AP Euro Terms 9 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
new monarchies
....
Tudors
English royal family
churchill, roosevelt, stalin
big three
Tito
lead Yugoslavian liberation; Yugoslavia was the only country to free itself from Soviet control (still remained Communist); after his death, the country started falling apart
Weimar Republic
German regime before Hitler
Gambetta
trade unions legalized, colonial empire, public tax-supported schools
Reichstag
Popularly elected parliament in Germany. Very little power.
Leibnitz
German philosopher and mathematician who thought of the universe as consisting of independent monads and who devised a system of the calculus independent of Newton (1646-1716)
Berlin Decree
1806-issued by Napoleon, instituted the Continental System, in the response to British blockade of commercial ports under French control.
Duma
The Russian parliament created after the revolution of 1905
proudhon
French socialist who argued that property is theft (1809-1865)
sepoy mutiny
discontent with British administration in India led to numerous mutinies in 1857 and 1858
Hundred Years' War
(1337-1453) intermittent conflict between England and France during the Middle Ages that resulted in a decisive loss for the English and caused extensive financial problems in both countries
Johannes Kepler
An astronomer who mathematically proved that the paths of the planets were ellipses, not circles. He established mathematical laws to show that the length of time of a planet's orbit varies proportionally with its distance from the sun. He also worked for Tycho Brahe.
1914
Actually, the overall economic gain from the new imperialism proved quite limited until ____. The new colonies were too poor to buy much and offered few profitable investments. Still, colonies became important for political reasons.
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade; wrote Wealth of Nations; known as Father of Economics (1723-1790)
Spinoza
Dutch philosopher who espoused a pantheistic system (1632-1677)
Louis Kossuth
Leader of the Hungarians, demanded national autonomy with full liberties and universal suffrage in 1848.
How was the Army important to Prussia?
...
George Hegel
theory of historical evolution, where each age is characterized by a dominating set of ideas(a thesis, which develops opposing idea(antithesis), which eventually produces a whole new different idea(synthesis)
Boccaccio
Florentine writer known for his prose. Wrote Decameron. When he was old, he rejected his early works.
Columbian Exchange
brought tomatoes, corn, cocoa, beans, potatoes, and sugar to Europe; brought smallpox, herding animals, horses, and wheat to the western hemisphere
economic liberal
sought to abolish the economic restraints associated w/ mercantilism of enlightened absolutists
Rosa Luxembourg
German socialist revolutionary who was assassinated after the war
Carlsbad Decrees
Metternich, These decrees required the 38 German member states to root out subversive ideas in their universities and newspapers committee with spies and informers to investigate and punish any liberal or radical organizations
Humanism
movement in Renaissance italy to study the classical texts of ancient Greece and Rome which leads to the studies of the humanities or human condition
Stadholder
The chief executive selected by each of the seven provinces of the Dutch Republic.
Percy Bysshe Shelley
Englishman and Romantic poet (1792-1822)
Vasco da Gama
Sailed from Portugal for India.
Conciliar Movement
The conciliarists believed that church authority rested in the council's representing the people, not the authority of the pope. They believed that reform of the church could best be achieved through council's or assemblies representing the Christian people. (393)
Cuius regio, Eius religio
your region, your religion
Schleswig-Holstein
Two duchies located south of Denmark. In 1863 Schleswig was annexed by Denmark prompting Bismarck's Danish War
Socialism
a theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
Botticelli
One of the leading painters of the Florentine renaissance, developed a highly personal style. The Birth of Venus
Cabinet System
leading ministers who were members of House of Commons and had support of majority of members, made common policy and conducted the business of the country
Poland 18th century
-Prussia got west
-Austria large territories
-Russia north
Maria theresa
wanted to make the state stronger. introduced measures to limit papacys political influence
In 1603, __________, the son of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, succeeded the childless Elizabeth to the throne of England.
James
United Netherlands
An entity composed of the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Belgium.
Working class leisure
The working class still enjoyed drinking, although it was discouraged, they started to enjoy sports and music halls, although blood sports declined
Dreyfus affair
A Jewish captain was falsely accused and convicted of comitting treason, really done by Catholic. Family and leading intellectual individuals and republicans like Zola wanted to reopen the case. Split in two, first army who are antisemetic and Catholic, and other side the civil libertarians and more radical republicans. Result is government severed all ties with church, no longer priests in state schools, catholicism loses a lot of power of indoctrination.
The Courtier
A treatise that sought to train, discipline, and fashion the young man into the courtly ideal, the gentleman
commercial revolution
the expansion of the trade and buisness that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th centuries.
Paris Commune
during the French Revolution was the government of Paris from 1789 until 1795. Established in the Hôtel de Ville just after the storming of the Bastille, the Commune became insurrectionary in the summer of 1792, essentially refusing to take orders from the central French government.
Spanish Armada
the Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, ending in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. This is viewed as the decline of Spains Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power.
Protestantism
This was caused by the strictness and the incompetence of the Catholic Church.
Zimmerman Telegram
March 1917. Sent from German Foreign Secretary, addressed to German minister in Mexico City. Mexico should attack the US if US goes to war with Germany (needed that advantage due to Mexico's promixity to the US). In return, Germany would give back Tex, NM, Arizona etc to Mexico.
Mary Wollstonecraft
This was an English feminist who supported the women's revolution in France
Marshall Plan
economic aid to promote the recovery of war-torn Europe while also preventing the spread of Soviet influence
"High Renaissance"
The period of the Renaissance where Rome was the center. The art was more classical, balanced, harmonious, and restraint. [1500-1527]
Islam
In the year 1635, Islam starts. It is based in the conversations the prophet Muhammad has with God, Allah. Muslims believe that Jesus wasn't the son of God but a prophet. They believe that there where 4 prophets, 1. Abraham 2. Moses 3. Jesus 4. & last prophet Muhammad. Even though Islam is an off shoot of both Judaism and Christianity, Islam and Christianity often disagree.
Kaiser Wilhelm II
the last Emperor of Germany, he ascended to the throne after his father's death in 1888. While for a short time he cooperated with the "Iron Chancellor," Otto von Bismark, who had won majority support in the Reichstag, he soon became impatient and essentially forced Bismark to resign. After Bismark's resignation in 1890, Wilhelm's impatient and rash manner was a strong factor in the increase in tensions leading to WWI.
fifth lateran council
1512-1517, There will be no more conciliarism.
Vespucci
This was the man who first said that the Americas were completely separate from Asia, thus the continent was named after him
Kosovo Liberation Army
Kosovo militants formed KLA to fight for independence from Serbia
law of maximum
planned economy to respond to food shortages and other problems in france
"I brought it about that humanism, which among the Italians . . . savored of nothing but pure paganism, began nobly to celebrate christ."
said by Erasmus.
Cardinal Richelieu
This was the man who influenced the power of King Louis XIII the most and tried to make France an absolute monarchy
Bretheren of Common Life
religious community formed by Goote, Jesus
Atlantic Slave Trade
4/5 of everything produced was from slave labor
1495-1700 11.7 million slaves were shipped over
1701-1800 6.13 million slaves were shipped over
Natural Law
the concept that there is a universal order built into nature that can guide moral thinking
16. I am a Hapsburg who had the largest empire at one time
Charles V
Francois Guizot
This man was an active player in the French Revolution of 1848 who helped in the overthrow of Charles X
"Principles of Political Economy"
(1817) Ricardo; "iron law wages": saw vicious cycle in which wages were raised, population would increase, labor market would expand, lowering wages & producing fewer children
Lord Palmerston
He was a Liberal, but like Peel he often went against h is own party' s ideas and values. Palmerston was known for liberalism in his foreign policy. He strongly believed that despotic states discouraged free trade, and he openly supported European liberal and independence movements. In 1859- 60, for example, Palmerston successfully supported the Italian independence movement against both Austrian and French interests
Dutch East India Co.
biggest trading company in the world, works out of the east (indian ocean primarily
concordat of bologna
1516 - Treaty under which the French Crown recognized the supremacy of the pope over a council and obtained the right to appoint all French bishops and abbots.
Francis Xavier
This was a man who helped Ignatius of Loyola to start the Jesuits. He also was famous for his number of missionaries he went on to promote Christianity
What were manorial rights
privileges of lordship going back to the medieval times which allowed the nobility to tax the peasantry for profit along with hunt and fish
primary instrument of dutch overseas imperialism
dutch east and west india companies
pope leo x
This was the pope that used the sale of indulgences to rebuild a basilica and he was also the pope who challenged Martin Luther
Reasons for decolonization after the war
1. Allies had pushed for self-determination
2. European nations exhausted and out of money
(especially Great Britain)
Major Ethnic Divisions of Austria Empire
Prevents Austria from having a high sense of nationalism. The following were mixed and spread throughout the Austrian Empire: Germans, Hungarians, Italians, Romanians, Poles, Czechs, Ukranians, Serbs, Croats, Slovaks, Bohemians and Slovens,
Brumaire Coup and The Consulate
This is the act in which Napoleon ended the Directory by ousting the Directors and disbanding the legislature. He then established a strong military dictatorship in place of the weak Directory
Which of Napoleon's reforms did Louis XVIII keep?
Civil Code, property rights of those who had purchased confiscated land during the revolution, bicameral legislature...
What was the Auxiliary Service Law
Required all males between 17 and 60 to work only at jobs considered critical to the war effort
Were women given the right to vote after the declaration of a constitutional monarchy in France 1790, if not why.
Women were not allowed to vote because men believed that women should be limited to child rearing and domesetic duties-also many of the men believed that the corruption of government was caused by the women who would manipulate the men
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