AP Euro Definitions 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
french calvinists
Galileo Galilei
Origin of Species
economic reconstructing by Garbachev
economic reformers who believed mercantilist policies and labor regulation by government and guilds hampered expansion of trade and agriculture
Hermandades or "brotherhoods" were popular groups in the town. They were given authority to act as both local police forces and as a judicial panel. (p.443)
Joseph Priestley
18th-century English theologian, Dissenting clergyman, natural philosopher, educator, and political theorist who published over 150 works. He is usually credited with the discovery of oxygen, having isolated it in its gaseous state, although Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Antoine Lavoisier also have a claim to the discovery
general view of divorce
not acceptable
Nikita Khrushchev
successor of Stalin in SU
meaning "charcoal burners". the most famous of the secrete rebublican societies seeking to unify Italy under one leadership in the 1830s
Putting smaller farms together into one large farm so as to increase productivity
After Cavour, system where political opponents were turned into supporters by bribery and favors.
oliver cromwell
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
Lech Walesa
led the Solidarity in Poland
Thomas More
English Christian Humanist. Wrote Utopia describing an ideal socialist community which is "nowhere". He blamed society for human problems and therefore looked to reform social institutions in order to better society. Executed by Henry VIII during the English Reformation for refusing to acknowledge Henry as the head of the Church of England. Made a saint by the Catholic Church.
an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of contaminated water or food
Traveled the world writing history that was separate from myth and legend, "Father of History"
French representative at the Congress of Vienna and limited the demands of other countries upon the French.
muslim migrants
spread Islam throughout regions they traveled through
Alexander III
A determined reactionary Tsar who nevertheless sped forward with economic modernization
wanted to purify the english angelican church.
A new principle of building design that focused on buildings being functional which means serving the purpose it was made for best
Another powerful family in the south and west of France. In league with the Montmorency-Chatillon, the Bourbons supported the Huguenot protesters to battle the Guises for political reasons.
Trans-Siberian Railroad
A railroad that went across Siberia
A German customs union founded to increase trade and stimulate revenues of its members
the name for the Protestant revival that began in Germany; it stressed enthusiasm, the priesthood of all believers, and the practical power of Christian rebirth in everyday affairs. (p. 681)
Refers to a French aristocrat that fled France during the Revolution from 1789 onward, who viewed the Revolution as a temporary inconvenience and expected to return to France upon its end. They often led armies in the Vendee or to assist the Coalition armies elsewhere.
Black Death
bubonic plague; big dispute over origin but regardless October 1347, Geonese ships gave it to Messina and then Sicily, France etc and then England int 1348
Whig Party
Reform Bills of 1832, more representative of the people
Lend-Lease Act
March 11, 1941, Congress gave President Franklin D. Roosevelt the powers to sell, transfer, exchange, lend equipment to any country to help it defend itself against the Axis powers
certificate granted by pope in return for payment. certificate says time in purgatory reduced
this city became a refuge for persecuted Protestants and a center for Lutheran resistance
These were the types of buildings designed by Charles Fourier for a utopian society
Denis Diderot (enlightenment)
editor of encyclopedia. educated by the Jesuits.
known to kill dogs belonging to people suspected of poaching
author of The Book of the Courtier which offered "how-to" advice to a member of the court of the Renaissance
A process for heating a product to destroy the organisms causing spoilage.
Article 48 of the Weimar constitution, which enabled Hitler to issue decrees carrying the force of the law.
Enabling Act
when the bread and wine become the actual body and blood of Christ by the power of the priest (opposed to consubstantiation where Christ's spirit is in the bread and wine)
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Document that announced the withdrawal of Russia from WWI
Rump Parliament
This was the Parliament after Oliver Cromwell dismissed the Cavaliers
Eastern Orthodox Church
Christian followers in the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire); split from Roman Catholic Church and shaped life in eastern Europe and western Asia
John Calvin
This was another leader in the Reformation who believed in a simple faith and a simple method of worship
The industrial revolution
second half of the "Dual Revolution"
This art movement followed World War I and attacked all accepted standards of art and behavior. It delighted in the outrageous.
Triennial Act
known as the Dissolution Act, was passed, requiring that no more than three years should elapse between sessions of Parliament
Who were early industrialists backed by?
Family and Friends
"Black and Tans"
the Royal Irish Constabulary Reserve Force, which was one of two paramilitary forces employed by the Royal Irish Constabulary from 1920 to 1921, to suppress revolution in Ireland by targeting the IRA.
Ivan III
(a.k.a. Ivan the Great) a Muscovite prince, who questioned authority of the Mongols and overthrew them and became the first king of Russia; started absolutism in Russia
a philosophy based on the idea that nothing can be known for certain
Stalin's five-year plans
The first five-year plan to increase industrial and agricultural production was extremely ambitious, but Stalin wanted to erase the NEP, spur the economy, and catch up with the West. (960)
Home Rule Act 1914
➢ Irish protestants in northern Ireland wanted no part of Irish Catholic state
➢ Gave Ireland self government
➢ Enacted because Irish catholics demanded more independence
who was involved in the Gun powder plot
guy fawks
Congress of Vienna
This was the meeting between the Quadruple Alliance in order to formulate a peace agreement and to balance the victories of the Napoleonic wars
Hermann Göring
A Nazi politician and president of the Reichstag
This was one o the original men to challenge the church. His writings became "scriptures" for other reformers to follow.
Johann Gutenberg
Man who created the printing press and changed the production and reading of books
International Workingmen's Association
To unite working people in paris. Scared Paris Commune.
Otto Von Bismarck
Chancellor of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empire (714)
Warren Hastings
This man was the first governor of British Bengal
Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Written by Locke, tabula rasa theory.
The form of government in Italy in the 13th through 16th centuries, in which a lord ruled a lordship. This replaced republican and democratic government because it seemed simpler to have the power in the hands of one strong leader rather than many who fought amongst themselves.
Time of Troubles
Following the death of Ivan the Terrible in 1584, disorder persists until the Romanov dynasty is established in 1613.
War over Calvinism
The war over Calvinism was fought in France. Calvinism was a Protestant belief that stressed Predestination, had one interpretation of scripture, and stressed self-governess. Calvinist were later called Puritans. The two main wars over Calvinism were the thirty years and the French religious wars.
"Spanish Armada"
This was the vast amount of ships sent by Phillip II to attack England because of the conflicts between Phillip II and Mary, Queen of Scots
papal response to luther
ordered his books burned, giving him two months to recant or be excommunicated. luther responded by publicly burning the letter
Reign of Terror
This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed
Congress of Berlin 1878
Britain and Austria forced Russia to agree to an international conference where the great powers would review San Stefano provisions. Germany just wanted to be left in peace with no new territory, as Bismarck said. Russia still resented Germany though. They were unhappy about the congress, although Austria-Hungary both gained territory, as well as France and Britain. Balkan states were unhappy about it too.
Northwest Passage
A water route from the Atlantic to the Pacific through northern Canada and along the northern coast of Alaska. Sought by navigators since the 16th century.
Confederation of the Rhine
League of German States organized by Napoleon in 1813 after defeating the Austrians at Austerlitz. The league collapsed after Napoleon's defeat in Russia.
The Peace of Augsburg
principalities in the HRE came to a settlement and developed this, princes of the HRE could remain Catholic or become Lutheran, but there was no choice of Calvinism, Charles V was unhappy about this settlement, because he was a devout Catholic, but had to offer choice to keep the peace
Henry of Navarre (Henry IV)
huguenot who passed the edict of nantes
Defender of the peace
Book written by marsillios of pad and discusses that the church is the divine power and serves god in the best interest for the Christian people
Describe the International or French phase of the Thirty Years War.
During this phase Cardinal Richelieu declared war on Spain. Also he sent financial and military assistance to the Swedes and German Protestant princes.
Mussolini's Rise - role of Black Shirts
These were Mussolini's bullies who pushed socialist out of Northern Italy
Many historians place blame on Austria-Hungary which started the war and Germany which goaded Austria and was so aggressive that Britain joined the war, what was the causes of Britain's aggression
After Bismarck resigned in 1890 the leaders felt Germany's power was declining while Britain, France, Russia, and United States were growing in power
Stalinist terror and the Great Purges
1. In the mid-1930s, a system of terror and purging was instituted. 1. Even Stalin's wife fell victim of his terrorist action. 2. The Kirov murder led to public "show trials" of prominent Bolsheviks; this led to more than 8 million people being arrested--many were killed. 2. Stalin recruited new loyal members to take the place of those who were purged; these people ruled until the 1980s. 3. Historians are baffled as to why the purges took place--some think they were a necessary part of totalitarianism; others think that Stalin's fears were real.
1- Henry VIII
2 -Edward VI
3 - Mary I
1- rejected the supremacy of the Pope and Rome but kept Cathlolic Doctrine the same (moderate)
2 - made the church extremely prtoestant; removed celibacy
and relics and created new liturgy
3- made the church extremely Catholic and persecuted Protestants
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