AP EURO Review- The French Revolution Flashcards

Terms Definitions
The first estate
clergy
National Assembly
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789.
Cahiers de doleances demanded:
Government reforms
Nobility
Second-highest of three estates; made up about 2% of population and were usually exempt from paying taxes
assignats
new paper currency, former church property used to guarantee value
Enrages
radical gropu that opposed the jacobins, fought against by robespierre
John Locke
English enlightened thinker, personal freedom, legal equality, life - liberty - and the pursuit of property.
Jacobins
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
Republic
Form of government in which officials were elected by the people and the elected officials worked to serve the people; replaced the French monarchy in 1792
Enragés
radical working class leaders of Paris who seized and arrested 31 Girondist members of National Convention and left the Mountain in control
Legislative Assembly
replaced National Assembly; took away most of king's power
Mountain
represented the interest of the city of Paris and owed much of its strenght to the radical elements in the city, inclined to get rid of the king.
Mountains
Left-winged of the Jacobins led by Danton. Were believed that they would be very violent in their revolutions - a bloody dictatorship; Radical republicans during the French Revolution; branch of Jacobins that gained their name because they usually sat high in the hall
Ancien Regime
The traditional political and social order in Europe before the French Revolution
March to Versailles
Women marched from Paris to Versailles; killed the guards and stuck their heads on sticks and attacked the palace; forced the royal family to move to Paris, putting them at the mercy of the people
"refractory clergy"
half of French priests refused to accept the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, had support of king, former aristocrats, peasants, and urban working-class
Third Estate
made up of Bourgeoisie, urban lower class, and peasant farmers
Second Estate
The second class of French society made up of the noblility
Concordat of 1801
agreement between Napoleon and the Pope; solidified the Roman Catholic Church as majority church of France
Girondists
a group of moderates. Felt that the revolution had gone far enough and wanted to have a more conservative revolution. Organized support to resist strength against the mountain. right winged of the Jacobins. Were believed that they would turn into royalists in order to keep power; branch of Jacobins named after a department in southwestern France, they feared the powers of the sans-culottes and supported voting rights based on property ownership
The Thermidorian Reaction
Enacted by Robespierre who's extreme efforts to establish a France with neither rich nor poor led to lowly means with "unrestrained despotism" and the guillotine. Robespierre wiped out many of rebels in rural France, yet this Reign of Terror was eventually stopped by what is known as the Thermidorian Reaction. This revolt against the Reign of Terror's excesses was triggered by the CPS and eventually led to the execution of Robespierre.
Jacques Necker
financial expert of Louis XVI, he advised Louis to reduce court spending, reform his government, abolish tarriffs on internal trade, but the First and Second Estates got him fired
Law of Suspects
alleged enemies of the revolution were brought before Revolutionary Tribunals that were created to hear cases of treason
Declaration of Pillnitz
issued by Prussia and Austria in August, 1791, afraid that other countries would follow France's lead and begin revolutions, Emperor Leopold II of Austria and King Frederick William II of Prussia issued this declaration in August 27, 1791, inviting other European monarchs to intervene on behalf of Louis XVI if his monarchy was threatened. Protected French monarchy.
Tennis Court Oath
Declaration mainly by members of the Third Estate not to disband until they had drafted a constitution for France (June 20, 1789).
Lazare Carnot
was in charge of military of Committee of Public Safety (one of prominent leaders of Committee of Public Safety)
3rd estate
97% everyone else lots of taxes loved enlightment
Olympe de Gouges
A proponent of democracy, she demanded the same rights for French women that French men were demanding for themselves. In her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen (1791), she challenged the practice of male authority and the notion of male-female inequality. She lost her life to the guillotine due to her revolutionary ideas.
Flight to Varennes
Louis XVI tried to escape France in June, 1791 to avoid having to approve the Constitution of 1791 and to raise a counter-revolutionary army with Émigré noblemen and seek help from foreign powers. He was captured and the King and Queen became prisoners of the Parisian mobs. King forced to accept a constitutional monarchy.
Marie Antoinette
queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)
Republic Virtue
After the war was over this would take place and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen would be completly established.Sent out representaives from the Committe of Public Safety to explain war emergencies and provide economic control.
Officials were elected, taxes were unified, and the king no longer had the power to veto laws
Can you summarize the National Assembly's administrative reorganization of the government during the first two years of meetings?
ancien regime (Old Regime)
a political and social system that no longer governs (especially the system that existed in France before the French Revolution)
Cashiers de Doleances
Each estate was to compile a list of suggestions and grievances to present to Louis XVI.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
the French version of the American "Declaration of Independence" which included: men are born free & equal before the law, men are guaranteed freedom of speech, religion, and due process before the law, taxes had to be paid according to the ability to pay, the right to rule rested not only on the king but also on the general will of the people
He wanted a government for the people
What does Hunt mean when she says Robespierre was "devoutly republican"?
The Declaration of the Rights of Man
said men are born with equal rights, such as liberty, property, security, resistance to oppression, and innocent until proven guilty; similar to the American Declaration of Independence
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