AP Euro Final Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Bavaria
Catholic
Mass transit
...
Reighstad
parliment in Germany
evolution
Development or growth; formation
piety
dutifulness in religion, devoutness
Central Powers
Alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey. Turkey joined against its rival Russia.
Botticelli
Sandro Botticelli; 1445-1510; artist sponsored by the Medici family; painted long lines, with long, smooth human forms; art was never angular or sharp
Donatello
(1386-1466) Sculptor. Probably exerted greatest influence of any Florentine artist before Michelangelo. His statues expressed an appreciation of the incredible variety of human nature.
Charles Fourier
French social theorist-criticized capitalism-wanted socialist utopia and emancipation of women. Theory of Four Movements.
John Kay
Inventor of flying shuttle, (1733)
How did Zwingli, the Anabaptists, Calvin, and Knox shape the Reformation?
#3
The condemnation of __________ by Roman Catholic authorities in 1633 is the single most famous incident of conflict between modern science and religious institutions.
Galileo
Nikolai Bukharin
Bolshevik revolutionary and political and intellectual thinker for Stalin. Supported the NEP
Versailles
Louis XIV built Versaille under architecht Le NOtre and Le Vau into an architectural paradise with a sense of vastness, elegance, detail, and perfection (especially in the Hall of Mirrors). He used this to overaw his subjects and basically assert the difference between his power and other. He ordered all the great nobles to come to Versailles to live there for part of the year. Used great cerfmonies to undermine the power of the niobility.
Karl Liebknecht
radical socialist leader; co-founder of Communist Party of Germany, failed in revolution
Petrarch
(1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
Kulturekampf
Struggle for culture, Bismarck's term for creating German unity by suppressing Catholics and Socialists.
Woodrow Wilson
(1856-1924)-President of the United States and key figure in the peace conferences following World War I; he intended to make the world "safe for democracy."
Chartist Movement
Protect poor people, representation of everyone, everyone has rights
Jean le Rond D'Alembert
Coeditor of the Encyclopedie.
Holocaust
the Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler.
Classicism
a movement in literature and art during the 17th and 18th centuries in Europe that favored rationality and restraint and strict forms
dissenters
Protestants who refused to accept the Church of England
Hohenzollerns
They were the family that established Prussia. Their power seemed to diminish but after the establishment of Germany, the Hohenzollerns gained power gradually.
Walter Gropius
German architect who broke form previous design with light, airy, bright buildings of glass and iron
short parliament
(1640) Scottish military revolt in 1640 occurred when Charles attempted to impose the English Prayer Book on Scottish Presbyterian Church-needed new taxes-Parliament reconvened-refusal of Petition of Right-disbanded after a month
joseph stalin's agricultural policy in the 1930s called for 'liquidation of the kulaks' whose land was converted into _________
collective farms
Fashoda Affair
The conflict between Britain and France for control of Fashoda in Africa in the late 1890's. Never reached full-on war, but close. France lost in the end because of internal conflict over the Dreyfus Affair. French backdown.
Northern Realism
Genre or everday scenes exhibit mathematical and geometric values of seventeenth centruy science. Middle class Dutch patrons commissioned secular works, portaits, still lives, landscapes, and genre paintings. Values: Quiet opulence, +comfortable domesticity, and relaism.
Treaty of Versailles
From this, France gained Alsace-Lorraine and mining rights to the Saar Valley, Poland was recreated, Balkans and Eastern Europe was reorganized, German colonies were given to other nations as mandates, and Germany was forced to have a limited army, no air force, no submarines, and for thr Rhineland to be demilitarized, and to pay 31 billion dollars in reparations.
Reconquista
The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492.
Dvorianie
Established by Peter the Great, they received land and control of the peasants.
Directory (1795-1799)
The five-man executive committee that ruled France in its own interests as a republic after Robespierre's execution and prior to Napoleon's coming to power
Consulate
Form of government which followed the directory -established by Napoleon-ended when Napoleon was crowned emperor.
flagellant
a person who whips himself as a religious penance
Louis XIV
Revoked Edict of Nantes; didn't help French economy;
linear perspective
An artistic principle developed in the Renaissance that allowed a painter to create a greater illusion that before. The principle is based on all horizontal lines going towards one or two points on the horizon or at eye level, while vertical lines remain vertical. This was based on the new idea of having a certain perspective with which one should view a painting.
Thomas More
wrote Utopia (1516) presents a perfect society in which everyone is equal. Suggests that the basic problems in society are caused by greed, people are corrupt.
Kosovo
- it's a Serbian province that seeks independence due to its predominantly Albanian population, and was the site of brutal ethnic cleansing by Serbians against Albanians during the Kosovo War beginning in 1996. The significance was that it was a clear instance of ethnic identity being brought into conflict, and depicted specific instances of ethnic cleansing and extermination of a race, placing a human face to the suffering. Authors who may back up this situation include Gagnon, who you can say described the ethnic nationalism that leaders like Milosevic used to encourage the populace to support his acts against Kosovo.
Pearl Harbor
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
peasant revolt war
uprisings of europ. peasants against their lords
Victor Emmanuel
First King of Italy, who was originally king of Sardinia.
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
This man developed the first cohesive theory of evolution after his studies of biology
baruch spinoza
Believed that God had no existence apart from the world, that everything was itself an aspect of God.
French Catholic League
more extensive than smaller local anti-protestant organizations that sprung up in 1560s, posed threat to Huguenots and monarchy, led by Henry duke of Guise.
Rousseau
Wrote Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind, The Social Contract, & Emile. He identified the human nature was originally happy but was corrupted when man claimed that they owned land. Said the government must rule at the general will of the people so that the most people are benefited. Hated Parlaiment because the delegates made laws not the people
Popular Front
was the French political alliance that allied the Communists, the Socialists, and the Radicals together.
Tetzel
a friar who, in 1517, sold indulgences to help raise money for the construction of St. Peter's cathedral in Rome
Triple Entente
Alliance of Great Britain, and France, and Russia in the First World War.
Pugachev
A Don Cossack leader of the most violent peasant insurrection of Russia. Repressed by Catherine the Great in 1774.
Ivan the terrible
turned sensible reform of law in russia into violent tyranny
Tinguely and Phalle
Fountains made of old machinery parts and adorned with statues
T. E. Lawrence
Popularly know as Lawrence of Arabia, when World War I broke out he became a member of the British Military Intelligence Department in Cairo, and eventually became the British liaison officer to the Arabs during their rebellion against the Turkish Empire. After the war he served the British delegation at the Paris Peace Conference, where he promoted the cause of Arab independence. Although this failed, he was later able to help Winston Churchill settle a rebellion in Iraq in 1922.
Sans - culottes
Petty laborers and laboring poor = wore pants not knee breeches - became a major political group in revolutionary France.
Rudolf Hess
Deputy to Hitler in the Nazi party person who dictated Mein Kampf
Lorenzo de Medici
Italian ruler, and known employer of Renaissance artists such as Michelangelo, and Da Vinci.
Factory Act of 1833
Created factory workday for children ages 9-13 to 8 hours a day; N/A to home; outlawed child labor under 9 yrs old - factory owners had to establish schools; destroyed family unit
They want Industrial reforms
Why are the Factory workers upset?
South African War
Also Boer War. This war, which occurred between 1899 and 1902, was between the Afrikaners and the British in South Africa. The British won.
Eamon De Valera
First President of Sinn Fein, American Born
Joseph II
This was the ruler of the Habsburgs that controlled the Catholic Church closely, granted religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews, and abolished serfdom
Polish Corridor
The strip of Poland that the Germans wanted to take, specifically Danzig
Great Prince Iaroslav the Wise
He reigned from 1019-1054). Certainly Russian developments in the early medieval period had important parallels with those in the West. Both the conversion of the eastern Slavs to Christianity and the loose but real political unification of the eastern Slavic territories under a single prince and a single dynasty in the eleventh century were in the mainstream of European medieval civilization. So, too, was the typical feudal division of the land-based society into boyard nobility and a commoner peasantry. After the death of Great Prince Iaroslav the Wise, the powerful principality in present-day Ukraine disintegrated into competing political units. (576)
Frederick of Saxony
also known as "----- the wise", this man was one of the seven electors in the HRE who elected Charles V, told Charles V to slow down and consider his options about Luther, and to give Luther a trial, which became known as the Diet of Worms, after Luther is convicted, this man snuck Luther out of Worms to one of his spare castles
Artisans Dwelling Act of 1875
Government became actively involved in providing working class housing through this
Differences between Roman Catholic and Lutheran beliefs
Salvation
Catholics said salvation is achieved by both faith and good works. Lutherans saw salvation through faith only.
Religous Authority
Traditionally authority rests both in Bible and in traditional teaching of the church.
Lutherans: "Sola Scriptura" authority in Word of God in Bible alone as interpreted by an individual. Luther urged each person read and reflect on the scriptures.
Questions of Church
Luther: Remphasized Catholic teaching that church consisted of entire commuity of Christian believers. Medeival chruch men however saw church with the clergy.
Highest Form of Christian Life
Medieval- stressed monastic religous life as superioir
Luther: argued lal vocations have equal merit.
Other
Luther saw church as spirtual priesthood of all believers not fixed in one person and stressed the invisibilty of the heirarchy.
Catholics however practices a clerical hierarchial instution under the Pope.
Catholics have 7 sacrements while Luther saw 3 ( baptism, penance, and Eucharists or Lord's Supper).
Eucharist
Catholics: Transubstantiation
Luther: Consubstantiation (also supported by Zwingli and Calvinists)
Medieval Scientific though Origins
Astronomy is based on Ptolemy. Physics is based on Aristotle. Planets and sun revolved around earth. Aristotle believed that heavy objects fell faster than lighter objects and believed that the natural state of objects is at rest.
Confederation of the Rhine
League of German States organized by Napoleon in 1813 after defeating the Austrians at Austerlitz. The league collapsed after Napoleon's defeat in Russia.
Yohan Tensel
Who is famous for having said "As soon as gold in the basin rings, a soul in purgatory springs."
Declaration of the Rights of Man
document declaring the rights of french men and citizens 1789
On Liberty (John Stuart Mill)
This work advocated economic and moral freedom of individuals from the state. This work is enormously influential to politics today
Pope Leo X
This was the pope that used the sale of indulgences to rebuild a basilica and he was also the pope who challenged Martin Luther
The Long March
Troops of the red army were forced to walk 10,000 km, which actually made them heroes and inspired more Chinese people ot join the party. Mao also emerged. Established the right of communists to rule for most Chinese people.
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
This was the work that started the tabula rasa theory where the human mind is blank until it is filled with experiences that allow a person to think differently
Putting out or domestic system
It was a method if producing textiles in which agents furnished raw materials to households whose members spun them into thread and them wove cloth, which the agents then sold as finished products. The putting out system signaled the decline of the guild structure and served as the halfway house toward factory production in the late eighteenth century.
The Trade Disputes Act of 1927
made it illegal for workers to declare a general strike
Problems facing the church on the eve of the Reformation-
Some resulted from the Black Death (anticlericalism, pietism which reduced the importance of the hierarchical church based in Rome); Great Schism & the Avignon papacy; poorly educated lower clergy; Simony
36. By the end of 1809, the Habsburg empire had done all of the following
- The Habsburg house survived a fourth defeat of the French in the War of Liberation in 1809
- Napoleon would take portions of its territory
- A part of Austrian Poland was used to enlarge Napoleon's Grand Duchy of Warsaw
- Napoleon constructed the Illyrian Provinces with parts of Austria from the South
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