Ap Euro Key People Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Joseph II
William Faulkner
(1897-1962), used stream-of-consciousness technique
Thomas Cromwell
Henry VIII's chief minister
(1386-1466) statues express an appreciation for the variety of human nature, revived classical figure
Herbert Spencer
British philosopher, society progresses through competition, advocate of evolution, believes protecting the weak results in human kind losing.
german philosopher, expressed contempt for middle class morality, said led to false and shallow existence, believed in "supermen" who rules did not apply to
-French philosophe and voluminous author of essays and letters
-Enlightened principles of reason, progress, toleration, and liberty
-Opposed superstition, intolerance, and ignorance
-Criticized organized religion
Against the Murderous Thieving Hordes of Peasants
John Maynard Keynes
(1883-1946), English economist, believed harsh reparations would impoverish Germany and increase economic hardship in all other European countries, only a complete revision of the treaty could save Europe, advocated the use of large-scale deficits to stimulate the economy
Charles Fourier
(1772-1837), advocated a socialist utopian made up of self-sufficient communities, supported the total emancipation of women, criticized marriage
Thomas Hobbes
english philosopher and political theorist, wrote Leviathan,
Josephine Butler
(1828-1906) English reformer who challenged the Contagious Diseases Acts in order to protect the livelihood and rights of women.
John Knox
Scottish theologian who founded Presbyterianism in Scotland and wrote a history of the Reformation in Scotland (1514-1572)
Francois Rabelais
wrote Gargantuan and Pantagruel, wanted secular education for children
-Enlightened thinker who wrote 'The Social Contract' and 'Emile'
-Believed that since "law is the expression of will," the state is based on a social contract
-Emphasized education of the whole person for citizenship
-Rejected excessive rationalism and stressed emotions, anticipation romantic movement
These people whipped and scourged themselves as penance for their society's sins during the Black Death.
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley
Gothic literature and wrote Frankenstein
James Watt
(1736-1819), invented a more efficient steam engine, added a separate condenser to improve the Newcomen engine, solved the crisis of energy for Britain
John Locke
(1632-1704), wrote Second Treatise of Civil Government, maintained that people set up civil governments to protect life, liberty and property, a government that oversteps this is a tyranny and must be overthrown, also wrote Essay Concerning Human Understanding, put forth the tabula rasa theory, which suggests that all ideas are derived from experience
Gentile Bellini
painter in 15th century, offical painter of the Venetian republic,
painter who painted with 3 dimentional early renaissance
Christine de Pisan
(1364-1431) French noblewoman. 1st modern feminist. Wrote "The City of Ladies."
-Nothern humanist who wrote 'In Praise of Folly'
-Wrote in Latin while most humanists wrote in the vernacular
-Wanted to reform the Catholic chirch, not destroy it
Charles V
Through a hereditary fluke, this Hapsburg inherited Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, parts of Italy, and all of Spain's New World possesions. He opposed Martin Luther at the Diet of Worms, and had the greatest empire in Europe.
least productive in volume, view of delft, presents the drama of the everyday, light, color, space
Galileo Galilei
First European to make observations of the heavens. Wrote The Starry Messenger and Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems: Ptolemaic and Copernican. Theory- a body in motion stays in motion.
Henry the Navigator
portuguese prince who launched the first great European voyages of exploration,
Social Darwinism
The term for evolutionary ethics and similar concepts applied to humans.
Emile Zola
In 1868 Emile Zola (1840-1902), the giant of the realist movement in literature, defended his violently criticized first novel against charges of pornography and corruption of morals. Zola's literary manifesto articulated the key themes of realism, which had emerged in the 1840's and continued to dominate Western culture and style until the 1890's. Zola was most famous for his seamy, animalistic view of working-class life. But he also wrote gripping carefully researched stories featuring the stock exchange, the big department store, and the army, as well as urban slums and bloody coal strikes. (p.815)
Jan Hus
The leader of the Czech religious reforms, and the spiritual founder of the Protestant reformation in the 1500's. He was convicted by the Council of Constance for heresy.
He sculpted the Pieta, a work of religious art that is still thought to be beautiful. He attempted to portray everything in the Old Testament, creating the Sistine Chapel as well as David.
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
The financial advisor to Louis XIV, his mercantilist policies promoted French industry and grew its wealth. He wanted France to import as little and export as much as possible.
Jean Bodin
The Six Books of the Common Wealth, "the principal mark of a sovereign majesty is essentially the right to impose laws on subjects generally without their consent."
Thomas Henry Huxley
The great defender of Darwin, declared the physical process of evolution was at odds with human ethical development. Was a critic of social Darwinism.
Michel de Montaigne
invented essays, doesnt think there is a universal truth, skeptic
Henry VII
One of the new monarchs, he gained much of the English power after he secured the position of king.
Archbishop Albert
Pope told him to find someone to sell indulgences, he chose Tetzel
John Milton
He was the one who wrote Tenure of Kings and Magistrates.
Isabella of England
She, with her lover Mortimer and a group of barons, deposed her husband King Edward II and established Edward III king of England. She and Mortimer held power in England until 1330.
Pope Leo X
This man was the Pope who was present at the Diet At Worms, and excommunicated Martin Luther
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