|Francis Joseph (Austria)||
(1613-1645), gradually re-established the tsarist autocracy, peasants completely enserfed, while heavy military obligations on the nobility relaxed considerably
|Great Prince Iaroslav the Wise||
|Elizabeth I (England)||
(1558-1603), inaugurated the beginnings of religious stability, did not care what people felt as long as they conformed outwardly to Church of England-Elizabethan Settlement
|James I (England)||
(1603-1625), well-educated, learned, politically shrewd, lacked the common touch, unpopular with the people, devoted to the theory of the divine right of kings, gave the impression of being sympathetic to Catholicism
|George II (England)||
(1727-1760), discontinued this practice, influence of Crown in decision making declined
|Ferdinand III (HRE)||
(1637-1657), centralized the government, created a permanent standing army
Yeltsin's chosen successor, maintained free markets in the economic sphere, re-established semi-authoritarian political rule, caused Russian economy to boom
|Louis XVI (France)||
(1774-1792), reinstated old parlements, minister of finance attempted to impose a general tax on all landed property, attempted to dismiss the notables and establish new taxes by decree, calls a meeting of the Estates-General, forces the National Assembly to meet as a single body, forced to accept a constitutional monarchy, sentenced to death by the National Convention
Assumed leadership of Orthodox ChristianChurch Distributed conquered lands to a "service nobility" thus becoming the first "tsar" in Russia's autocracy.Ivan III stopped paying taxes to the Khan in 1480. When Constantinople fell to the Turks in 1453, tsars saw themselves as "heirs"
to the old Roman Empire.
unifiers and 1st rulers of russia
(1553-1558), England witnessed a sharp move back to Catholicism, highly unpopular
|Ivan III (Russia)||
(1462-1505), completed process of consolidating power around Moscow, defeated all rivals to win complete princely authority, stopped acknowledging khan as supreme ruler in 1480, created the service nobility, who held the tsar's land on the explicit condition that they serve in his army
|Joseph II (Austria)||
(1780-1790), abolished serfdom in 1781, 1789-decreed that peasant labor obligations be converted into cash payments, abolished contemplative religious orders
|Francis I (France)||
(1515-1547) formed Concordat of Bologna with Pope, recinded Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, gave papacy control over appointment of bishops, governed through a small, efficient council, placed France under jurisdiction of royal law courts
|Mikhail Gorbachev (USSR)||
brought political and cultural liberalization to the USSR, realized communism was failing to keep up with Western capitalism and technology, wanted to save Soviet system by revitalizing it with fundamental reforms, improve conditions for ordinary citizens, perestroika aimed to restructure the economy and add aspects of a market economy, glasnost increased cultural openness, permitted a degree of free speech and expression, slight democratization of USSR, sought to reduce East-West tensions, halt arms race with US, repudiated the Brezhnev Doctrine, when Lithuania declares its independence, responds with an embargo, asked Soviet citizens to ratify a new constitution which abolished the Communist power monopoly, tried to link member republics in a confederation, unsuccessful
|Boris Yeltsin (Russia)||
(president, Russian Federation), rival of Gorbachev, announced Russia would declare its independence from the Soviet Union, prevents an attempted coup, outlawed Communist party, wanted to create conditions that would prevent a return to communism, opted for breakneck liberalization, launched a rapid privatization of industry, caused runaway inflation and little economic growth
|Frederick William (1640-1688)||
Also ruled electorate ofBrandenburg.
Thirty Years War weakened German States
Junkers dominated the "Estates"
Used military power and taxation to unify Prussia,Rhine area/Brandenburg
By 1660, a Prussian population of one million supported an army of 30,000 troops.
Michael Romanov (r. 1613-1644)
Ivan's grand-nephew was elected by boyars to put down theCossack rebellions.Starts the Romanov Family rule which lasts 304 years!
|Willy Brandt (West Germany)||
(chancellor), policy of reconciliation with E.Europe, negotiated treaties with USSR, Poland, and Czechoslovakia, accepted existing state boundaries in return for a mutual renunciation of force, entered into direct relations with E.Germany
|Ivan IV (Russia)||
(1533-1584), known as "Ivan the Terrible", accelerated the rise of the service nobility, first to call himself tsar, crowned himself, abolished distinction between hereditary boyar property and land given temporarily for service, made service nobility entirely dependent on autocrat
|Napoleon III (France)||
(1848-1870), sought to promote the welfare of his subjects through government action, appointed Georges Haussmann to reorganize Paris, had a positive program for France, won by a landslide in his election, believed the government should represent the people and try hard to help them economically, vision of national unity and social progress, seizes power in a coup d'etat, voted hereditary emperor by plebiscite, granted workers the right to form unions and to strike, restricted but did not abolish the Assembly, wanted to reorganize Europe on the principle of nationality and gain increased territory for France, progressively liberalized his empire in the 1860s, granted France a new constitution
|Neville Chamberlain (England)||
(prime minister), cedes Sudetenland to Germany at Munich Conference, threatened Hitler that he would attack in Hitler invaded Poland
|Philip V (Spain)||
(1700-1746), grandson of Louis XIV, brought new men and fresh ideas to Spain from France, won the War of Spanish Succession, reasserted royal authority by improving state finances and strengthening defense
|Charles II (England)||
(1660-1685), content to get along with Parliament, not interested in doctrinal disputes, ruled thorough a royal council or "cabal'
|Count Otto von Bismarck (Prussia)||
(chief minister), flexible and pragmatic, aimed to secure power for himself and Prussia, used strategic wars to unify Germany, created a federal constitution for the North German Confederation, federal government would control the army and foreign affairs, bicameral legislature, gained power over middle class, Kulturkampf—Bismarck's attack on Catholic Church, abandoned in 1878, passed a law that controlled socialist meetings and drove the Social Democratic Party underground, established modern social security laws to help wage earners, established old-age pensions and retirement benefits, system of alliances aimed to isolate France and mediate threat posed by Austria-Hungary and Russia, dismissed in 1890
|Elector Frederick III (Prussia)||
(1688-1713) focused on imitating the style of Louis XIV, crowned King Frederick I as a reward for aiding the Holy Roman Emperor in the War of the Spanish Succession
|Ivan the Terrible||
Ivan IV became known as "The
Terrible" due to his reign of terror:
Blamed boyars for his wife Anastasia's death in 1560, sent secret police to "purge" boyars.
Increased demands on peasants
caused them to flee to "the wild"
into outlaw groups "Cossacks".
Created a royal monopoly of all
commerce which stopped rise of
a middle-class All subjects were "kholops".
His death leads to "Time of Troubles" (1598-1613) for Russia with Bolotnikov Rebellion.
|Weimar Republic (Germany)||
democracy seemed to take root in 1923, convinced that economic prosperity demanded good relations with the Western powers, elections held regularly
|Frederick the Great (1740-1786)||
The Prussian ruler who expanded his territory by invading the duchy of Silesia and defeating Maria Theresa of Austria.
rulers of russians after vikngs
|Louis Philippe (France)||
(1830-1848), accepted Constitutional Charter of 1830, replaced Charles X, characterized by inaction and complacency, lack of social legislation, refused to consider electoral reform, causing a sense of class injustice among middle class
|Alexander III (Russia)||
(1881-1894), determined reactionary, ended era of reform
|Joseph Stalin (USSR)||
(1879-1953), established modern totalitarian dictatorship, used five-year plans to reform the USSR, gained power because he was more effective at gaining the support of the Communist party, better able to relate Marxian thought to Soviet reality, willing to build socialism in the USSR, first five year plan increased industrial output significantly (esp. heavy industry), increased agricultural production, process of collectivization (war against the peasants), destroyed kulaks as a class (sent to forced-labor camps), collectivization did not significantly increase agricultural output, spectacular growth in industry, caused by firm labor discipline and foreign engineers, used purges to get rid of any potential threats, innocent confessed to plots in show trials, 8 million people arrested, showed that no one was secure, everyone had to serve the party and its leader with redoubled devotion, felt communist governments were only dependable allies, refused Marshall Plan assistance for all of E.Europe, established Soviet-style communist dictatorships, blocked all traffic to West Berlin, causing Berlin Airlift, moved his country toward rigid dictatorship, revived forced-labor camps and purges, purged culture and art, resulted in rigid anti-Western ideological conformity, reasserted Communist party's complete control of the government, reintroduced five-year plans, aimed to export the Stalinist system to E.Europe
(wartime leader of France), established a virtual dictatorship, crushed opposition to the war, wanted revenge on Germany, demanded the Rhineland serve as a buffer state between France and Germany and the complete demilitarization of Germany, vast reparations, wanted a formal defensive alliance with US and GB
|William II (Prussia)||
(1888-1918), opposed Bismarck's attempt to renew the law outlawing the Social Democratic party in 1890, forced Bismarck to resign, passed new laws to legalize socialist political activity, refused to renew Russian-German Reinsurance Treaty
(1645-1676), asymmetry of obligations accentuated, resulting in mass upheaval and protest, holding down the peasants became the principal obligation of the tsar
|Adolf Hitler (Germany)||
(1889-1945), extreme nationalist, believed the Germans to be a superior people and the natural rulers of central Europe, believed in exaggerated distortions of Darwinian theory of survival, inevitability of racial conflict, racism and anti-Semitism his most passionate convinctions, joined the German Workers' Party, gained absolute control, learned from first unsuccessful revolt: had to undermine the government and come to power legally through electoral competition, pursued legal strategy of using democracy to destroy democracy, promised German voters economic as well as political and international salvation, appealed strongly to the German youth, appointed chancellor by Hindenburg in 1933, established an unshakeable dictatorship, Enabling Act gave Hitler absolute dictatorial power for 4 years, moved to control all independent organizations, abolished independent labor unions, replaced them with Nazi Labor Front, violently anti-intellectual, gained the support of the army by eliminating the SA, launched a public works program to pull Germany out of the Depression, turned Germany decisively toward rearmament and preparation for war, persecuted Jews, Slavs, Gypsies, Jehovah's Witnesses, communists and homosexuals, camouflaged aggressive policies at first, used blitzkrieg warfare to dominate much of continental Europe, New Order based on racial imperialism, ideas shared by SS and Himmler, SS pushed to implement this program of destruction, condemned all European Jews to extermination
Bohemian Estates were a threat
holdings (crushed revolt in 1620)
Battle of White Mountain
settlement Prot. Stamped out
United provinces of Austria,
Styria,Tyrol...looked towards Hungary.
|Frederick William I||
recruited tall soldiers called "Grenadiers"
always wore uniform
by 1740 had 4th largest army in Europe
Created an honest and efficient bureaucracy
"Sparta of the North"
due to their military training and spirit.
|Nikita Khrushchev (USSR)||
(1894-1971), argued for major innovations, launched an all-out attack on Stalin (the Secret Speech), advocated de-Stalinization, shook up Communist party, resources shifted away from heavy industry and toward consumer goods, Stalinist controls over workers relaxed, standard of living improved, de-Stalinized Soviet foreign policy, "peaceful coexistence' with capitalism possible, relaxed cold war tensions 1955-1957, fell in a palace revolution in 1964
|Frederick William I (Prussia)||
(1713-1740), truly established Prussian absolutism and gave it a unique character, infused strict military values into a whole society, intensely emotional attachment to the military life, dog-eat-dog view of international politics, tried with some success to develop the country economically
|Philip III (Spain)||
(1598-1621) deeply pious, handed government over to duke of Lerma, who used it to advance his personal and familial wealth
|Leon Trotsky (USSR)||
(1879-1940), executed the Bolshevik seizure of power, convinced the Petrograd Soviet to make him the leader of a special military-revolutionary committee, reformed the army to create a disciplined and effective fighting force
|Henry VIII (England)||
(1509-1547) caused English Reformation for political, economic, and personal reasons, wanted his marriage to Catherine of Aragon to be annulled—Pope refused, decided to remove English church from papal jurisdiction, dissolved English monasteries for their wealth, redistributed land to upper classes, retained traditional Catholic practices, allowed Protestant literature to circulate, created a modern centralized bureaucratic state
|James II (England)||
(1685-1688), appointed Roman Catholics to positions in universities and government, granted religious freedom to all
|Maria Theresa (Austria)||
(1740-1780), centralized the Austrian state, limited the influence of the papacy, strengthened the central bureaucracy, improved the tax system, improved conditions for the agricultural population, strictly restricted entry into "unproductive" religious orders
|Louis XIV (France)||
(1643-1715), French monarchy reached the peak of absolutist development, devout Catholic, eternal distrust of the nobility, exercised great amounts of control over nobility, got them to agree to cooperate on projects that exalted the monarchy and reinforced the aristocracy's ancient prestige, installed royal court at Versailles, required the nobility to live at Versailles for at least part of the year, never called a meeting of the Estates-General, finance the weakness in his administration, revoked the Edict of Nantes because it threatened the security of the state, enjoyed the theater
|Napoleon Bonaparte (France)||
(1769-1821), military officer from Corsica, won victories for France in Italy, seized power in a coup d'etat in 1799, Civil Code of 1804 his bargain with the middle class, established Bank of France, strengthened the French bureaucracy, proclaims himself emperor in 1804, established dependent satellite kingdoms around France, introduced many French laws, abolished feudal dues, abdicated in 1814
Alexis (r. 1645-1676)
Ruled during a relatively calm time until 1652 rebellion began when Patriarch Nikon tried to "purify" E.O.C.C. to be more like the Greek Orthodox Church."Old Believers" called him the Anti-Christ,caused chaos, allowed Cossacks to rise up again.
Centralized Germany's core by uniting Austria, Styria and Tyrol.
Perm. Standing army Ottoman Threat
Won support of nobility after 1650 which helped him extend control to Bohemia.
"Robot" became the norm throughout Bohemia.
|Ludwig Erhard (West Germany)||
(minister of economy), implemented free-market economy while maintaining extensive social welfare network, reformed the currency and abolished rationing and price controls
|Helmut Kohl (West Germany)||
coordinated military and political policy toward Soviet bloc with US, proposed a 10-point plan for unification, cooperation with both E.Germany and the international community, Alliance for Germany, pumped massive investments into east provinces, still caused factories to close and social dislocation
|Frederick II (Prussia)||
(1740-1786), known as Frederick the Great, embraced culture and literature, forced Empress Maria Theresa to cede Silesia to him, violating the Pragmatic Sanction, spent much of his reign fighting to save Prussia from destruction, kept his enthusiasm for Enlightenment culture strictly separated from a brutual concept of international politics, realized more humane policies for his subjects might strengthen the state
|Ferdinand I (Austria)||
(1835-1848) promised reforms and a liberal constitution in response to widespread protests and revolt, abdicates in favor of Francis Joseph
|Victor Emmanuel (Italy)||
monarch of Sardinia-Piedmont, then the unified Italian state
|Klemens von Metternich (Austria)||
(Austrian foreign minister 1809-1848), battled against liberal political change, issued the Carlsbad Decrees, defended the status quo and rights and privileges of the aristocracy, believed liberalism was responsible for a generation of suffering, opposed liberalism and nationalism
|Winston Churchill (England)||
(1874-1965), one of history's greatest wartime leaders, rallied British with stirring speeches, infectious confidence and bulldog determination, removed possibility of Hitler invading Britain in Battle of Britain, believed the US should concentrate first on defeating Hitler in Europe, then shift its resources to the Pacific, policy of Europe first
|Oliver Cromwell (England)||
(1653-1658), ruled England as a military dictator, proclaimed a republican government, instituted quasi-martial law, mercantilist economic policies
|David Lloyd George (England)||
(prime minister, 1863-1945), inspires Liberal Party, raises taxes on the rich as part of People's Budget, helped government pay for national health insurance, unemployment benefits and other social measures, ended up being spent on battleships to combat German naval expansion, established Ministry of Munitions to organize private industry to produce supplies for the war, planned and regulated British economy, sought to punish Germany
|Louis III (France)||
(1610-1643), repealed the Edict of Nantes
|Charles VII (France)||
(1422-1461) invaded Italy in 1494, formed League of Cambrai with Louis XII and Maximilian of Germany to strip Venice of its mainland possessions, reorganized the royal council to give increased influence to middle-class, instituted the gabelle and the taille taxes, created a standing army, got control over the French appointment of bishops(Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges)
|Louis XI (France)||
(1461-1483) formed League of Cambrai with Charles VII and Maximilian of Germany to strip Venice of its mainland possessions, promoted new industries, gained several territories
|Henry IV (France)||
(1589-1610) Henry of Navarre, gained the throne at the end of the War of the Three Henrys, converted to Catholicism, established Edict of Nantes, sought better relations with the pope, kept France at peace, laid the foundations for economic prosperity
|Charles III (Spain)||
(1759-1788) introduced the system of intendants to the Spanish Empire
|Philip IV (Spain)||
(1622-1665), left the management of his kingdom to Gaspar de Guzman, count-duke of Olivares
|Charles V (HRE)||
(1519-1556), declares Luther an outlaw at the Diet of Worms, inherited Spain, its New World possessions, Spanish dominions in Italy, Austria, southern Germany, the Low Countries, believed it was his duty to maintain the political and religious unity of Western Christendom, focused on Habsburg international interests, vigorously defended Catholicism, imperial authority in the empire started to disintegrate
|Ferdinand and Isabella (Spain)||
(1479-1504) revived hermandades to serve as judicial tribunals, restructured royal council to curb aristocratic power, secured the right to appoint bishops, created an army to pursue the reconquista
ruler of mongols formed Mongol tribe which had reputation of being ruthless, was the supreme ruler of the Mongols
|Louis XV (France)||
(1715-1774), duke of Orleans ruled as regent, the nobility made a strong comeback, restored the parlements, appointed finance minister who taxed everyone, regardless of social status, new tax dropped when upper classes protested
|Nicholas II (Russia)||
(1894-1917), swore never to make peace as long as the enemy stood on Russian soil, retained complete control over bureaucracy and army, wished to maintain supreme royal power, failed to form a close partnership with his citizens in order to fight the war more effectively, adjourned the Duma and traveled to the front to rally his armies
|De Gaulle (France)||
(WWII leader, leader of Fifth Republic 1958-1969), romantic nationalist, saw US as a genuine threat to real French and European independence, withdrew French military forces from NATO, developed France's own nuclear weapons, vetoed majority rule in the Common Market, offered French African states option of a total break with France or immediate independence within a French commonwealth, all but one of new states choose association with France
|Philip II (Spain)||
(1556-1598) not accepted by the Dutch, attempted to put down their rebellion, deeply pious and Catholic, completely inflexible with regard to religious toleration, determined to crush heresy in the Low Countries
|Prince Francis Rakoczy||
Led the Hungarians to one last patriotic rebellion. his forces were defeated, but the Hapsburgs had to compromise with Hungary and give them more power over themselves.
|Charles the VI of Austria||
wrote Pragmatic Sanction -stated Habsburg lands should never be divided,even if it meant passing them to daughter Maria Theresa.
|Victor Emmanuel III (Italy)||
(1900-1946), asked Mussolini to form a new cabinet, granted him dictatorial authority for 1 year
|Peter the Great (1682-1725)||
Sought to reform Russia via military expansion.
Attacked Sweden in the"Great Northern War"
(1700-21), but Charles XII won early victory against Russia... later Russia prevails.Created Western style schools and compulsory education of nobles.
Used Western technology and hired Western advisors.
Restored old service obligations for all boyars.
Increased serfdom to pay for Russia's military power
|Prince Eugene of Savoy||
French noble Prince Eugene, who became an Austrian war hero, built his palace in Vienna, Austria in 1722.