Ap Euro Review Part 2 Flashcards

Thirty Years' War
Terms Definitions
Wellington
...
Huguenots
French Calvinists.
Giotto
Painter
Fresco and Expressions
1267-1337
Solid bodies
human emotion
suggestion of landscape
de gaulle ended...
political instability
Francis Bacon
(1561-1626)English politician, writer. Formalized the empirical method. Novum Organum. Inductive reasoning.
Werner Heisenberg
developed "principle of uncertainty"--as it is impossible to know the position and speed of an individual election
orders
medieval divisions within society: i.e. those who work, those who fight, and those who pray.
Impact of Industrialization upon Women
...
Nationalism
the doctrine that your national culture and interests are superior to any other, people's identities are defined by their nation and the nation should have first priority in loyalties
Gabriel Marcel
Leading existential Christian thinker, thought catholic church was "hope, humanity, honesty, and piety," after broken world and WWI, also advocated closer ties with non-Catholics
Black Death
The plague that ravaged europe
Hanseatic League
a commercial/military association of German cities used to protect and increase the economy as well as a monopoly of trade
Thomas Wolsey
Cardinal, highest ranking church official and lord chancellor. Dissmissed by Henry VIII for not getting the pope to annul is marriage to Catherine of Aragon
Bernhard von Bulow
King of Portugal 1889-1908
industrial revolution
the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation
John Cabot
Italian-born navigator explored the coast of New England, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland. Gave England a claim in North America.
conquistadores
The conquistadores were less important members of the Castilian upper classes who came to the Americas to conquer and gain influence so that they would make more money than they would have at home.
Alexander VI
(1492-1503) Corrupt Spanish pope. He was aided militarily and politically by his son Cesare Borgia, who was the hero of The Prince.
This king of France attempted reform, but the workers rejected the halfhearted changes. This king fled and the demonstrators proclaimed the Second Republic on February 24th. Who was this?
Louis-Philippe
John Knox
This Scottish theologian was dead-set against women holding positions of power, saying that this went against God, justice, and nature. He wrote The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women in 1558, which reflected common and traditional views that women were inferior. In the sixteenth century, however, there were many powerful and successful female rulers, including Elizabeth I, Mary Queen of Hungary, Margarer of Parma, Jeanne d'Albret of Navarre, Mary Queen of Scots, and Catherine de Medicis.
Baldassare Castiglione
wrote The Courtier (1528) about training the young man into a gentleman. He should be educated in many academic subjects and have spiritual, physical, and intellectual capabilities. Young men should be able to dance, sing, wrestle, ride, do difficult math, and speak and write well. Also talked about perfect court lady but to lesser extent and women too should be educated, play instrument, paint, and have beauty and dress modest. 16th and 17th century translated into all European languages and shaped social mores and patterns.
Trans-Siberian Railroad
A railroad that went across Siberia
International Monetary Fund
an international organization that acts as a lender of last resort, providing loans to troubled nations, and also works to promote trade through financial cooperation
Puritans
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
Cardinal Richelieu
minister of King Louis XVIII, appointed by Marie de Medici , had the real power, wanted to curb power of nobility, 32 generalities, military provinces France was divided into
Secularism
The belief in material things instead of religious things. This was a shift away from Medieval thinking.
George Stephenson
In 1825, George Stephenson finished the first effective locomotive. In 1830, his Rocket sped down the track of he just-completed- Liverpool and Manchester Railway at 16 mph.
Denis Diderot
Helped create Encyclopedia with Jean Le Rond d'Alembert. He was the heroic editor who published 17 vol.
Consulate
Form of government which was followed the directory--established by Napoleon--ended when Napoleon was crowned emperor
Anarchism
the theory that he government and social institutions are oppressive and unneccesarry and society should be based on voluntary cooperation among individuals
Abolition Movement
the first mass public movement
begins in 1775
started with the quakers in americas
Western Front
trench warfare, long periods of inactivity and short periods of intense violence
romanticism
the Romantic style or movement in literature and art, or adherence to its principles (
General Georges Boulanger
➢ Very popular French monarchist
➢ Appeared there might be a coup since he was so popular
➢ Coup never happened so he fled to Belgium and committed suicide
➢ Increased confidence in the republic
steam engine
A machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion. Thomas Newcomen built the first crude but workable one. James Watt vastly improved his device. Steam power was then applied to machinery
October Manifesto
This granted full civil rights to people and opened up the Duma
"White Man's Burden"
racist view that preaches that Westerners were superior and had to civilize other cultures. Written by Rudyard Kipling
The Middle Class Family
Central institution of middle-class life. Men provided family income while women focused on household and child care.
Scientific Revolution
the era of scientific thought in Europe during which careful observation of the natural world was made, and accepted beliefs were questioned
Signori
a one man ruler, or a monarchist. Their power was then taken away by Italian city-states.
family economy
the basic structure of production and consumption in preindustrial europe (everybody worked)
Leon Battista Alberti
an accomplished humanist scholar who was a noted architect and builder in Florence.
Frederick William IV
king of Prussia who violently suppressed democratic movements (1795-1865)
New Monarchs
Monarchies that took measures to limit the power of the Roman Catholic Church within their countries.
Reforms of Witte
These reforms were instituted in October, 1905, as a result of a successful workers strike. They guaranteed citizens freedom of speech, various civil liberties, freedom of assembly, and that no laws would be passed unless the Duma, an elected council, agreed to them.
Thomas Cranmer
Prepared the First Book of Common Prayer.
romantic
art that is often scenes from medieval life
Wealth of Nations
This work criticized mercantilism by saying that it meant a combination of stifling government regulations and unfair privileges for state-approved monopolies and government favorites
Alchemy
Use of fire to purify base metals into gold.
Commercial revolution
This was the period of economic and political expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism that occurred in Europe
abdicate
to give up a position, right, or power -- usually to voluntarily give up the crown
Revolutions of 1848
A wave of political revolts beginning in France (of course), and spreading across Europe. They were all brutally put down.
Treaty of Campo Formio
treaty signed with Austria that required redistribution of Rhine territories thereby creating larger German states
Charles De Gaulle
Leader of Free French General that resigned in 1946 after re-establishing the free, democratic Fourth Republic. Came back to lead the Fifth Republic in 1959.
frederick william I
most talented reformer produced by the Hohenzollern family; "the Soldiers King"
rationalism
An emphasis on reason as the way to truth, with major parts including a priori (#24) and proponents including Descartes (#18), Spinoza (#21), and Leibniz. It was more popular on the European Continent; in Britain, empiricism (#33) reigned.
Ulrich Zwingli
This was a man who believed that Christian life rested on the Scriptures and a prominent leader in the Swiss Reformation. He went on to attack indulgences, the Mass, the institution of monasticism, and clerical celibacy
the stuart kings
unpopular line of kings who attempted to consolidate absolutist rule in England
Papal banking
13th century, new way of banking that helped Florentine's acquire great wealth from positions as tax collectors for the Papcy.
Principia Mathematica
In 1687, Sir Isaac Newton wrote this. It was filled with contributions to many areas of science, and included the three well-known laws of motion.
limited liability corporation
A legal entity, developed in the second half of th nineteenth century, in which the amount that owners of a factory or other enterprise owed creditors was restricted (limited) in case of financial failure.
martin behaims map
spent some time in portugal where he began to construct the first ever globe
Peace of Westphalia
This was the treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War that recognized the independent authority of over three hundred German principalities
David Lloyd George
Member of the Liberal party in Great Britain who helped raise taxes on the rich, and reform in general
Liberalism (Classical Liberalism)
This was the political idea in which the government did not intervene in the economy and liberty and equality were stressed
Psycho-social impact of WWI
Social Impact was impact on social class structures and breakdown of aristocracy and other inter class structures. After the war more people did not have servants. The Psycho impact was that people viewed humanity as both savage and pointless, because they just fought a pointless war
third coalition
The War of the Third Coalition was a conflict which spanned from 1803 to 1806. It saw the defeat of an alliance of Austria, Portugal, Russia, and others by France and its client states under Napoleon I. Great Britain had already been at war with France following the resumption of hostilities resulting from the breakdown of the Peace of Amiens, and Britain would be the only country still at war with France after the Treaty of Pressburg. For two years (1803-1805) Britain stood under constant threat of a French invasion. The Royal Navy, however, secured mastery of the seas by decisively destroying a Franco-Spanish fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar in October 1805. The Third Coalition itself came to full fruition that summer as Napoleon's provocative actions in Italy (crowning himself King) and Germany spurred Austria into joining Britain and Russia against France. The war would be decided on the continent, and the major land operations that sealed the swift French victory involved the Ulm Campaign, a large wheeling manoeuvre by the Grande Armée lasting from late August to mid-October that captured an entire Austrian army, and the decisive French victory over a combined Russo-Austrian force under Tsar Alexander I at the Battle of Austerlitz in early December.
Austerlitz effectively brought the Third Coalition to an end, although later there was a small side campaign against Naples, which also resulted in a decisive French victory at the Battle of Campo Tenese. On 26 December 1805, Austria and France signed the Treaty of Pressburg, which took the former out of the war, reinforced the earlier treaties of Campo Formio and Lunéville, made Austria cede land to Napoleon's German allies, and imposed an indemnity of 40 million francs on the defeated Habsburgs. Russian troops were allowed to head back to home soil. Victory at Austerlitz also permitted the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine, a collection of German states intended as a buffer zone between France and the rest of Europe. In 1806, the Holy Roman Empire ceased to exist when Holy Roman Emperor Francis II kept Francis I of Austria as his only official title. These achievements, however, did not establish a lasting peace on the continent. Austerlitz had driven neither Russia nor Britain, whose armies protected Sicily from a French invasion, to settle. Meanwhile, Prussian worries about growing French influence in Central Europe sparked the War of the Fourth Coalition in 1806.
International Congress of the Rights of Women
feminist groups campaigning for women's rights met here in Paris
Wilhelm II Mustafa Kemal
the so called "father of the Turks," he founded what is now known as Turkey and defended against British attack
Great Rebellion (Indian Mutiny)
This was a insurrection of Muslim and Hindi army officers that spread through northern India before it was crushed. It was because of people trying to send out the white army officers
Tennis Court Oath
An Oath all but one member of the newly formed national assembly took, which stated simply that the group would remain indissoluble until it had succeeded in creating a new national constitution.
Hitler and the Versailles Treaty
withdrew from League of Nations, began rearming, ordered the German army to march into the demilitarized zone of the Rhineland
robespierre and the committe of public safety
small property owners and wage laborers in paris supported these two groups/people
5. The Declaration of the Rights of Man & Citizen was significant because it proclaimed all of the following
- Equal individual citizenship
- Collective sovereignty of the people
- Affirm the principle so the new state
January 1923, occupation of the Ruhr
- the French invade the Ruhr (working center of economy), because the Germans don't pay reparations, and they say they will sell all of industrial goods. But because the German govt. told the workers to stop working, they stop.
53. The industrial revolution in Great Britain can be characterized by
- the process of shifting from hand tools to power machinery
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