AP Euro Review Reformation Flashcards

Protestant Reformation
Terms Definitions
7 sacraments
-Anointing of the Sick
-Holy Orders
Michael Servetus
-Spanish physician
-Denied Trinity
-Burned as heretic in Geneva
centered in Zurich, Switzerland; disagreed with Luther's Eucharist, thought it was more a symbolic memorial
Henry Bourbon of Navarre
-Led Huguenots
The selling of church offices.
John Huss
Bohemian religious reformer whose efforts to reform the church eventually fueled the Protestant Reformation.
sold by Tetzel, sparked Luther's criticism
The Thirty Years' War
(1618-1648), Anti-Imperialists (non-Catholics) vs. Imperialists (Catholics), started as a religious struggle, Catholic forces led by Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I (won for the first half), then Protestant King of Sweden Gustavus Adolphus (Gustavus II) won several battles against him; Catholics throughout the war were led by the Hapsburg Rulers of Austria; Bourbon (CATHOLIC) rulers of France wanted to extend power and gain land at Hapsburg expense, supported the Protestant cause; Swedes and French defeated Imperialist army, ended in 1648 with the Treaty of Westphalia
-AKA Society of Jesus
-Reformation = pastoral problem
-Goal: to help souls, not reform the church
-Developed into highly centralized organization
-Candidates underwent a 2 yr novitiate
-Members had to vow: chastity, obedience and stability
-Jesuit schools adopted the modern humanist curriculum & methods, initially focused on the children of the poor but soon educated sons of the nobility
-Exerted great political influence
John Knox
Scottish theologian who founded Presbyterianism in Scotland and wrote a history of the Reformation in Scotland (1514-1572)
John Wycliffe
(c.1328-1384) Forerunner to the Reformation. Created English Lollardy. Attacked the corruption of the clergy, and questioned the power of the pope.
Those who refused to attend regular Sunday services at their parish churches; were fined heavily by Elizabethean government.
Upholding to the teachings of the Church of England as defined by Elizabeth I.
Roman Inquisition
similar to Spanish Inquisition, head up by Charles V
John Calvin's belief that at the beginning of time, God had preselected who among all people would be saved and have salvation, a group known as the "elect." This group was expected to follow the highest moral standards and be completely dedicated to God's wishes.
Council of Troubles
-Alba's Church Court
-Executed nobles, seized property & applied new taxes
Habsburg-Valois Wars
France vs. Habsburgs. France tried keeping GERMANY DIVIDED. Led to slow unification of German states.
Luther's Impact
appeal to German Nationalism, creates political unrest
Ferdinand II
This person became "frazzled" when he saw he was losing. He wanted to recall Wallenstein, but assassinated him instead.
Thomas Cranmer
Prepared the First Book of Common Prayer.
Modern Devotion
Brothers of the Common Life; don't need vocation only personal connection. the Church is secondary
religious orders
Groups for special purposes within the Catholic Church
Pope paul iii
Italian pope who excommunicated Henry VIII, instituted the order of the Jesuits, appointed many reform-minded cardinals, and initiated the Council of Trent.
Union of Utrecht
-7 N. provinces of the Netherlands
League of Schmalkalden
1531, formed by newly Protestant (Lutheran) princes to defend themselves against Charles V's drive to re-Catholicize Germany; Francis I of France allied with the League (despite being Catholic)
Thirty-Nine Articles
written in 1563, this defined the rules of the Anglican Church. The document followed Protestant doctrine but still accomodated for other English, except the Puritans.
defenestration of prague
1618 Ferdinand signs letter of Majesty, promising religious toleration to Bohemian nobles, but once appointed emperor tears up the agreement. Nobles throw his advisors out the window.
Edict of Restitution
All Catholic property that had been seized by Protestants since 1552 had to me returned. In Danish Phase of war.
Ninety-Five Theses
ML writes these to oppose selling of indulgences by Tetzel. Gives reasons why
they are not justified. Supposedly nails to door of castle church in Wittenburg where he is professor
of theology. This action cited as start of Protestant Reformation - 1517. Expressed that forgiveness is by God - not dependent on priest's absolution after sacrament of penance. ML appeals to Leo X to end indulgences. In arguing his case against Johann Eck at Leipzig Debate, ML says neither pope nor council can define true Christian belief. Bible is source and man must make own interpretation per conscience.
Edward VI
son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour; successor of Henry VIII; Protestant-extended Lutheranism into England; associated with Book of Common Prayer
Act of Supremacy
Passed by the English Parliament in 1534, it completed England's break with the papacy by declaring Henry VIII the head of the Church of England, or Anglican church. It also allowed the monarchy to confiscate church property.
Baptism & the Eucharist
The Protestant view of the "sacraments" differ from the Catholic church's view of the sacraments in that instead of having seven sacraments as Catholics did, Lutheran had just two: ________ & ______
Peace of Augsburg, 1555
temporarily ended the struggle in Germany over Lutheranism, princes in Germany could choose either Protestantism or Catholicism, Protestants living in Catholic states were allowed to move to Protestant states and vice versa; resulted in permanent religious division of Germany, causing a stunt in German nationalism and it not unifying as a state until 1871
William Tyndale
This Protestant man was a Humanist who helped translate the Bible so that all people could read it in their own religion. He translated the New Testament, but was executed before he could finish the Old Testament because he was not supported by the English government in his translating in the early 16th century.
Martin Luther
95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion.
Catherine of Aragon
Wife of Henry VIII who wanted a divorce so he could marry Anne. Their daughter was Mary Tudor.
Charles V
king of spain and Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
Jesuits (Society of Jesus)
1540, 3 goals: reform church through education, preach Gospel to pagan peoples, fight Protestantism
Act of Succession
recognizes Edward the VI as the true heir to Henry VIII's throne
cuius regio eius religio
Latin for "whose the region, his the religion." Principal that Peace of Augsburg based on. (But really just applied to RC & Luth. No provisions for Calvinists or Anabaptists)
Book of Common Prayer
English Bible that was the only public prayerbook permitted to be used.
Council of Trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
Institutes of the Christian Religion
Pubd. in 1536 by John Calvin (Fr. humanist with law background. Influenced by ML. Exiled from France & established in Geneva the Calvinist Ch. This book written in Latin had universal appeal. Single MOST IMPORTANT RELIGIOUS WORK of the 16th century. Addressed to world and included his theory of predestination. First pubd. in 1536 with 6 chapts. then again in 1559 with 80 chapts. Detailed foundation of Calvinism. Tied together mny ideas of reformation.
The Library of the Christian Man
Published by ML in 1520 and explaining his doctrine of faith and justification by stressing that, although he did not reject good works, only the faith of the individual believer could bring salvation from an all-powerful, just, and merciful God. Indulgences were certainly not sufficient.
Owning 2+ church offices.
uniquely or significant time/period
luthernism. presbyterian
religions produced by PR
where Zwingli established what amounted to a theocracy, in Switzerland
didn't question the Church but demanded reform; emphasized a personal awareness of christ and the roots of christianity
those who challeneged or protested against way of roman catholic church
The Dutch
-7 Northern Provinces declared themselves an independent nation known as this in 1609
-Official religion = Calvinist Protestantism
-Religiously tolerant
Elizabethan Settlement
Elizabeth and Parliament required conformity to the Church of England but people were, in effect, allowed to worship Protestantism and Catholicism privately
Scripture/faith/grace alone
Martin Luther's radical reforms: believed souls could be saved by these things alone, not by popes or $. Fundamental beliefs of Protestant reform.
John Calvin
Swiss leader of Protestantism and advocate of predestination who creatd theocracies in Swiss cantons. His ideas led to a large following in France, known collectively as Huguenots.
translation of Bible into Latin made by St. Jerome in 4th cent. was declared by C of T to be only version on wh. tchg. could be based
Wanted to leave the Anglican Church completly (pilgrims in the new world)
An official papal letter or document, named for the bulla or raised seal used to signify its authenticity. Among the more famous ones was Exsurge Domine (1520), isued by Pope Leo X (r. 1513-1521) against Martin Luther.
Thomas Wolsey
the English Archbishop working on behalf of Henry, ultimately failed to get papal approval
a branch of the Protestant reformation that grew in Scotland, many of their ideas are rooted in Calvinism. They believed in a method of church governance where there were no bishops
usually an Orange, head of United provinces of the Netherlands. 1/2 mercantile republic, 1/2 elective monarchy.
Three Gods in one. Father, Son, Holy Ghost.
St. Ignatius Loyola
Relig. experience in 1521. Became soldier of church. Estab. Society of Jesus /
Jesuits. Authorised by Paul III in 1540 - active in world/politics/colonies etc. rather than cloistered.
Spiritual Exercies outline rigorous spiritual training of members. Role in education. Pro Ren and Humanist education. Schools for boys. Strict but included deportment, dancing etc. Organized on almost military lines. Rigid rules of command. As international missionary force was effective in gaining new converts. And reconverts.
Menno Simmons
leader of later Anabaptists; from the Netherlands
Diet of Worms
Special imperial council in Worms, Germany, to which Martin Luther was summoned after his excommunication in 1521. Luther was ordered to abandon his revolutionary ideas, which he refused to do, so he was banished from the empire. Luther was then sheltered in Saxony.
As a part of the "counter reformation" movement from the Catholic Church, official in Rome revived a practice of aggressively convicting and punishing heretics. They often used torture and even death as a tactic. This was called the _________.
Elect/Visible Saints
Church members who have had their conversion experience. Should become model Christians
something that is taught, a branch of knowledge, system, belief
Henry VIII
"defender of the faith" who writes the Defense of 7 Sacraments.
a person is no longer able to receive the sacraments and to be considered a member of the Church.
The Diet of Speyer
(1529) princes who favored church reforms along Lutheran lines protested decisions of the Catholic princes; hence, initially, Protestant meant Lutheran, but as other groups appeared, the term Protestant meant all non-Catholic Christian sects. (p. 462)
In Defense of the 7 Sacraments
-published by Henry VIII
Angela Merici
founded the Ursuline Order of Nuns in the 1530s to improve education and religious training
Diet of Speyer, 1526
First time a religion recognizes validity of another religion. Charles V says princes should deal w/ religion in their own land.
Kind and loving God vs. wrath of God
Lutheran vs. Catholic
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Slaughter of Huguenots in Paris as ordered by the Catholic queen of France in 1572.
St. John of the Cross
example of spirituality and mysticism of counter-Reformation
What did the Council of Trent do?
re-affirmed traditional practice and theology (salvation by faith and deeds, role of priests and ritual, vulgate(rejection of humanism), role of Bible and tradition(reject putting Bible into vernacular), transubstantiation and 7 sacraments, index of forbidden books)
Ulrich Zwingli (late 1400s-mid 1500s)
Contemporary of Luther who was a friend of Swiss mercenaries employed by the Pope. Came up with the idea of Utraquist.
Statue of the Six Articles
Anglican Church maintained most of the Catholic doctrines despite its independence from Rome
Who was Johann Tetzel?
he was a friar who was invited to Germany to sell indulgences by Albert of Mainz
Who did Luther receive support from early on?
-Educated middle class who saw Catholicism as superstitious
-Nobility eager to sever ties w/ Rome & confiscate church property
What was the Council of Trent?
it was a council (called by Pope Paul III) to reform the church and to secure reconciliation with the Protestants
Johann Tetzel
he sold indulgences
Swedish / Protestants defeated, Protestant princes declare peace.
Radical Protestant refomers who rejected infant baptism, taking oaths, and bearing arms. Separation of Church and State and all church members are equals
Ecstasy of St. Teresa
Gianlorenzo Bernini
Troops under Gustavus Adolphus. Fought not just for money, but for faith. Won at Breitenfeld (1631) and Lutzen (1632) all in the _______ Phase of the Thirty Years' War.
Take back all of these statements
an official not participating in benefices but receiving payment and privileges
Lollards, Tyndale
Lollards- underground against church that owns 1/3 of England
-William Tyndale: translated the NT into English in 1524-25. His NT began to circulate in 1526
Refusal of the Catholic Church to administer the sacraments to a person.
Thomas A. Kempis
German ecclesiastic. Wrote "Imitation of Christ."
Spiritual Exercises
Written by Loyola. Handbook or guidelines for Jesuits. These were a series of exercises to be done by novitiates(new member) on a four week retreat - helped them direct their will to a new spiritual piety
The belief that during communion, the bread and wine are used for ceremonial purposes only.
Thomas Cramer
English Archbishop, wrote Book of Common Prayer of 1549 during Edward's rein
The spread of Protestantism went hand in hand with a growing nationalism. More and more people identified with their nation. Official state religions strengthened national unity. Catholic rulers became increasingly independent of the _____.
Rulers who value national unity above religion. Usually very effective rulers
Name the Hapsburg family
Maximillian (founder of Hapsburg dynasty) married Maria of Burgundy. They had three children: Phillip, Ferdinand I, Charles V (HRE)
Marburg Colloquy
(1529) The Protestants failed to make an alliance or agreement with the Lutherans, "shattering of Protestantism."
Peace of Augsburg
1555 End/compromise of Schmalk War. Gave each German Prince right to determine religion of his state - RC/Luth. Divided Germany fairly equally: N & E ->Luth; S & Rhine-> RC. Therefore, really a victory for Protestants. Christendom now being split up. Chas V agreed to this because under pressure from France in west and Turks in east.
Auto da fe
Portuguese for "demonstration" or "act of faith"; a ritual of public confession and humiliation for heretics and those suspected of heresy in Spain and Portugal during the Inquisition. Imposed and overseen by the Catholic Church, the first one took place in Sevill, Spain, in 1481, and the practice continued into the 19th century.
-Henry II of France (a Valois) dies, leaving his wife Catherine de Medici and his three sons to rule
-The three sons take the crown and die
-Then Catholic Margaret Valois marries Huguenot Henry of Navarre
-This marriage leads to the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
-Next, Henry, the last Valois son, (NOT! Henry of Navarre) takes the throne
-Then there is the War of the Three Henrys
-In this war, King Henry has Henry of Guise killed. In retaliation, a monk kills King Henry. By default, Henry of Navarre becomes king of France under the name Henry IV and he converted to Catholicism.
Mary Tudor "Bloody Mary"
1553-1558, tried to reimpose Catholicism, married Philip II, future heir to the Spanish throne, Marian exiles: Protestants fled England fearing persecution; executed 300 people
Mary Tudor
daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon who was Queen of England from 1553 to 1558 she was the wife of Philip II of Spain and when she restored Roman Catholicism to England many Protestants were burned at the stake as heretics, "bloody Mary"
of or pertaining to worldy things or to things not religious, spiritual or sacred
Church of England
Protestant church - and the official church of England - created by Henry VII (r. 1509-47) in 1534 to supplant the Roman Catholic church. Although initially opposed to Protestantism - even executing some of its leaders - Henry changed his mind when the pope refused to approve his divirce in 1527. In response he appointed two Protestants to high posts: Thomas Cromwell as chancellor and Thomas Cranmer as archbishop of Canterbury. Henry instructed Parliament to outlaw the Catholic church and declare him "the only supreme head of the Church of England."
Sola Fide
The belief that faith alone will save you.
Ursuline Nuns
a religious order in which the nuns use Catholicism to educate young women, teaching them how to be future wives and mothers
Theses Number 37
Every true Christian, living or dead, partakes of all the benefits of Christ and the Church, which are the gift of God, even without letters of pardon . . .
Statute of the Six Articles
upheld the seven sacraments, maintained Catholic theology, and replaced the authority of the pope with that of the monarch
Spanish and Italian Inquisitions
In Spain, Moriscos (Christian Moors) and Christian Jews were suspected of returning to their original faiths (Muslim and Judaism) and were thus persecuted or eliminated. In Italy, Pope Paul IV issued a papal bull accusing Jews of killing Christ and ordered Jews to be placed in ghettos. Both of these occurences led to increased persecution of Jews throughout Europe.
a clergyman belonging to a staff of a cathedral or church
What was predestination?
God predestined the elect, you do good works so that you can show others that you are part of the elect
Lord's Supper
the last meal shared by jesus with his disciples, became the central sacrament in the Christian community
Edict of Restitution, 1629
belated attempt by Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor to impose Catholic religion on Germany.
what was the Edict of Nantes?
granted liberty of conscience and liberty of public worship to Huguenots
Tetzel (mid 1400s-early 1500s)
Man who came around to Germany selling indulgences who catalyzed Luther to speak out against the Church.
What brought Henry VII to power in England?
-War of the Roses
What were the 7 sacraments observed by Catholics?
holy orders, baptism, communion, confirmation, confession, marriage, anointing of the sick
Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots
her supporters plotted to put her on the English throne instead of Elizabeth, so Elizabeth had her executed in 1587
Things you can't do in the Calvinist Church
o You can't dance
o You can't gamble
o You can't act or go to a play
o You can't wear jewelry
o You can't wear colorful clothes
o You can't practice Catholic customs
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