AP Euro 62 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
The 1500's.
Mona Lisa
da Vinci
Ernest Rutherford
atom could split
James I
First Stuart Monarch
These were the French philosophers
Twelve Years Truce
North gets peace
Cardinal Richelieu
French prelate and statesman
French romantic composer of "Symphonie Fantasqué" about a man who's in love with a woman who hates him.
Significance: Used huge orchestras which contributed to the development of Romantic music.
John Cabot
Italian-born navigator, explored the coast of New England, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland. Gave England a claim in North America.
Society of Jesus. Became chief instrument of Catholic Reformation. Pursued three major activities: established highly disciplinary schools, propagated Catholic faith among non-Christians, and determined to carry the Catholic banner and fight Protestantism.
Lord Byron
Embodied the melancholic Romantic figure
Anthony Eden
Opposed Chamberlain's policy of appeasement towards Hitler. Became Prime minister in 1955, resigned in 1957.
club of politically like-minded people all from the third estate. faction of jacobins. were expelled from the convention thanks to the sans-culottes.
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794. promoted the Reign of Terror and other extreme measures
Tax on salt during pre-revolutionary France-included in the Estate's list of grievances.
policy intiated by soviet premier mikhail gorbachev in mid 1980's. glasnost resulted in new openness of speech, reduced censorpship and greater critcism of communism
This Portuguese navigator was the first European to sail around the tip of Africa and thus opened the Eastern coast of Africa to subsequent Portuguese traders.
Cardinal Mazarin
Successor of Cardinal Richelieu and his bad attempts to increase royal revenue and the state lead to the Fronde
Napoleon III
(1852 to 1870)The former Louis Napoleon, who became president of the Second Republic of France in 1848 and engineered a coup d'état, ultimately making himself head of the Second Empire
port through which all trade was required to pass through
an economic system to increase a nations wealth by government regulation
Georgio Vaseri
16th century, painter, architect and writer who used rebirth to describe the era in which he lived
diplomatic building that serves as the residence or workplace of a consul
a new artistic movement during the 1920's and 1930's that attacked all accepted standards of art and behavior, delighting in outrageous conduct. Its name came from the French word dada meaning "hobbyhorse" which is deliberately nonsensical.
Edward the III
son of king john lackland
Italian period of history from 1815 to1850.
Witch trials
when simply accusing someone of something, without any evidence, automatically makes them guilty. Started in Switzerland and Southern Germany and thought that 100,000 were tried.
Pazzi Conspiracy
Unsuccessful plot to overthrow the Medici rulers of Florence. An assassination attempt in the Cathedral on Easter was supported by Pope Sixtus IV. Giuliano de'Medici was killed but his brother Lorenzo escaped. The people of Florence came to the aid of the Medici family and killed the conspirators. Led to a two-year war with the Papacy but strengthened the power of Lorenzo Medici.
Zimmerman Telegram
1917 diplomatic proposal from German Empire to Mexico to make war against the U.S. Proposal declined by Mexico (due to civil war in the country), but angered Americans and lead in part to U.S. declaration of war in April
Leader of the Red Shirts, guerrilla leader; Cavor intercepted him because invading rome would be going against France. Had popular vote, rode through Naples sealing the union of North and South
Union of Utrecht
northern provinces of netherlands claimed independence
Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543)
1543 De Revolutionibus Orbium Caelestium (On the Revolution of the Heavenly Orbs). University of Padua
1524 peasant revolt
inspired by religious reforms, peasants revolt and demand regulation of rent and security of rights. Despite inspiration by Luther, Luther himself rejects them
1524 peasant revolt
religious unrest
Lawrence of Arabia
More successful was the Entente's attempt to incite Arab nationalists against their Turkish overlords. An enigmatic British colonel, soon known as Lawrence of Arabia, aroused the Arab princes to revolt in early 1917. In 1918 British armies from Egypt smashed the Ottoman Empire one and for all. In the Middle East campaign, the British drew on forces from Australia, New Zealand, and India. Contrary to German hopes, the colonial subjects of the British (and French) did not revolt but loyally supported their foreign masters. (903)
An important invasion that lead to the removal of Mussolini from government, only to have him put back later
June Days
These were the French workers' revolts in 1848 after the closure of the National Workshops
The Decameron
Written by Boccaccio. Some tales of Plague.
Modern liberalism
This was new thought that the governments should be subject to change. This was the counterpart to conservatism
-Sepoy Rebellion
India Company and later on directly through the English government itself (after Sepoy mutiny). The British made a class loyal to them by turning the landlords into a class of nobility and giving them control over their lands
Peace of Aix-La-Chapelle
Prussia keeps Silesia. mostly status quo ante bellum. ends war of austrian succession.
educated indians who chafed at enforced segregation and discrimination founded the _________ in 1885
indian national congress
Christian Huygens
This man improved the Dutch telescope and developed pendulum clocks.
Erich Ludendorff
This German, along with his partner Hindenburg, essentially ran Germany during the end of the war
Gresham College
1st time scientists had an honored roll in society; center of scientific activity.
the practice of moving away from home. young men and women would leave home and eventually marry and form their own independent households.
Franz Josef II
(1906-1989) - Prince of Lichtenstein who saw its transformation from a backwater country to a modern state. Also gave women the right to vote.
French Indochina
A French colony that included Vietnam , Laos, and Cambodia, but Vietminh captured the fRench fortress of Dien Bien Phy, North was a Communist State, south independent, they wanted to resist of Communism
Emile Zola
This was an influential French writer who wrote about naturalism and was often criticized
The Supremacy Act
(1534) declared the king the supreme head of the Church of England.
"Sun King"
Louis XIV had the longest reign in European history. Helped France to reach its peak of absolutist development.
spice trade
The commerce from Asia and India to Italian and Muslim merchants who would then trade it to Europeans.
Battle of Austerlitz
This massive victory by the French caused Russia and the Austrians to suspend their support against France
French Revolution
A period of time in which the Bourgeoisie and Peasants rebelled against the monarchy, most notably, Louis XVI, to make equal rights in France. This was caused because the Ancien Regime was outdated and favored the privileged nobility and clergy.
Jean Paul Sartre
A French existentialist who said that people just "turned up" and that there was no God to help honest people. Also said "man is condemned to be free" and people had to choose their actions.
"Bloody Sunday"
This was a massacre occurring on a Sunday when peaceful demonstrators marched to Tsar Nicholas II with a petition and were consequently gunned down by the Imperial Guard. This petition and march were organized by Father Gapon who was paid by the Okhrana, the Russian secret police. The Okhrana employed him so that he could disrupt the Russian government's activities from within the Russian government. This massacre turned most of the citizens against the tsar and led to the October manifesto.
Camillo di Cavour
The political mastermind behind all of Sardinia's unification plans, he succeeded in creating a Northern Italian nation state
Declaration of Pillnitz
Issued by Prussia and Austria and stated that the two countries would intervene in France's revolution if need be
Louis XVI
Poor French ruler, sole purpose was to "please people" lacked intelligence and desire to reform. He and wife Marie Antoinette both spoiled and out of touch
Thomas Savery
English inventor of one of the first primitive steam engines in 1698. It burned coal to produce steam and operated in English and Scottish mines but was terribly inefficient.
Hitler's/Nazi views of Women
womens main purpose according to Hitler, is to make good healthy German children and raise them the German way
Woodrow Wilson
U.S. President, who led USA into WWI. He proposed the 14 points. He attended the peace conference at Versailles.
Peace of Westphalia (1648)
The treaty ending the Thirty Years' War in Germany which allowed each prince, whether Lutheran, Catholic, or Calvinist, to choose the established creed of his territory
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
during the marriage of Henry of Navarre and Katherine Valois, triggered 15 years civil war, protestants were killed in mass, henry ends up being catholic
Final Solution / Holocaust
was Nazi Germany's plan and execution of its systematic genocide against European Jewry during World War II, resulting in the final, most deadly phase of the Holocaust
Battle of the Bulge
WWII battle in which German forces launched a final counterattack in the west
levée en masse
A program by which all bachelors and childless widowers of 18-25 were geared towards a national war effort - mainly the production of guns and gunpowder
Reformation Parliament
Used by Henry VIII to end pope's power in England, make him head of church and to grant him a divorce from Catherine of Aragon.
Sun King
a name for Louis XIV that he created to promote his image as an absolute monarch
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Written by the National Convention -declared all men could do anything as long as it did not harm others.
Structure of German government
They had a strong top government and they had a Reichstag, or the lower house of parliament
grown in India, once it was smuggled in by British, created a stable demand
Describe Opium in China...
social impact of plague
darker view of life, "Dance of Death" became popular in art and literature
States General (Estates General)
Convened on May 5, 1789 in a courtyard at Hôtel des Menus Plaisirs in Versailles. Didn't go as planned, and the upper two classes lost more power to the third class (Third Estate) than they gained from the King, as they correctly predicted. Third Estate, out of the blue, declared the creation of the National Assembly, and invited the other Estates to join them- however, they also said that they would continue with or without the others. The King resisted, but due to the overwhelming majority of the Third Estate, they prevailed.
Representation of the People Act, 1918
As a
result of women's critical contributions to the war
effort during World War I, Parliament gave females
over 30 the right to vote.
"total war" & measures to prosecute it
This was the effort to completely involve every person and aspect of the economy into the war
Pressure to improve the loom/ Edmund Cartwright 1785
power loom factory burned down and 100 looms were lost.
Ronald Reagan
extermination of jews
sober thoughtfulness; pensiveness.
Napoleon overthrows the directory
The striving for excellence. Humanistic aspect of Renaissance.
james francis stuarts nickname
old pretender
Moscow's means of subordinating eastern European economies
Caroline Norton
(1808-1877)-British feminist whose legal persistence resulted in the Married Women s Property Act (1883), which gave married women the same property rights as unmarried women
After 1924 many dadaists were attracted to surrealism, which became very influential in art in the late 1920's and 1930's. Surrealists painted a fantastic world of wild dreams and complex symbols, where watches melted and giant metronomes beat time in precisely drawn but impossible alien landscapes. Refusing to depict ordinary visual reality, surrealist's painters made powerful stamens about the age of anxiety. (938)
John Wycliffe
Protected from ecclesiastical courts by secular English lords. He attacked the doctrine and politics of the church, and taught that sacriments were only as valuable as the priest administering them was worthy. Also, he said that if individuals (including popes and priests) sin, they forfeit the right to exercise authority. He said that the Eucharist was Christ only in spirit (not physically his body) and indulgences were meaningless. He said that salvation was predetermined. Because he attacked the Church's right to wealth, he was protected from being burnt at the stake.
French economic reformers who believed the primary role of government was to protect property
reformers who wanted changes like universal male suffrag; the secret ballot; and payment for membes of Parliament, so that even workingmen could afford to enter politics. this group supported a document called the people's charter.
painted classical mythology, "birth of Venus"
Wrote the Courtier
Maual of proper behavior
Josip Broz Tito
Leader of Yugoslavia, 1945-1980
Raymond Poincare
French nationalistic Prime Minister who occupied German mining/manufacturing districts to ensure payment of German reparations
Henry IV
converted to Catholicism, saying "Paris is worth a mass"
Great Fear
fear of other nations invading France
Joseph II
Joseph II recalled the radical initiatives of the Protestant Reformation. In his Edict on Idle Institutions, Joseph abolished contemplative orders, henceforth permitting only orders that were engaged in teaching, nursing, or other practical work. The number of monks plunged from sixty-five thousand to twenty-seven thousand. The state also expropriated the dissolved monasteries and used their great wealth for charitable purposes and higher salaries for ordinary priests. (p.680)
Nicholas Poussin
French classical painter who painted the Rape of the Sabine Women, known as the greatest French painter of the 17th century.
Alfred Dreyfus
(1859-1935) French Jewish army captain unfairly convicted of espionage in a case that lasted from 1894 to 1906.
The 1882 alliance between Germany, Austria, and Italy.
Triple Alliance
Body linen
Underwear made from expensive linen cloth; made affordable to poor people during the start of the industrial revolution where before it was only available to wealthy people.
Francisco Franco
Fascist leader of the Spanish revolution, helped by Hitler and Mussolini
glorious revolution
in Britain, nonviolent overthrow of the government of James II that resulted in the reign of William and Mary
Jean Jacque Rousseau
"Discourse of Inequality", "Emile", "Social Contract"
This was the response to the Enlightenment in which they believed that not everything could be measured, because of the passion of emotion
"General Will"
Betterment of the community. Founded by Rousseau, he felt that this determines a country's course in economics and politics.
John Eck
Theologian who challenged Luther and categorized him as a Hussite.
Irish Home Rule
Attempts to make Irish self-governed
Otto von Bismarck
(1815-1898) Prussian chancellor who engineered the unification of Germany under his rule.
"Outer Seven"
members of the EFTA - Britain, Austria, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, and Switzerland.
Locarno Agreement
Britain and France accepted a fresh start for Germany
Pope Innocent III
Created the plenitude of power bringing strength to the pope and giving a papal monarchy
galileo's discoveries
- experimental method
- Moon had light spots and dark spots --> wasn't perfect --> celestial bodies weren't perfect (they were thought to be heavenly)
- found 4 moons around Jupiter and they moved
- disproved the stars were motionless and that the 10 spheres revolved around earth
- famous acceleration experiment
- Law of Inertia
Brunswick Manifesto
This was a proclamation issued by Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, and commander of the Allied Army, which was principally made up of Austria and Prussia to the population of Paris, France during the French Revolutionary Wars. The Brunswick Manifesto threatened that if the French royal family was harmed, then French civilians would be harmed and Paris would be destroyed. It was a measure intended to intimidate Paris, but rather helped further spur the increasingly radical French Revolution.
Edward VI
During his short reign of England, Protestant ideas exerted a significant influence on the religious life of the country
Operation Barbossa
was the codename for Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II that commenced on June 22, 1941. the largest military operation in WWII.
defense mechanisms
Freud's postulation that much of human behavior is motivated by unconscious emotional needs whose nature and origins are kept from conscious awareness by various mental devices. (p. 812)
Storming of the Bastille
Paris-July 14, 1789~the medieval fortress and prison known as the Bastille contained only seven prisoners, its fall was the flashpoint of the French Revolution and it subsequently become an icon of the French Republic
Leonardo Da Vinci
Mona Lisa (individualism) , Last Supper (Christian Humanism) although he was italian.
Paris Commune
The people of Paris refused to surrender so they established a revolutionary Paris Commune which had very many similarities to 1793 with socialist principles, but the commune was crushed by an elected Constituent Assembly.
Edward Bernstein
A revisionist social who advocated the gradual gain of socialism and looked towards Darwin's doctrines as a measure for a change in socialism's tactics
Crystal Palace
Building erected in Hyde Park, London, for the Great Exhibition of 1851. Made of iron and glass, like a gigantic greenhouse, it was a symbol of the industrial age. (p. 606)
Gerard groote
One of the mystics that emphasized importance of individual relationship with god and individual sacraments to help one connect with god. He was also the leader of brothers of the common life and said that to live the philosophy of Christ one doesn't need to become a priest or join the clergy
David Ricardo
This British economist and member of Parliament, who was friends with John Mill, was an important economist who said that more than one nation could benefit from trade with one another. This contradicted mercantilist ideas that there was a finite amount of wealth, and nations could only profit by taking money away from one another. He influenced the ideas of Marx and John Mill.
Six Articles (1539)
requires English belief in several Catholic ideas including transubsantiation, the celibacy of the clergy, and the need for confession
Six Articles (1539)
Henry VIII
Catherine the Great
How she came to power- killing husband
Bill of Rights
A list of principles formulated in response to Stuart Absolutism:
a- no standing army in peace-time
b- no quartering of soldiers
c- law cannot be suspended by the king
d. only protestants can bear arms
e. judges cannot be fired by the king
f. kings cannot arrest someone without due process of law
g. the crown cannot interfere with parliament in terms of elections and debate
h. kings must be protestant (most important one)
Italian City States
Power held in Florence by Medici banking family. Central Italy was Papal States. Major states controlled smaller ones competing for territory and created balance of power and modern diplomacy. A lot of oversea and canal transport and trade and Florence capital of banking but most Italians made money through selling wool
Venice, Milan, Florence, Naples, Papal States
Middle Ages
Is the time period between ancient and modern times...thus the name "middle".
Decline of Ottoman Empire
They fell behind in industrialization, in education, and in general compared to the west
Factory Act (of 1833)
limited the factory workday for children
in the 1880s, _______ leader of the irish party in the british house of commons championed irish home rule
charles parnell
Olympia de gouges
writes the "declaration of the rights of women"
-this is the birth of womens rights
37. Gen. Radetzky -
defeated Piedmont and supressed the revolt in northern Italy.
bismark was this --> do what needs to be done to increase your power (realistic politics based on the needs of the state)
Bentham and Principle of Utility
'greatest happiness for greatest number' > wuld overcom special interest groups
sola gratia
salvation comes by the free gift of God's grace
William and Mary
King and Queen of England in 1688. With them, King James' Catholic reign ended. As they were Protestant, the Puritans were pleased because only protestants could be office-holders.
Geneva Consistory
This was a moral tribunal in the city of Geneva that was established after John Calvin brought the Protestant Reformation there and set up a new system for education and practice of Calvanism as opposed to Catholocism.
Conspiracy of Equals
Led by "Gracchus" Babeuf an attempt to renew violent rebellion after the Thermidore reaction - communistic nature.
Peasants' War (of 1525)
in response to Luther's "On the Freedom of a Christian Man"; hoped to gain social and political independence; Luther didn't support them, because he needed the aid of the nobility
Nuclear Family
A family that owns a household that is apart from the extended family
Great Britain's advantages in the Industrial Revolution
Natural resources, geography, interest in technology, strong financial situation, and political stability.
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Catherine de Medici planned to invite all the Huguenots to the royal wedding of her daughter Margaret and Henry of Navarre in Paris to settle the ongoing dispute. On August 1572, Catherine de Medici and her followers spilled Huguenot blood, but Henry of Navarre was able to escape by converting into Catholicism in an instance.
Pedro Alvares Cabral
Assisted Diaz to set up trading posts in India. He also saw Brazil on April 22, 1500 and claimed it for Portugal and reached India and brought spices back.
Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III)
This was the first French president as a result of the election after the Revolution of 1848
War of Spanish Succession
This was the war between France and Spain in order to unite the two states under one ruler, Phillip V
Dutch East India Co.
the company chartered in 1600 by the British government to trade in the East Indies: after being driven out by the Dutch it developed trade with India until the Indian Mutiny (1857), when the Crown took over the administration: the company was dissolved in 1874
James II (1685 to 1688)
Final Stuart ruler who was forced to abdicate in favor of William and Mary, who agreed to the Bill of Rights, guaranteeing parliamentary supremacy
Glorification of the state over all other aspects of culture and Use of war to distract from domestic ills.
How is absolutism different from totalitarianism?
Act in Restrain and Appeals (1533)
This was an act by English Parliament under Henry VIII that exempt England from the Pope's authority, and gave the king of England the final say on all church matters in England, and all the places it controlled (Scotland, etc). This allowed him to divorce Catherine of Aragon for Anne Boleyn (Mary's mother for Elizabeth's mother) and sell the Church's land in England to nobility.
What did Cromwell do to England?
Left it in a military dictatorship by dividing it into 12 districts and created a standing army, was a mercantilist and created the Navigation Acts which helped the economy
Why did the Catholic king of France support Lutheran Princes?
Because the French and German were in a constant battle known as the Habsburg Valois War over the terriotory gained through the marriage of Maximilian and Mary of Burgundy. And this struggle for Protestantism led to a weaker, fragmented Germany.
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