AP Euro IB 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Jean-Honore Fragonard
Fragonard, Jean-Honoré (1732-1806). French painter whose scenes of frivolity and gallantry are among the most complete embodiments of the Rococo spirit.
French political faction with no strong religious ties that tried to manipulate political divisions in France for its own political gain.
Tycho Brahe
Influenced by Copernicus; Built observatory and collected data on the locations of stars and planets for over 20 years; His limited knowledge of mathematics prevented him from making much sense out of the data.
Cesare Beccaria
philosophe; promoted criminal justice; applied logic and reason to crime and punishment; felt that the justice system should focus on preserving social order instead of avenging crimes; called for the abolition of capital punishment and torture; wanted speedy trials and the elimination of cruel and unusual punishment
Joseph Lister
grasped connection between aerial bacteria and problem of wound infections-reasoned that a chemical disinfectant applied to a wound dressing would kill the bacteria-antiseptic principle
Sacred rituals of the Roman Catholic Church
Gerardus Mercator
A Flemish cartographer (1512-1594) was one of the first to produce a world map that showed, with relative accuracy, the general outline of the continents.
Jean-Antoine Watteau
Jean-Antoine Watteau (October 10, 1684 - July 18, 1721) was a French painter whose brief career spurred the revival of interest in colour and movement
Cardinal Fleury
chief minister, tried to solve France's financial problems but didn't because France entered the War of Austrian Succesion
Franco-Prussian War
1870-71, war between France and Prussia; seen as German victory; seen as a struggle of Darwinism; led to Prussia being the most powerful European nation. Instigated by Bismarck; France seen as the aggressor.
Edict of Worms
declared Martin Luther an outlaw within the empire and his works were to be burned and luther himself captured and delivered to the emperor
Oliver Cromwell
English general and statesman who led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War (1599-1658)
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
Edward Gibbon
English historian best known for his history of the Roman Empire (1737-1794)
A system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family received all of his father's land. The nobility remained powerful and owned land, while the 2nd and 3rd sons were forced to seek fortune elsewhere. Many of them turned to the New World for their financial purposes and individual wealth.
Greek Revolt
when the Greeks revolted against their Ottoman Turkish masters. Greek national sentiment added to the struggle for liberation, became a noble cause by an outpouring of European sentiment for the Greeks' struggle. As a result, European powers decided to help Greece out: combined British and French forces defeated an Ottoman fleet and later Russia attacked the Ottoman provinces: Moldavia and Wallachia. Ended with the Treaty of Adrianople which established an independent kingdom and hereditary monarchy in Greece.
working class
in a society stratified by social class, a group of people who have a low level of wealth, income, and prestige, such as industrial and factory workers, office workers, clerks, and farm and manual laborers
Transubstantiation & Consubstantiantion
the Roman Catholic doctrine that the whole substance of the bread and the wine changes into the substance of the body and blood of Christ when consecrated in the Eucharist
Francis Xavier
The man who helped Ignatius of Loyola to start the Jesuits. He also was famous for his number of missionaries he went on to promote Christianity
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
Spanish explorer who discovered the Pacific Ocean (1475-1519)
joint-stock trading companies
an association of individuals in a business enterprise with transferable shares of stock, much like a corporation except that stockholders are liable for the debts of the business
Frederick II, the Great
he followed his father, Frederick William's military policies when he came to power. However, he also softened some of his father's laws. With regard to domestic affairs, he encouraged religious toleration and legal reform. According to his theory of government, he believed that a ruler should be like a father to his people.
France's Third Republic
Monarchists wanted to bring back the Monarchy, but couldn't decide on who to choose for King. An improvised constitution was made, establishing a bicameral legislature with an upper house, the Senate, and a lower house, the Chamber of Deputies. A president selected by the legislature would rule for 7 years. The Constitution of 1875 solidified the republic, which lasted for 65 years.
Industrial Revolution
the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
Edward Vi "Bloody Mary"-Tudor
During his short reign of England, Protestant ideas exerted a significant influence on the religious life of the country, (1547-1553) King Henry VIII's only son. Sickly, and became King at 9 years old. Since he wasn't capable of governing his country the Protestant church was soon brought in through his advisors Cromwell and Cranmer.
A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it
Maria Theresa
This was the queen of Austria as a result of the Pragmatic Sanction. She limited the papacy's political influence in Austria, strengthened her central bureaucracy and cautiously reduced the power that nobles had over their serfs
Benjamin Disraeli and William Gladstone
British statesman who as Prime Minister bought controlling interest in the Suez Canal and made Queen Victoria the empress of India (1804-1881), A Liberal British Prime Minister who gave concessions to various parties and ultimately introduced bills for Irish self-governance
James Hargreaves' spinning jenny
invented the Cotton Spinning Jenny in 1765 which was a machine that allowed 1 worker to control 8 spools of cloth at one time
Henry Viii And His Wives
(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.
Cardinals Richelieu and Mazarin
both helped the kings as an adviser but also promoted divine right monarchy and absolutism
John Law's "bubble"
he was a French man who tried to create a national bank and paper currency, but people went overboard and drove the price of the stock to super high levels, and he and his company went bankrupt.
Chartism and the People's Charter
The movement of supporters of the People's Charter (drawn up in Britian in 1838), which sought to transform Britain into a democracy and demanded universal suffrage for men, vote by secret ballot, equal electoral districts, annual elections, and the elimination of property qualifications for and the payment of stipends to members of Parliament.
Balance of power & Reason of State
Condition of roughly equal strength between opposing countries or alliances of countries.
Ten Hours Act of 1847
Limited labor of women and children in all industrial establishments to 10 hours per day. Thereafter work of men seemed to limit to same. The liberal Quaker, John Bright, criticized the act because he believed in laissez-faire and saw act as "a delusion practised on the working class."
Andreas Vesalius' On the Fabric of the Human Body
Flemish scientist who pioneered the study of anatomy and provided detailed overviews of the human body and its systems.
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