ap euro and 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
artist
constable
Oliver Cromwell
1642-1650
Utopia
Sir Thomas More
Tories
want James in power
gorbachev
renounced the Brezhnev Doctrine, pulled troops out of Afghanastan, supported Glasnost, and urged perestroika; but all this failed, Last USSR leader, called for economic reform and a greater emphasis on human rights throughout Eastern Europe.
Aragon
a region of northeastern Spain
1697-1698
Peter the Great toured Europe
Bartholomew Diaz
(1487-1488) Portuguese, first European to reach the southern tip of Africa in 1488.
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon
political theorist and socialist, argued that the private ownership of property robbed those without property of their share of the planet's benefits, wanted and end to government
Zollverein
Tariff union established by Fredrick William IV of Prussia in 1818. First made-up of enclaves (small states) within Prussia, but eventually extended to include almost all of Germany. Allowed for economic unification of Germany.
Leonardo da Vinci
Renaissance sculptor, scientist, engineer, architect, and painter. His most famous works include The Last Supper and Mona Lisa. His artistic style embodied the spirit of Renaissance investigation and its focus on the realistic portrayal of human life. He lived from 1452-1519
Kulaks
better-off peasants, stalin wanted to eliminate them
Whig
British party more responsive to commercial and manufacturing interests.
Abstract Expressionism
Nonrepresantational art, no climazes, flattened- out planes and values, the real appearance of forms in nature os subordinated to an aesthetic concept of from composed of shapes, lines and colors. Value: personal and subjective interpretation.
socialism
a political theory advocating state ownership of industry, An economic system in which government owns some factors of production and participates in answering economic questions. It offers some security and benefits to those who are less fortunate, homeless, or under-employed.
Duma
the Russian parliament, after the revolution of 1905, instituted by Nicholas II. It served as the representative body that the people demanded during the revolution. Nicholas reserved himself ministerial appointments, financial policy, and military and foreign affairs. This body faced many dissolutions and was used by various parties to take better charge in the government.
Giuseppe Bottai
Italian lawyer, economist, journalist, and member of the Fascist party who attempted to oust Mussolini and side Italy with the Allies.
Henry David Thoreau
inspired Gandhi in passive resistance
Immanuel Kant
Knowledge for improvement of human kind; all knowledge empirical (mind shapes world through experiences); inspired Romantic artists; similar to Rousseau in that other layers of knowledge exist beyond the knowledge that can be achieved through the use of reason
Encyclopedia
This was the first publication of different essays about the culture and society of France which was put on the Index of Forbidden Books because it dealt with controversial issues
Young Turks
Idealistic Turkish exiles in Europe and young army officers in Istanbul, fervent patriots who seized power in the Turkish Revolution of 1908, and forced the sultan to implement reforms, preparing the way for the birth of a modern secular Turkey after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.
Pan-Slavism
a nationalist movement to unite all Slavic peoples, encourages the Serbs, Bosnians, Slovenes, and Croats to seek a single political entity in Southern Europe.
Quadruple Alliance
The alliance between England, Austria, Prussia, and Russia, which was created March 9, 1814 and later renewed November 20, 1815 after Napoleon's second exile. It's two main purposes were to keep the peace and pursue victory over France.
secularism
The view that the present well-being of mankind should predominate over religious considerations in civil or public affairs.
Franz von Papen
conservative who negotiated with Hindenburg to have Hitler appointed chancellor
Columbus
This was the man who discovered Americas while originally looking for a faster and all-sea route to the East but instead landed in the West Indies.
Jacques-Louis David
French Neoclassical painter who used ancient republican themes in the 1780s to emphasize the corruption of French monarchial government. Oath of the Horatii in 1784; supported French Revolution
how did it happen
washington killed french diplomat
Anti-Semitism
A mindset that people of Jewish heritage were inferior to other races
13th Century
period in which Florentines gained control of Papal Banking
Famine in Ukraine
Collectivization in the Ukraine resulted in massive famine in 1932-1933. 3. In the USSR, 93 percent of peasant families had been forced onto collective farms (by 1933). 4. Peasants fought back by securing the right to cultivate tiny family plots. 5. But it was a political victory for Stalin and the Communist party, as the peasants were eliminated as a potential threat.
Michelangelo
Michelangelo was skilled in many art forms. He created such famous sculptures as the Pietà and David, the famous painting on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, which was originally supposed to contain only the 12 apostles, as well as being the architect for Saint Peter's, whose dome was the model for Saint Paul's in London and the U.S. Capitol building.
William III
King of England and Scotland and Ireland; of Orange and married to Mary
council of trent
official church reaction to the reformation, in which it reaffirms church doctrine and curbs church abuses - change practices
Martha Ballard
delivered over 800 babies. She always put the lives of the mother and child before her own. She practiced as a nurse, mortician, and pharmacist
Liberal Party
Formerly the Whig Party, headed by Gladstone in the nineteenth century.
"Politics of reality" i.e., the use of practical means to achieve ends. Bismarck was a practitioner.
Realpolitik
Peninsula War
France was forced to invade Spain after the failure of Joseph Bonaparte. Very costly for Napoleon. The Duke of Wellington helped the Spanish.
Sun Yatsen
This man was a radical Chinese reformer who sought to overthrow the government
Dante
an Italian poet famous for writing the Divine Comedy that describes a journey through hell and purgatory and paradise guided by Virgil and his idealized Beatrice (1265-1321)
Locarno Treaty
(1925) Pact that secured the frontier between Germany and France and Germany and Belgium. It also provided for mutual assistance by France and Italy if Germany invaded its border countries.
"New Monarchs"
Monarchies that took measures to limit the power of the Roman Catholic Church within their countries. The people loved the idea of being the monarch and removed all competition. They were very Machiavellian. Included Henry VII and Henry VIII of England.
Swabian Peasants
12 Articles (1525) revolt in Germany in 1525, revolted in Memmingen
Maximilien Robespierre
"The incorruptable;" the leader of the bloodiest portion of the French Revolution. He set out to build a republic of virtue.
schlieffen plan
Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.
Louis XIII
Influenced by Richelieu to exult the French monarchy as the embodiment of the French state.
Treaty of Tordesillas
agreement between spain and portugal to explore different lands
Masaccio
The ranaissance artist who led the way in establishing a new style of employing deep space, modeling , and anatomical correctness.
commercial revolution
the expansion of the trade and buisness that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th centuries.
Isabella of England
This daughter of Philip the Fair married Edward II of England, and muddied up the succession to the French throne when all of Philip's sons died without issue. Basically, through her, Edward III was the most direct heir to the French Throne.
Troppau Conference
This was the conference at which the Troppau Protocol was signed in which any country that underwent a revolution was no longer part of the European Alliance
lay piety
the belief that there was an interior sense of the direct presence and love of God. Devotional and mystical works were written to teach laypersons how to feel repentance, not just how to define it. Lay persons who wanted to remain in the outside world were mainly part of this. Confraternities, which were religious guilds founded largely for laypersons, grew up in the cities and, through common religious services and programs of charitable activities, tried to deepen the spiritual lives of their members. No special value on monastic vocation.
Reign of Terror
Suspects of king supporters and high aristocracy killed with the guillotine
Babylonian Captivity
the exile and deportaion of the jews from their home land jeruselam into ________
Da Vinci
One of the best examples of a Renaissance man. He painted, wrote, sculpted, invented, among his philosophical ideas
boyard nobility
the nobility in the feudal division of the eastern Slavic territories. (p. 577)
predestination
The idea that God chose who would be saved and who would be damned at the beginning of time.
Triennial Act
The King has to call Parliament every three years
Thermidorean Reaction
A reaction against the violence of the Reign of Terror. Robespierre was executed.
Red Guards
Group of young people that tried to get rid of Mao's opponents. Beat up, exiled and killed many people.
Cogito, ergo sum
"I think, therefore I am"; famous saying by Rene Descartes; the onyl think
Royal Council
Was the council the King of England trusted to handle executive, legislative, and judicial business.
Pope Sixtus V
promised Phillip II cash to land in england
Actions of Council of Trent
-called by pope paul III
goal--reform church and reconcile with Protestants
-equal validity to Scriptures and to tradition as sources of religious truth and authority
-reaffirmed 7 sacraments and transubstantiation
-strengthened ecclesiastical disciple
"Spanish Armada"
This was the vast amount of ships sent by Phillip II to attack England because of the conflicts between Phillip II and Mary, Queen of Scots
Peace of Westphalia
ended the Thirty Years' War 1648 - reinstated the Peace of Augsburg with Calvinism included, granted Protestants the land of former Church states, Switzerland and Holland were independent. France, Sweden and Brandenburg (Prussia) gained land.
Poor Law
1834, Gave some aid to the poor, but not very helpful against unemployment. Very favorable to employers.
The Schlieffen Plan of 1905
Germany's grand strategy for quickly winning the war against France in 1914. In the original plan, the crushing blows at France were to be followed by the release of troops for the use against Russia on Germany's eastern front. This plan failed because it was not properly implemented and caused the war on the western front to become a long contest in place.
Nicholas II
Last tsar of Russia, he went to the frontlines in WWI to try to rally the troops, but was forced to abdicate after his wife made horrible decisions under the influence of Rasputin.
Pico della Mirandola
1486 - Oration on the Dignity of Man
"Thou shalt have the power, out of ty soul's judgement, to be reborn into the higher forms
Hitler's Popularity - how popular & why
Hitler was popular for promising economic recovery and delivering
War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748)
When Maria took power of Austria, Fredrick of Prussia attack. Conflict dragged on, and was eventually ended in 1748 with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which reflected an Anglo French agreement and had little to do with Maria Theresa. Fredrick only gained Silesia.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Written by the National Convention -declared all men could do anything as long as it did not harm others.
War of the Spanish Succession
In Spain Charles II was mentally and sexuall deffective. 1689 European Powers and France agreed to parition Spanish possessions between France and the HRE. Though his will left the corwn to PHilip of Anjou, Louis XIV's grandson and rejected the union of the French and Spanish. Louis however went away.
The Dutch and the Enlgish wouldnot accept French qcquistion of Spanish Netherlands and of the Rich Spanish trade in the colonies. In 1701 the Grand Alliance (English, Dutch, Austrians, and Prussians) were formed against Louis XIV to keep him from becoming too strong in Europ but truly to keep tensions and maritime rivalry down tith French in their ecxpanding commercial power in NOrth America, Asia, and Africa.
Soldiers Euguene (HRE prince of Savoy) and Englishman John Chruchill dominated the Grand alliance and in 1704 defeated Louis. In 1713 the War was concluded at Utrecht.
During the early sixteenth century what was the condition of the English church?
It was in very healthy condition. There were zealous clergy that were educated and a strong wave of support for the church.
China's Hundred Days of Reform
A period of reform for china in the attempt to meet the foreign challenge
What did Edmund Burke write, and what did he believe
He wrote Reflections on the Revolution and defeneded inherited privileges and believed that the reforms would lead to tyranny and chaos
Quattrocento
The 1400's.
Presbyteries
the "governments" or small councils created to lead Calvinist communities, made up of elected ministers and lay religious
Presbyteries
Calvin's Geneva
DP's
Displaced persons, orphans
The Putting out System
-
quid pro quo
something for something
Conservatism
denounced liberalism and blamed liberal middle class revolution for stirring up lower classes advocated the preservation of the best in society and opposing radical changes
Sartre
French writer and existentialist philosopher (1905-1980)
Northern Renaissance
Christian Renaissance, Desiderius Eramus,Tthomas Moore, were writers during this peroid
16 million
deaths to the soviet union
Dominant group in the National Convention in 1793 who replaced the Girondist. It was headed by Robespierre.
Jacobins
resilience
an occurrence of rebounding or springing back
Neo-Platonism
A philosophical system developed at Alexandria in the third century A.D. by Plotinus and his successors. It is based on Platonism with elements of mysticism and some Judaic and Christian concepts and posits a single source from which all existence emanates and with which an individual soul can be mystically united
bourgeoisie
Originally French for a legal demarcation of person, usually denoting a member of the middle class; in the 19th century, it was corrupted to mean the ruling class in a capitalist society. They supported the French and American revolutions.
Jacques Necker
(1776-1781) A talented Swiss protestant banker, Necker published a complete accounting of the state budget, the compte rendu, which reveled the incredible waste therein. Necker's plan's for economy proved too much for some, so he was dismissed in 1781. This well respected symbol of reform was recalled by the king during the early phase of the revolution in 1789.
1555
Peace of Augsburg-price would decide religion for his people
Sigmund Freud
Viennese founder of psychoanalysis, found that childhood memories often affected later life, but you don't realize it because of defense mechanisms
*shows family structure and family's kids became more and more seperated from family, class difference, reflects tremendous emotional intensity in family in 19th centuryz
Erasmian virtues
Erasmus's values of mildness, reasonableness, tolerance, restraint, manners, scholarship, peace, reform through thinking
Erasmian virtues
modern Christian values
Red shirts
Guerrilla army of Guiseppe Girabaldi who invaded Sicily in 1860 in an attempt to "liberate" it and won the hearts of the Sicilian peasantry. (p. 828)
Zwingli
didn't believe in the Lord's Supper; against Luther
Mussolini
founded fascism and ruled Italy for almost 21 years, most of that time as dictator
Walter Scott
This Scottish Romantic poet used history to write his poems
Charles Fourier
French social theorist - criticized capitalism - wanted socialist utopia and emancipation of women. Theory of Four Movements.
Pius IX
Pope who denounced unification and published the Syllabus of Errors
Anglo-German rivalry
caused by Germany's pursuit of colonies and a large navy
Cubism
An Artistic movement that focused on geometric shapes, complex lines, and overlapping planes.
Josiah Wedgewood
created less expensive products for middle class, advertisement
Impressionism
An artistic movement that sought to capture a momentary feel, or impression, of the piece they were drawing
Dante Aligierhi
Medieval Italian poet wrote Inferno and Divine Comedy. Dealt the influence of the afterlife.
suburb
residential areas that sprang up close to or surrounding cities as a result of improvements in transportation.
Leopold II
(reigned 1865-1909) King of Belgium who employed Henry Morton Stanley to help develop commercial ventures and establish a colony called the Congo Free State in the basin of the Congo River
mir
Peasant village assembly - took over administration of peasant land as collective property. Village as a whole was to make redemption payments and mir could deal with defaults. Could prevent peasants from moving away. Government prevented selling of mortgage or land to outsiders & hence helped preserve peasant society.
Elie Halevy
was a French philosopher and historian who wrote Era of Tyrannies, which talked about the different kinds of government and how they all stemmed out of nature of modern war.
Sturm und Drang
Storm and Stress. Early German Romanitcs.
Marin Luther
Protesting the doings of the Catholic Priests. Catholic Church was like a big corporation. As Catholicism spread over Europe, quality control was important. Catholicism needed a lot of priests, the need was so great that some priests weren't as well learned as they should be. Church starts to go down. People start to notice it.
Friedrich Nietzsche
One of the intellectuals who glorified the irrational. Claimed reason played little role in human life because humans were at the mercy of irrational life forces.
Act of union
united Scotland and Britain into United Kingdom of Great Britain
"Communist Manifesto"
Marx & Engels contended that human history must be understood and as a whole
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Targeted group of assassinations, followed by a wave of Roman Catholic mob violence, both directed against the Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestants), during the French Wars of Religion. Traditionally believed to have been instigated by Catherine de' Medici, the mother of King Charles IX, the massacre took place six days after the wedding of the king's sister to the Protestant Henry III of Navarre (the future Henry IV of France). The massacre also marked a turning point in the French Wars of Religion. The Huguenot political movement was crippled by the loss of many of its prominent aristocratic leaders, as well as many re-conversions by the rank and file, and those who remained were increasingly radicalized.
Paris Commune
The small government in Paris who wanted to resist the conservative leaders of France and tried to form their own government
dowry
money or property brought by a bride to her husband at marriage
Harvey
This was the man who first detailed the accounted for the circulation of blood flow
Spanish Armada
the Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, ending in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. This is viewed as the decline of Spains Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power.
Noble Liberty-chaos
The Liberum veto created much chaos because things couldn't get done. Because of the noble's liberty, Poland eventually fell of the map because it wasn't important at all.
Consubstantiation
The bread and wine undergo a spiritual change.
The treaty of Westphalia
granted Calvinists legal recognition, reasserted that the leader of a land determines the official religion of that land, recognized the independence of the Swiss Confederacy and the United Provinces of the Netherlands
Aristotle
Wrote the Politics to set a systematic political science for future generations
Sir Francis Bacon
This man advocated the careful recording of scientific experimentation. He was not a scientist himself, but the idea that all experiments should be repeatable and thus reliable influenced all of European science. This conflicted with the Church's interests, because science could not be controlled by Rome and could seldom be explained by religious teachings. Unexplained "magical" science was easier to disprove and thus ignore than openly explained experimentation.
Magna Carta
Signed 1215 by King John- "Great Charter"- Reactionary Document to King John's taxation of the nobles- says "No one is above the law"- Therefore, the king isn't above the law and he can't make it, or tax the nobles. *Nobles wanted to go back to time of feudalism
Boyar
A boyar is a member of a high-ranking order of the Russian aristocracy. A boyar was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Russian, Romanian and Bulgarian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the tenth through the seventeenth century. Ivan the Terrible abolished their old distinction between hereditary boyar private property and land granted temporarily for service. All nobles old and new had to serve the tsar in some way in order to hold any land. (580 and wikipedia)
Ireland's Great Famine
Due to its relative cheapness and abundance, the dependeny on the potato was extremely high. When diseas took most potato crop, Ireland was left starving and 1 million struggled to leave the country, immigrating to England or the US.
mannerism
A style of art making room for the stange and abnormal. Giving freer reign to individual perceptions and feelings of the artist.
El Cid
This was the Spanish equivalent to the Knights of the Round Table
The Middle Way
The Scandinavian system of in the middle of socialism and capitalism, an ideology that you can have some of your own things and keep some of your money, and have higher tax rates.
Woodrow Wilson
American president at the time of WWI who came up with 14 points
Warren Harding
- wins election of 1920, over Wilson, America is turning away from WIlson's idealism, isolationist.
Charles I
Went over the heads of Parliament to raise money, like his father. Levying new tariffs and duties for money for war.
Battles of the Marne
This battle was a French/British victory, because they stopped the German offensive
Treaty of Tilsit (1807
-Agreement between Napoleon and Czar Alexander I in which Russia became an ally of France and Napoleon took over the
Peace of Augsberg (1555)
This was an agreement/declaration by the Germanic princes, which said that they had the choice of what religion to follow (their people would be whatever religion they said that they were). Thus, some became Lutheran and some remained Catholic. Those who chose Catholicism were generally in the South, closer to Rome (law of proximity), and those who were Lutheran no longer had to pay taxes to or obey the Pope.
Cuius regio, eius religio
Latin meaning along the lines of 'Whoever rules the land gets to decide what religion it should be.'
Karl Marx
This man came up with the idea of communism/dialectic socialism that said that two classes have always battled against each other to form another class that will battle against its antithesis until the synthesis is one equal class working with each other for each other
Two Treaties on Government
Work written by John Locke, people have natural rights and best type of government was a limited government
Lin Tse-hsu
A special envoy sent to Canton in 1839 to order foreign British merchants to abide by Chinese laws.
Tsar Nicholas II
Tsar of Russia from 1894-1917, who is largely described as being in the wrong position at the wrong time. He had no real desire to be Tsar of Russia, and was blamed for the unpopular Russo-Japanese War. He proved incapable of managing the state during the time of political turmoil before the end of WWI, and was forced to abdicate his throne during the Russian Revolution in 1917. He was executed with his family shortly thereafter in 1918.
What major events are occurring in Central Europe around the time of Charles V's ascent of the HRE?
Turks are fighting Hungary.
education was emphasized, question theories from the church
what comparison can be made between the 15th century renaissance and the 18th century emlightenment
Identify Louis XIV's two objectives.
Secure spain and become the absolute monarch
Triple Entente & Triple Alliance
The triple Entente was an alliance between France, Britain and Russia, the Triple alliance was an alliance between Germany, Austria and Russia
Who controlled Portugal during this time?
Salazar--ruled as a dictator for 40 years
1. Italian Unification
2. Northern German Confederation
3. Maximilian on Mexican Thrown
What failures made Napoleon III to not allow a Hohenzollern on the Spanish Thrown?
Battle of the Coral Sea, 1942
In this battle, Allied naval and air power stopped the Japanese advance and also relieved Australia from the threat of invasion. This victory was followed by the Battle of Midway Island. (985)
War of the Three Henrys
This was the last of the wars that occurred over the religious differences in France, between the Catholics (Henry III of France and Henry of Guise) and Protestants (Henry IV)
If they did not convert they were Quartered, made slaves, France lost good workers so it hit the economy and the good workers went to the enemy.
What was the Impact of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes?
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