AP Euro D&E definition Flashcards

Terms Definitions
William Wordsworth
banking and wool
Invention of printing press
The Cossacks maintained their independence beyond the reach of the oppressive landholders and the tsars hated officials. The solution to the problem of peasant flight was to complete the tying of the peasants to the land, making them serfs perpetually bound to serve the noble landholders, who were bound in turn to serve the tsar. (580-582)
Family Legislation in Soviet Russia
most prosperous of the provinces
Political theory, advocated by Bismarck, that national success justifies any means possible. Very Machiavellian.
a tool invented after Magellan's voyage. It is used for navigational skills such as calculating the sun's latitude. This instrument helped greatly in the making of maps and charts of land and sea.
emperor of Western Europe; crossed Pyrenees and won back northeastern corner of Spain to Christian rule, brought land into own empire
selling of indulgences
released buyer from purgatory
spirit of the laws
book - montesquieu
a moderate evolutionary form of Marxism
Bacon's theory of inductive reasoning. [Scientific Revolution]
David Ricardo
Principles of Political Economy (1817); "iron law of wages": rise of population means rise of amount of workers, which cause wages to fall below the subsistence level, resulting in misery and starvation
These were the "radicals" in Reformation in which someone would choose if they wanted to be baptized
French writer, wrote for pleasure. Gargantua
Third International
terrorist organization dedicated to inciting Communist revolution and establishing worldwide Communist state
A party of revolutionary Marxists, led by Lenin in Russia.
Victor Emmanuel
Sardinia's monarch who helped unite Italy
Georges Haussmann
(1809-1884) Baron. Napoleon placed in charge of Paris. With other urban planners, he destroyed old buildings to cut broad, straight, tree-lined boulevards through both the center of the city, as well as on the outskirts. This allowed for easier traffic flow, better housing, and sewers.
being removed from Church practices as a penalty for not following the practices of The Church. The most extreme punishment that the Church can mete out.
Vladimir Lenin
Dictator of Russia who supported original Marxism. He promised peace, land, and bread
New Economic Policy
Lenin's economy reform that re-established economic freedom in an attempt to build agriculture and industry
the Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler
Wrote the Decameron which tells about ambitious merchants, portrays a sensual, and worldly society.
Pope Julius II
1508, summoned Michelangelo from Florence to papal city of Rome to paint frescoes on celing of Sistine Chapel, aghast at nude figures and forced fig leaves to cover, Michelangelo left, pope resides in Vatican
This was a movement within Lutheranism that revived Protestantism that called for an emotional relationship, allowed for the priesthood of all believers, and the Christian rebirth in everyday affairs
Hitler's Rise
Gained power through feeding off others, and promoting racist nationalist ideals. Gained control of the German Worker's Party, built his way up from there
Truman Doctrine
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
an English economist who protested the harsh treatment of Germany post World War I, leaving the peace conference and denouncing the reparation payments
called for deflationary measures in GB
Thomas Paine
Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. In England he published The Rights of Man
son of Fredrick III, married Mary of Burgundy in 1477, the heiress who inherited the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and the country of Burgundy (modern day Eastern France)
Viet Cong
National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam
The Black Death
mid-14 century, helped sound death knell of feudalism by killing 1/3 of population, peasants improved legal status, 1378-1382 rebellions occured.
St. Petersburg
Capitol city created by Peter the Great to resemble a French city. It was built on land taken from Sweeden "A window to the West"
A reference to the republic of Germany that lasted from 1919 to 1933.
Population Growth
This period marked beginning of steady growth of European population, bringing with it rise in food prices and rise in demand for goods. - Europe's population was 100 mil in 1700; by 1800, 190 mil. Caused by decrease in mortality due to lack of war or plague, Hygiene and sanitation helped, but not new medical knowledge. Improved production of grain and the introduction of the potato helped to spur growth. Created new demands for food, goods, jobs, etc. Caused growth of labor pool, and social discontent.
Germany had to pay billions of dollars in war reperations
This was caused by the strictness and the incompetence of the Catholic Church.
first to reach the Pacific Ocean, in 1513
alexander III
tsar of Russia from 1881-1894; sought to roll back his father's reforms. favored centralized bureaucracy
One man ruled and handed down the right to rule to his son.
Mary Wollstonecraft
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women
discourse on method
(Rene Descartes)- This written work used skepticism to come to the conclusion "I think, therefore I am" by questioning everything that anyone thinks they are certain of. Thus, the only thing we can be certain of is that we have doubt, and doubt is thought, and thought must come from a mind. He also concluded that because we know we are not perfect, there must be something perfect that gives us that knowledge, and that perfect thing is God. In this way his highly untraditional ideas did not conflict too much with Christianity.
An important invasion that lead to the removal of Mussolini from government, only to have him put back later
John Locke (1632-1704)
Political theorist who defended the Glorious Revolution with the argument that all people are born with certain natural
Reformation Parliament
THe king declared the Parliament in order to spur his encouraged religious reform. Passed grievances against the catholic church. Declared Henry in charge of religion
Red Terror
The campaign of mass arrests and executions conducted by the Bolshevik government
President Edvard Benes
forced to resign as president of Czechoslovakia
Hundred year war
War between English and French, french won Major Battles- battle of crecy, 1346 Orleans , Formigny 1450
Absolutism and Baroque
The royal palace was the favorite architectural expression of absolutist
Francis I
This was the French king who reached an agreement with Pope Leo X and allowed the French king to select French bishops and abbots
Jewish Emancipation
Jews gained equality and as a result there was economic prosperity because of their work as financial agents, money lenders, and railroad builders.
Hitler's Foreign Policy
Made friends with Italy, did stuff behind the table with Russia, and hated everyone else.
Ludwig van Beethoven
This pianist was considered the master of Romanticism music
Roman Catholic Church
The branch of the Christian Church that was centered in Italy.
Charles V
This was the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation
Edwin Chadwick
This was a public health official who wrote reports on the poor living conditions of the cities and believed that poverty was caused by illnesses
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Mass slaying of Huguenots (Calvinists) in Paris, on Saint Bartholomew's Day, 1572.
Treaty of Utrecht
1713, ended War of Spanish Succession between Louis XIV's France and the rest of Europe; prohibited joining of French and Spanish crowns; ended French expansionist policy; ended golden age of Spain; vastly expanded British Empire
Johann Sebastian Bach
Was a baroque composer who wrote religious cantatas and the best organ music ever written.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
Martin Luther
son of a minor, got his doctorate at age 21, after being caught in a bad thunderstorm he prayed to god that if he was allowed to make it out alive he would serve him as a monk for the rest of his life, wrote the 95 theses after outrage at the sale of indulgences in Germany, started Lutheranism after excommunicated by the church, beleived salvation could be acheived by faith alone and that it was predestined
-Leopold II / Congo
second king of belgium, remembered as the founder and sole owner of the Congo Free State, a private project undertaken by the King
Francois Guizot
This man was an active player in the French Revolution of 1848 who helped in the overthrow of Charles X
Battle of Stalingrad
Turning point for Germany in the war. From July 1942 to January 1943 after initial success the Russians recaptured the city.
Easter Rebellion: Ireland
(1916) in the midst of WWI while British were distracted, a small group of Irish nationalists rebelled in Dublin over the delay in home-rule during Easter week; aroused nationalist Irish support
Modern imperialism
This was the start of the building of foreign empires for trade and military advantages over other states
Against the Murderous, Theiving Hordes of Peasants
When German peasants used Luther's ideas of challenging authority as reason to revolt against local rule, Luther wrote this. It was an angry repossession of his words, which they had twisted (in his view) for their own purposed.
Cosimo de Medici
in 1443 he took control of the city. the Medici family ran the government from behind the scenes. using their wealth and personal influence, cosimo and later his son
William I (Orange)
William I was a Prince of Orange and the first King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg.
Erwin Rommel and El Alamein
Erwin Rommel was A German general, known as the "Desert Fox", who was sent to help aid the Italians invade Egypt. However at the Battle of El Alamein a British army under General Montgomery pushed the Axis forces back to Tunisia.
Frederick Elector of Saxony
This was the man who supported and hid Luther after the Diet of Worms
"Paris is worth a mass"
Stated by Henry IV it basically means that Paris was primary Catholic and he would need to convert to Catholicism to win the support of France
Know about Sobibor, Auschwitz, Belzec, Treblinka, Dachau, Zyklon B, Himmler, Mengele, Eichmann.
• The mass death camps with gas chambers and crematory ovens at Auschwitz, Treblinka, Belzec, Sobibor, and others, where peoples whom the Nazis deemed "inferior" could be systematically liquidated
• Concentration camps like Dachau, were where the prisoners were given minimal rations and worked to death
• Zyklon B - used by Nazis to kill people in gas chambers
• Himmler - in the genocidal view, these policies would provide the wartime "Final Solution" to the so-called "Jewish problem"
• Mengele - called the "Angel of Death" for performing human experiments on camp inmates. Determined who was killed and who would be a forced laborer.
• Eichmann - one of the major organizers of the Holocaust. Charged with task of facilitating and managing logistics of mass deportation of Jews
Treaty of Paris, Peace of Hubertusburg (1763)
Ended the 7 Years' War. Prussia keeps Silesia, British gains Canada, territories east of Mississippi, and India. Spain gets French territories West of Mississippi.
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