AP Euro Midterm 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Martin Luther
French Calvanists. [Reformation]
Rudyard Kipling
White Man's Burden
Erasmian virtues
Erasmus's values of mildness, reasonableness, tolerance, restraint, manners, scholarship, peace, reform through thinking
Erasmian virtues
modern Christian values
Support for representative government dominated by propertied classes and a laissez-faire economy
the limitation of governmentby law
was an international Communist organization founded in Moscow in March 1919. The International intended to fight "by all available means, including armed force, for the overthrow of the international bourgeoisie and for the creation of an international Soviet republic as a transition stage to the complete abolition of the State."
(r. 1558-1603) [beginning of religious stability in England] When Elizabeth entered the throne, England was torn in half over religion. Catholics wanted a strong Roman Catholic ruler, and some wanted to "purify" the church of all catholic influence. These people are the Puritans; of siding with one or the other, she chose a middle course—she wanted all people to attend the same church so things would stay calm, but she didn't care if they believed what was preached or not; She also required all officials, clergy, and nobles to swear allegiance to her as "the supreme governor of the church of England." She chose the word governor as opposed to "head" to provide a loophole which allowed for English Catholics to remain loyal to her without denying the primacy of the Pope; referring to herself as the head might also be viewed as inappropriate b/c being the "head" of something was traditionally an all male title.
Had predestination beliefs similar to Calvinists;
Indian Mutiny
discontent with British administration in India led to numerous mutinies in 1857 and 1858 the revolt was put down after several battles and sieges (notably the siege at Lucknow)
denied diety of Christ, denied predestination, original sin, total inability, and penal substitution
promoter of inquiry "father of Enlightenment"
Adam Smith
Scottish professor of philosophy. Developed the idea of free enterprise, critical of mercantilism. Wrote Wealth of Nations.
early Europeans were developing ways to measure time with a mechanical clock
-Polish astronomer who believed in heliocentricism
-Earth moves in 2 ways-around sun and on an axis
-infinite universe
-no crystalline spheres
-no explanation for why things stay up
-still had perfect circular orbits (not fully correct)
-De revol. -1543
believed in a heliocentric universe and elliptical orbits of planets.
European Union
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
Peace of Ausburg
officially recognized Lutheranism as another religion
The economic concept of the Scottish philosophe Adam Smith (1723 to 1790). In opposition to mercantilism, Smith urged governments to keep hands off the operation of the economy. He believed the role of government was analogous to the night watchman, guarding and protecting but not intervening in the operation of the economy, which must be left to run in accord with the natural laws of supply and demand
-needed help handling matter of the state
Florentine painter who used realism in treatment of the human body and face
This thinker developed a philosophy of two different worlds a material world and a world of the mind. This was called Cartesian dualism. He combined his ideas with Bacon to form the scientific method
Edouard Herriot
(1872-1957) Leader of the leftist party, Cartel des Gauches.
The procedure of paying for church offices
This was an ethnic group primarily associated with Hungary. Although the Magyars were one of the largest ethnic groups, that entire region had many ethnic groups who always ended up fighting. These conflicts made it extremely difficult to bring nationalism to the region.
1648-53. Brutal civil wars that struck France during the reign of Louis XIII. [Absolutism]
Algeciras Conference
1906- settled the First Moroccan Crisis- started with Germany wanting an international conference on the Moroccan question of who gets what- Germany left with nothing and was further isolated- result of conference was that Britain, France, Russia, and the US began to see Germany as a potential threat that might seek to dominate all Europe- Germany began to see sinister plots to "encircle" Germany and prevent their development as a world power. Driven by German belligerence.
Paracelsus (1493-1551)
Was a Renaissance physician, botanist, alchemist, and astrologer. He was one of the first person to use chemicals as medicines.
Albrecht Durer
Famous Northern Renaissance artist, he often used woodcutting along with Italian Renaissance techniques like proportion, perspective and modeling. (Knight Death, and Devil; Four Apostles)
a movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization
archbishop of canterbury wrote Why did God become Man which gave explanations to show why God had taken human form to save sinful humans
domesticated animals
These included cattle, horses, and pigs, and were a contribution to the Americas from the Columbian Exchange that changed the agriculture, diet, and even warfare among the Native Americans.
Reign of Terror
Committee of Public Safety administered massive executions, killing 40,000.
real wages
Only after 1820, and especially after 1840, did real wages rise substantially, so that the average worker earned and consumed roughly 50 percent more in real terms in 1850 than in 1770. (743)
Spanish painter at the court of Philip IV (baroque and portraiture), masterpiece is Las Meninas
How did the Reformation change life in Western Europe?
This was the other common crime in which the members of the church would give positions to relatives
Berlin Crisis
Soviets tried to remove the Allies from Berlin by cutting off access to the city
War Communism
in World War I Russia, government control of banks and most industries, the seizing of grain from peasants, and the centralization of state administration under Communist control
1917 Russian Revolutions
Prompted by labor unrest, personal liberties, and elected representatives, this political revolution occurred in 1917 when Czar Nicholas II was murdered and Vladimir Lenin sought control to implement his ideas of socialism.
John Wycliff
translated the bible to english and believed that the bible was the source of truth and not the church
ivan the terrible
the first czar of Russia (1530-1584)
Opium War
War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China. (p. 684)
Cavour's program
Cavour's plan was to first modernize the econ, and model it off of Britain, then modernize the military, with lots of railroads to move the troops around to country
Peninsula War
France was forced to invade Spain after the failure of Joseph Bonaparte. Very costly for Napoleon. The Duke of Wellington helped the Spanish.
Thomas More
Englishman who wanted to reform the church but sided with the pope when Henry VIII wanted a divorce, author of utopia
Suez Crisis 1956
Nasser sealed his reputation during the Suez Crisis, which left him in a dominant position in the Arab world. The crisis erupted in 1956, when Nasser decided to nationalize the Suez Canal and use the money collected from the canal to finance construction of a massive dam of the Nile River at Aswan. When he did not bow to international pressure to provide multinational control for the vital Suez Canal, British, French and Israeli forces combined to wrestle control of the canal away from him. Their military campaign was successful, but they failed miserably on the diplomatic level and tore at the fabric of the bipolar world system. They had not consulted with the United States, which strongly condemned the attack and forced them to withdraw. The Soviet Union also objected forcefully, thereby gaining a reputation for being a staunch supporter of Arab nationalism. The U.S. opposed colonialism and the Soviet Union staunchly opposed Western Colonialism.
Green Revolution
Movement of population from the rural areas to the cities, it included better opportunities for women
Benito Mussolini
Fascist Dictator of Italy that at first used bullying to gain power, then never had full power.
Arnold Schönberg
Viennese founder of 12 tone music and turned back on conventional tones
2nd Partition of Poland
Lost land in the east; Revolts
This man was a writer who would plea for simple Christian faith and would criticize the complexity of Catholic faith
Term applied to Louis XI of France, Henry VII of England, and Ferdinand & Isabella of Spain, who strengthened their monarchical authority often by Machiavellian means.
New Monarchs
One of these led to the beginning of the Franco-Prussian War
-Bernstein / Evolutionary Socialism
the reformists soon found themselves contending with the Bolsheviks and their satellite communist parties for the support of the proletariat.
In the early sixteenth century, the standard explanation of the place of the earth in the heavens combined to the works of
Ptolemy and Aristotle
This was the group of people called by Louis XVI that would keep the king in check like the English Parliament
Ukrainian Famine
The forced famine of Ukraine by Stalin over not producing enough grain
Pope Urban VIII
Galileo's friend in the church who banned Galileo's book as heresy b/c contradicts idea that Earth is center of Universe. Demanded Galileo stand trial and he recants out of fear . sentenced him to house arrest but saved him from a death sentence. Said that Galileo was only supporting the views of Copernicus, not creating his own heresy
African National Congress (ANC)
An organization dedicated to obtaining equal voting and civil rights for black inhabitants of South Africa. Founded in 1912 as the South African Native National Congress, it changed its name in 1923. Eventually brought equality
The Prince
a handbook for a ruler who would establish a lasting government, sets down principles Machiavelli gleaned from historical examples and contemporary events to aid the prince in establishing and maintaining power
Treaty of Frankfurt
The end of the Franco-Prussian War. Alsace and Lorraine given to Germany.
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.
Peter the Great
This was the czar of Russia that Westernized Russia and built up a massive Russian army. He also was interested in building grand cities like those in Western Europe
Francesco Sforza
The Duke of Florence and the old ruler of the city-states of Italy
Reichstag fire & fallout
Hitler used this to launch his dictatorship and used this to give him power. It was a fire of a capital building
Line of Demarcation
This was the line drawn by Alexander VI that gave Portugal most of Brazil and Spain the rest of South America
National Organization for Women
lead by Betty Friedan, this pressed for women's rights and quickly began to flourish in the late 1960's. THIS IS SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE IT BECAME A MASSIVE GROUP, SPAWNING OTHER SIMILAR GROUPS IN EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES.
Importance of Neoplantanism
This way of looking at things, based on Plato's ideas, basically said that the universe was geometrically designed, and math and music were the most honorable pursuits. This mind set spurred mathematic science, especially for astronomers.
Catherine de Medici (1547-1589)
The wife of Henry II (1547-1559) of France, who exercised political influence after the death of her husband and during the rule of her weak sons
Favorable balance of trade
This was the ideology that most states used to gain the most money from their exports by increasing the amount of finished materials while decreasing the amount of raw materials
hitler in ww1
1913 he moves from vienna to munich to avoid war, but fights in german army as a courier, became a war hero due to an injury. very angered at lost in ww1 and blamed jew and commys.
70. The Pragmatic Sanction
- an Edict issued by Emperor Charles VI to ensure that the Austrian throne and Habsburg lands could be inherited by a daughter
Reasons for and against Italian unity
People wanted Italian unity because it would unify Italy, and they wanted a different government. People did not want unification because it went against the church, there were very different areas in the north and the south, and because they wanted to just keep things the same
The British "National Government"
this was made by Macdonald and was a combination of labor, conservative, and liberal ministries had productive results
Said by Richelieu about taxes
" I have always said that finances are the sinews of the state"
British Opium Trade / Opium Wars
The British had a war with the Chinese to make sure they could sell their opium to china
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