AP Euro ID's 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Mediocri
middle class, artisans, small merchants
Mediocri
mediocre
Sigmund Freud
6
Dail Eireann
Irish Parliament
Brownshirts
Hitler's brown-uniformed paramilitary force in the 20s/30s
anabaptists
small communities of extremist reformation groups that believed in baptizing adults, etc. and were brutally repressed because they didn;t have the money or social status to back themselves up
"New" immigration
immigration from east Europe
Pietism
Direct relationship between individual and God. Reduces the importance of the hierarchical church based in Rome.
kulaks
prosperous Russian peasant farmers. Many free peasants with too little land to support their families had to work on large estates owned by these prosperous peasants or nobles.
Hussites
A Christian movement following John Hus (circa 1369-1415) and was a forerunner to the Protestant Reformation. Fought a series of wars for their political and religious causes.
Common Market
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members.
Marie Currie
(1867-1934) Physicist who discovered, with husband Pierre, that radium consistently emits subatomic particles, and therefore doesn't have constant atomic weight.
Methodism
stressed the role of enthusiastic emotional experience as part of Christian conversion.
Romanticism
19th century artistic movement that appealed to emotion rather than reason, natures superiority over mankind
humanitarianism
Promoting human welfare and social reform. [Scientific Revolution]
social structure
patterning and relationship between groups in society
marat
French revolutionary leader (born in Switzerland) who was a leader in overthrowing the Girondists and was stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday (1743-1793)
What did Da vinci paint
Mona lisa
Glasnost
Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.
Fronde
A series of rebellions against royal authority in France between 1649 and 1652. Played a key role in Louis XIV's decision to leave Paris and build the Versailles Palace.
Dialectics
This was the philosophical belief that for every thesis ever, there is an opposing antithesis that creates a synthesis
Charles V
A Habsburg emperor who inherited Spain, the Netherlands, Southern Italy, Austria, and much of the Holy Roman Emperor from his grandfather Maximilian I. This was the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation.
Social Democrats
(see packet for concise description). Very popular in Sweden and Norway after WWI. Worked for social reform of peasants and workers.
Pogroms
organized riots allowed by the state against Jews in the Russian empire conducted by the police and right-wing nationalist groups. The Russian government undermined Jewish community life, limited the publication of Jewish books, restricted areas where Jews could live, required Jews to have internal passports to move about the country, banned Jews from many forms of state service, and excluded Jews from many institutions of higher education.
signori
Lords of Italian cities. As the Italian communes of the 13th century became increasingly fractiious, regional nobles saw this friction as politically advantageous and offered to become the lords of the cities. Their accession to power was often accomplished peacefully, as most communes were willing to accept repression for a lasting peace.
Theodor Herzl
German Jewish Politician who advocated the policy of Zionism and the creation of a nation state for all Jewish people.
Petrarch
Called the "Father of Humanism", he was an Italian poet who popularized the sonnet.
Fourth Coalition
Comprised of Prussia, Russia, Britain, Saxony, and Sweden, they fought against Napoleon (#170) from 1806-7. The war featured several major victories for the French, who conquered almost all of Prussia and Poland; the war ended with the Treaties of Tilsit (#181).
Desiderius Erasmus
born bastard and orphaned in Rotterdam, spent 7 years in monastery, as priest taught at Cambridge and Louvair university, working as tutor in Paris and Italy, suffered romantic trauma as young man and obsessed with cleanliness, determined to infuse Church with new moral purity influenced by Renaissance.
David Ricardo
wrote the book "Principles of Political Economy and Taxation" saying government should not have anything to do with foreign trade
robespierre
A French political leader of the eighteenth century. A Jacobin, he was one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution. He was in charge of the government during the Reign of Terror, when thousands of persons were executed without trial. After a public reaction against his extreme policies, he was executed without trial.
Suez Intervention
proved that European countries could not impose their will without the help of the U.S.
John Calvin
Believed in predestination A french lawyer priest exiled from france, who settled in geneva
Quebec Act
Extended boundaries of Quebec and granted equal rights to Catholics and recognized legality Catholic Church in the territory; colonists feared this meant that a pope would soon oversee the colonies.
Revolutionary Calendar
Created by the National Convention, it established after the French Revolution -day one was the first day of the French Republic
intendants
these are councils of state who are officials in charge of government (directly appointed by louis)
(1921) Conference of major powers to reduce naval armaments among Great Britain, Japan, France, Italy, and the United States.
Washington Conference
Functionalism
The idea of making buildings for the purpose of which they were made. To make them useful, functional, and practical.
Sergei Witte
A tough finance minister who thought that Russia's industrial backwardness was threatening Russia's power and greatness
Quakers
A form of Protestantism in which the believers were pacifists and would shake at the power of the word of the Lord
Sparta of the North
prussia under Frederick William I
William Gladstone
A Liberal British Prime Minister who gave concessions to various parties and ultimately introduced bills for Irish self-governance
Silent Revolution
Decline in mortality (puts pressure on resources, therefore people leaves.)
Treaty of Versailles
Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.
johann tetzel
This Dominican monk was chosen to advertise indulgences in 1517, and did so using extreme methods so that many people bought them. This caught Luther's attention, and was a factor that led to the 95 Theses.
encomienda
indians required to work for an owner for a certain number of days in the week
Little Entente
The Little Entente was an alliance formed in 1920 and 1921 by Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia to defend itself against Hungary and the rise of the Habsburgs. France signed treaties with each of the countries. The alliance started to break apart in 1936, completely disbanding in 1938.
Maximilian I
..., Hapsburg emperor in the HRE, tried to make the HRE centralized (eventually failed), was the reason for Hapsburg family fortunes (strategic marriages, etc)
Igor Stavinsky
This person composed an opera similar to the operas of Mozart. The style of music he used was from the Romantic period.
nuremberg trials
a trail held by the Allied leaders against the Nazi leaders due to the horrors of the Holocaust. 12 leaders were sentenced to death, and thousands more Nazis were convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity
Frederick William I
created the General Directory, a civil bureaucracy; kept Junker power in Prussia by making them loyal to the state
Vasco De Balboa
First European to see the Pacific Ocean. Saw it from Central America
Cardinal Richelieu
This was the man who influenced the power of King Louis XIII the most and tried to make France an absolute monarchy
sadler commission
sets up to hear factory workers answer questions about work life to parliament, factory acts comes about from it
Commercial revolution
This was the period of economic and political expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism that occurred in Europe
Mein Kampf
Hitler's book in which he outlined his ideas on race, living space, and the Fuhrer
Scientific Revolution
an era between 16th and 18th centuries when scientists began doing research in a new way using the scientific method
The Act of Toleration
(1689) granted Protestants who were not members of the Church of England the right to worship, but not hold political office. Parliament required that all English monarchs be members of the Church of England. No king or queen could govern without parliament
Labor aristocracy
This was the union of skilled workers in the working classes that had a set behavioral code. They were usually run by construction bosses and factory foremen
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Mass slaying of Huguenots (Calvinists) in Paris, on Saint Bartholomew's Day, 1572.
Civil War in Russia
White armies tried to overthrow Bolsheviks, Trotsky formed highly disciplined Red Army of Bolsheviks, Whites lost to the better-organized Red Army
100 Years' War (1337-1454)
Conflicts between England and France

Powerful monarchs emerge
The Battle of Peterloo
British Cavlary men savagley beat up peaceful protestors at St. Peter's Fields in Manchester
Daniel Defoe
made up the phrase "Spare the rod and spoil the child".Referred to how many children worked in factories at a young age and were disciplined severely.
October Manifesto
Issued in Russia because of fear of a general strike. "Granted" full civil rights and a popular parliament- Duma.
1905 by Nicholas II.
Francis Xavier
This was a man who helped Ignatius of Loyola to start the Jesuits. He also was famous for his number of missionaries he went on to promote Christianity
Battle of Trafalgar
This was a sea battle between the British royal navy and combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navy during the War of the Third Coalition.
Occupation of the Ruhr
When France occupied the Ruhr and seized control of the factories; occurred after Germany was unable to make reparation payments
German 1918 Offensive
A last ditch attempt to beat the allies after the Germans defeated the Russians
House of Orange
This was the house that took over the English throne after the Glorious Revolution
Louis XV (of France)
grandson of Louis XIV and king of France from 1715 to 1774 who led France into the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War (1710-1774)
War of Three Henrys
A French civil war between Henry III (the French king), Henry of Guise (a Catholic noble), and Henry of Navarre (a Protestant noble) resulting in Henry of Navarre's coronation as Henry IV.
High Renaissance(end of 15th century)
Rome replaced Florence as the center of artistic patronage. Series of Popes were very interested in the arts
3 empires of the 17th century
HRE, Republic of Poland, and the Ottoman Empire
What is the totalitarianism state?
State that sought to direct all facets of a state's culture in the interests of the state
What is a good example of Russia's backward economy impacting its military during WWI?
Russian soldiers often weren't given guns...were instructed to pick up rifles from their dead colleagues
Decline of the Roman Empire, the glue that held Europe together
The Roman Empire was the glue that held Europe together. While the Romans were in power the literacy rate was 90% yet the Roman empire started to crumble. It was hard to keep everything manageable especially from the acts of terrorist such as the Vandals who would write on architecture. In 700 A.D. the Roman Empire collapses and what is left in Europe absolute chaos. The only structure left was the Roman Catholic Church.
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