. 425)
Treaty of Rome
Formed a western common market
Jean le Rond D'Alembert
coeditor of the Encyclopedie
Germany.
In 1926 who joined the League of Nations?
Index
A list of books that Catholics were forbidden to read
Babylonian Captivity
1309 - pope to Avignon
no income/needs wealth
led to indulgences and simony
credibility of RCC decreased when needed
Red Shirts
The guerrilla band of 1000 that attacked Sicily and was successful, marching toward Naples until intercepted by Cavour's Sardinian forces.
Elizabeth I
Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn
Restored Protestantism to England
Led England in defeating Spanish Armada
marquis de beccaria
writes about crime punishment stopping future crimes
Robert Castlereagh
This British foreign minister was a supporter of Metternich
Pope Alexander VI
settled the dispute between Portugal and Spain, line of demarcation
new imperialism
the drive to create vast political empires abroad, recalling the old European colonial empires of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and contrasting with the economic penetration of non-Western territories between 1816 and 1880. (p. 868)
Giotto
Florentine Painter who led the way in the use of realism.
deductive reasoning
reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect)
German Confederation
To ensure stability in central Europe, a 39 state German Confederation was created with Austria as the dominate power.
Nicholas II
Russia's last tsar, he witnessed the fall of Russia from great power, to the entering into WWI and total collapse
Rationalism
the doctrine that reason is the right basis for regulating conduct
James Watt
Scottish, discovered a better way for the steam engine, steam engine became better, he improved Thomas Newomen's steam engine
Ursiline Order
This was a female religious order founded by Angela Merici of young, unmarried girls who stayed with their families but lived chaste and pious lives in which they were committed to the instruction of other women. This order began in Northern Italy and spread to France, providing education and moral role models for women.
Boris Yeltsin
Served as chairman of the Russian Parliament, and led the resistance that led to the fall of the Soviet Union
Ivan III
In the reign of Ivan III (r. 1462-1505), the process of gathering in the territories around Moscow was completed. Of the principalities the Ivan III purchased and conquered, the large, rich merchant republic of Novgorod was the most crucial. This prince of Moscow was an autocrat and tsar. This imperious conception of absolute power was powerfully reinforced by two developments. First, about 1480 Ivan III felt strong enough to stop acknowledging the khan as the supreme ruler. Second, after the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453, the tsars saw themselves as the heirs of both the Caesars and Orthodox Christianity, the one true faith. (578)
politique
Ruler or person in a position of power who puts the success and well-being of his or her state above all else
Lend-Lease Program
In 1941, the US lent money and resources to the European states to help reconstruction.
First Balkan War
Serbia, Greece, and Bulgaria allied to drive Turks out of the Balkans
Thirty Years' War
This was the international war between the Protestants and Catholics that eventually ended religious conflicts in Europe
Assembly of Notables
A group of nobles and aristocrats invited by the king of France to discuss reform of the government.
in order to avoid european-wide war after the treaty of san stefano increased russian influence in easter europe, otton von bismarck prompted european leaders to meet at the ________ in 1878
congress of berlin
German Empire 1871-1914
Made up of Prussia + 25 states
12. Volksgeist
Wisdom of country in the stories of peasants. Nation based off common language, history, etc, and government same nationality as governed.
The Reform Bill of 1832
Industrial areas gained equal representation in the House of Commons
new monarchies
the power conflict moved from (pope vs king) to (king vs lord) and in the HRE it was (emperor vs prince) - the towns were outside the control of lords - townspeople wanted kings instead of Lords (it would be better for trade) - the knights lost power (due to new weapons)
Maginot Line
Line of defense built by France to protect against German invasion. Stretched from Belgium to Switzerland.
Beer Hall Putsch
An armed uprising in Munich of maybe 50 people at most, crushed, Hitler's idea
importance of baltic grain
Baltic grain was exported to Western Europe, which caused a drop in grain prices there and led to an economic slump that lasted into the fourteenth century. It was traded to Flemish merchants for cloth.
Hall of mirrors
place where the king of Germany was crowned, versailles
Thomas More Utopia
Civic humanist who rose to a high government position in England. His masterpeice is a description of a utopian society where there is a balance of humanism, religion and property, which he believes causes problems in society (some have it, most don't). He believed that for harmony in society, individuals must be willing to sacrifice rights for the common good.
Prince Henry the Navigator
This man led the Portuguese in exploration in the 1400s.
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.
Martin Luther
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices. MAJOR leader of the Protestant Reformation. Was friends with John Calvin and was protected by the Duke of Saxony. (un muy importante hombre)
indulgence
It was a way for people to pay to relieve their sins and have God's love again/do penance
Seditious Meetings Act
This act made it illegal to meet with a group of more than fifty people
Syllabus of Errors
A document by the pope in which he denounced rationalism, socialism, religious liberty, and separation of the church and state.
role of wives in protestant faith
the wives were living demonstrations of their husband's convictions about the superiority of marriage to celibacy, and they were expected to be models of wifely obedience and christian charity
"What Is to Be Done?"
Essay written by Lenin in 1902 that outlined his plan for an elite revolutionary cadre to engineer the communist revolution in agrarian Russia
- Went into the war because they were promised land, but did not get any.
- Had limited suffrage, small middle class, and a large lower class.
- Disillusioned by Casualties
Post WWI, Italy outlook
WWI - Long Term Causes: Militarism
1. Germany: From 1910 to 1911, their defense increases by 73%. In order to have a good economy, you need a good navy, not just a good military. Germany didn't have such a strong navy before and so they were trying to improve themselves.
2. France: Schneider, increase 10% because they had industrialized earlier.
3. Great Britain: increased 13% because they also had industrialized earlier. GB and France were not as far behind as Germany and Russia
4. Russia: 39% increase in defenses
Causes competition/threat to one another
Instruction of the Christian Women
Written by Juan Luis which held that a woman's sphere should be the home not thep ublic arena where she might compete with men
What happens to Luther after the Diet of Worms?
Luther is banned by Charles V, but escapes to Saxony under the protection of Frederick the Wise.
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