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Terms Definitions
girondists
more moderate
seigneurial system
feudal system
sans-culottes
-stood against unearned property
June 17th 1789
National Assembly formed
directory
..., National Convention-middle class writes a constitution in 1795. Elect members of a reorganized legislative assembly-5 man executive. Continued to support French military expansion. Actions reinforced widespread disgust with war and starvation(shown in national elections). Use army to nullify elections, govern dictatorially.
radicalization
parisian mob stormes tuileries 1792. Louis has to seek refuge with legislative assembly. he and Marie imprisoned. because no constitutional monarchy, they needed a more radical assembly.
levée en masse
-1793
-mass conscription by revolutionary govt.
-generated resistance due to unpopularity
dechristianization
..., Movement started by the Herbertists - throught traditional religion was counterrevolutionary so devised program to substitute with new cult. Included a new Revolutionary Calendar. Introduced "Cult of Reason"(1793) and climaxed with ceremony in Notre Dame with "Reason" being impersonated by an actress. Robespierre frowned on Cult of Reason and preferred Cult of Supreme Being.
vendee
..., Counter revolution led by conservative forces (nobles, clergy, and the peasantry).
3 revolutionary principles:
1) "liberty"
2) "equality"
3) "fraternity"
Olympe de Gouges
-1791
-daughter of a butcher
-published The Rights of Women
bourgeoisie
France's middle-class who had no privileges and defined by wealth
Gained much influence in the 1st Revolution and regained influence in the Thermidorean Reaction
New Constitution
1791. king got "suspensive veto" meaning he could veto a law for 4 years, and his ministers were responsible for their own actions. there would be a permanent, elected, single chamber assembly with the power to tax.
Marat (1st Rev.)
A revolutionary French journalist who's newspaper was "The Friend of the People"
He spurred the mob in the October Days
fichte
..., Claimed that German culture was distinctly different from French culture, and that German culture was superior. Superiority. Said Germans should assume their rightful place as the leaders of Europe.
pain d'egalite
''Equality bread," bread made from whole wheat rather than white flour during the French Revolution
thermidorian reaction
..., extended Political Reign of Terror. Goal was increasingly an ideal democratic republic where justice would reign and there would be neither rich nor poor. their lofty goal was unrestrained despotism and guillotine. In Mar. 1794, to the horror of many sans-culorres, Robespierre's Terror wiped out many angry men who had been criticizing Robespierre for being soft on the wealthy. it recalled the early days of the Revolution
turgot
..., LXVI did appoint a reforming ministry. At its head was Turgot, a philosophe and Physiocrat - widely experienced govt administrator. Undertook to suppress guilds, gave freedom to internal commerce in grain, planned to abolish royal corvee and replace with money tax on all classes. Reviewing whole system of taxation and known to be in favor of relig. toleration. Parlement vociferously opposed him - 1776 he resigned.
Brunswick Manifesto
-1792
-Austria and Prussia warned the French that they would be severely punished if the royal family were harmed
the great fear
the revolution spreads to the countryside
Old Regime
political and social system in France before the French Revolution
enragés (2nd Rev.)
Radical sans-culottes who put down Girondists and wanted to intensify de-christianization
de-christianization (2nd Rev.)
An unsuccessful aggressive campaign by radical revolutionaries that denounced religious institutions and symbols
great fear
..., The panic and insecurity that struck French peasants in the summer of 1789 and led to their widespread destruction of manor houses and archives.
battle of valmy
..., Sept 20, 1792. Disorganised French armies won a moral victory (not really much more than an artillery duel) vs. the Prussians. Blocked the Prussian march on Paris. French armies then went on to occupy the Austrian Netherlands, Savoy(king of Sardinia had joined Austrians) and Mainz.
joseph bonaparte
..., Napoleon's brother, made king of Spain but unable to control the Spanish which led to the costly Peninsula War., (1768-1844) - Napoleon's brother, made king of Spain (1808) but unable to control the Spanish and he abdicated (1813). His failure to control the Spanish led to the costly Peninsula War., appointed king of Naples and Spain; led to reforms but was overthrown, When France defeated Spain and Portugal, Napoleon's brother was made King in Spain, causes creoles in Latin America to lose loyalty to Spanish crown and took advantage of Spain's weakness to revolt.
flight to Varennes
-june, 1791
-Louis XVI and family tried to flee France
-failed
-turned public against him and strengthened support for a republic
-major turning point in revolution
lettres de cachet
Documents issued by the king permitting arbitrary arrest and indefinite imprisonment without trial and was highly critized in the cahiers
"cultural revolution" by national convention
created metric system. abolished slavery. legalized divorce. enacted shared inheritance laws.
Robespierre (2nd Rev.)
Leader of the Jacobins who supported the Terror as a way to defend democracy, liberty, and virtue
-late 18th century
-leading figure on the Committee of Public Safety
-wanted to establish a "cult of supreme being"
the mountain
..., This was a political party within the National Convention named because the people that made up this party sat on the highest benches in the assembly hall. These people were the activists within the Convention. The Mountain worried that the Girondists would become conservative because of their already moderate beliefs. Although they were in competition with each other, the Mountain eventually won due to their alliance with the Sans-Culottes, resulting in a more radical group of people. The mountains believed in equal outcome.
abbe sieyes
..., Wrote an essay called "What is the 3rd estate" Argued that lower classes were more important than the nobles and the government should be responsible to the people.
treaty of tilsit
..., Two agreements signed by Napoleon in the town of Tilsit in July 1807. The first, signed on July 7, with Tsar Alexander of Russia. The second, signed on July 9, with Prussia. Ended the war between France and Prussia and created an alliance, making the rest of Europe powerless. Russia joined the Continental System and also resulted in the creation of the Duchy of Warsaw.
assignats (1st Rev.)
paper currency backed by the proceeds of the Church's land but eventually led to inflation because the National Assembly used up the money
flight of the king
nobles leave france. Louis and family try to escape france. caught and arrested. people distrust him.
Civil Constitution of the French Clergy (1st Rev.)
Very controversial document that declared the Church a state Church-made priest swear an oath of loyalty to the Revolution; bishops elected by local assemblies
levee en masse
..., A national draft in France in 1794, created under the Jacobins, of a citizen army with support from young and old, heralding the emergence of modern warfare.
declaration of the rights of man
..., Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.
jacques necker
..., a Swiss banker who became the new royal director-general of finances. He reported that a large portion of royal expenditures went to pensions for aristocrats and other royal court favorites. This greatly angered court aristocratic circles, and he left office shortly after. His financial sleight of hand made it difficult for government officials to raise taxes.
national constituent assembly
..., The king eventually gave into the National Assembly and requested that the FIrst and Second Estate to join the National Assembly. This new legislative body was known by this term., The king eventually gave into the National Assembly and requested that the FIrst and Second Estate to join the National Assembly. This new legislative body was known by this term., New name taken by the National Assembly
cahiers de doléances
Petitions to the king; a list of grievances made by local assemblies and the first two estates that was discussed by the third estate and many criticized monarchical absolutism, seigneurs, and the tax system as well as calling for a national rep. body
Committee of Public Safety
had the power to deal with the national emergency.
Napoleon Bonaparte (late 18th, early 19th century)
French general who fought the Austrians in Italy; overthrew French Directory with Sieyès and became consul for life
August (Wilhelm Anton) von Gneisenau, Count Neidhardt
Prussian field marshal and military reformer. Along with Gerhard J.D. von Scharnhorst, he remolded the Prussian army shattered by Napoleon (1806) from a mercenary force into an instrument of modern warfare, introducing universal military service. In 1811 - 12 he traveled on secret missions to negotiate a new war against Napoleon, which was renewed in 1813. As chief of staff to Gebhard von Blücher, he planned Prussian, and sometimes Russian, strategy. Gneisenau's insistence on the decisive battle and relentless pursuit proved successful at the Battle of Waterloo.
Olympe de Gouges (1st Rev.)
Woman who demanded equal rights for women and published "The Rights of Women"
Anne-Robert Turgot (Rev. of the Nobles)
French minister of finance who made reforms based on wanting to cut the hindering priveleges (tax exemptions/guilds/commerce of grain/peasant hardships) to make the monarchy more effiecient
-caused much opposition from those negatively effected
Assembly of Notables (before the Estates-General is convoked in 1789)
Assembly used to deal with an emergency crisis that was used instead of Estates-General in order for Louis XVI to avoid losing power
made up of upperclergy/nobles-but they refused to make decisions and instead wanted the convocation of the Estates-General
third estate during the first phase
all people not clergy or nobles, but some clergy and nobles joined the group
Tennis Court Oath (beginning of 1st Rev.)
After being locked out of their meeting place by the king, the third-estate declared this, promising not to disband until a constitution was written to limit the king's authority
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (beginning of 1st Rev.)
A document created by the National Assembly that declared universal principles; many ideas from philosophes-Rousseau's general will and others; also proclaimed progressive taxation and that the army is for the state not one person; educated about liberty
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