AP Euro The French Revolution Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Guillotine
machine for beheading people
What was the Estates General?
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Nationalism
pride in one's national identity
Émigrés
French nobles who fled France beginning in 1789, influenced Prussia and Austria to declare the restoration of the French monarchy as their goal
Jacobins
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
Necker
French Finance Minister who was repeatedly dismissed by King Louis XVI
Estates General
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution. (p. 585)
Robespierre
Jacobin French politician who had a major influence on the Revolution; known as "the incorruptible"; strongly supported the terror; executed in July 1794, out of fear that he would execute his own supporters
Hébertistes
followers of Hébert; party of extreme terror, most of its leaders were executed in March 1794, had been responsible for for deaths of 2,000 people at Nantes where they were loaded on barges and deliberately drowned, Paris Commune was thus destroyed
Gallican Church
Roman Catholic church in France, headed by the monarch, not the pope
National Assembly
Wanted a constitutional monarchy in France.
Abbe Sieyes
Wrote "What is the Third Estate?"
Jacques Necker
financial expert of Louis XVI, he advised Louis to reduce court spending, reform his government, abolish tarriffs on internal trade, but the First and Second Estates got him fired
Maximilien Robespierre
Young provincial lawyer who led the most radical phases of the French Revolution. His execution ended the Reign of Terror.
Paris Commune
The small government in Paris who wanted to resist the conservative leaders of France and tried to form their own government
Mary Wollstonecraft
"Vindication on the Rights of Man" "Vindication on the Rights of Woman" Pro-Revolution. Brought up middle class but was a big believer in equal rights....especially for women. (wanted co-education)
Declaration of Pillnitz
afraid that other countries would follow France's lead and begin revolutions, Emperor Leopold II of Austria and King Frederick William II of Prussia issued this declaration in August 27, 1791, inviting other European monarchs to intervene on behalf of Louis XVI if his monarchy was threatened.
Louis XVI
a weak King of France (1774-1792) during the start of the French Revolution. In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were ultimately executed
"Age of Rousseau"
second phase of the French Revolution; 1792-1799, France now a republic
Olympe de Gouges
A proponent of democracy, she demanded the same rights for French women that French men were demanding for themselves. In her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen (1791), she challenged the practice of male authority and the notion of male-female inequality. She lost her life to the guillotine due to her revolutionary ideas.
Equality, Liberty, Fraternity
ideas that the National Convention was based on
Women's march to Versailles
Parisian women marched to Versailles to talk to King Louis XVI about bread prices on October 5, 1789
Assembly of Notables
A group of nobles and aristocrats invited by the king of France to discuss reform of the government.
family monarchy
the power of the husband and father was absolute over the wife and children as Napoleon was over is subjects. women lost many of their rights during napoleon's rule, the clergy was kept under control by payment, and the freedom of speech was violated often.
First Estate
The first class of French society made up of the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church.
"Rights of Man"
1791, Written by Thomas Paine. It has been seen as a defense of the French Revolution, but it's also an influential work that embodied ideas of liberty and human equality.
levee en masse
The creation under the Jacobins, of a citizen army with support from young and old, heralding the emergence of modern warfare.
natural rights
The laws that are given to citizens at birth.
The Great Fear
When the peasants were afraid that the nobles would send robbers to kill them. It was a result of the storming of Bastille
Civil Constitution of the Clergy, 1790
1790, secularized religion, created a national church with 83 bishops and dioceses, biggest mistake made by the National Assembly (first significant failure); convents and monasteries abolished, archbishoprics abolished, clergymen elected and paid by state, Protestants, Jews, agnostics legally could take place in elections based on property and citizenship, no papal authority, clergy forced to take loyalty oath to new gov't, divided France over issue of religion
How did European countries respond to the American Revolution?
The French sided with the Americans
What were the three revisionist developments that led to revolution?
the nobility remained a fluid and open order; key sections of the nobility were no less liberal than the middle class; the nobility and the bourgeoisie were not really at odds in the economic field
Why was taxation such a problem for the country and the second estate?
Taxes were needed to form provincial assemblies, but the second estate refused to pay the taxes saying that such sweeping tax changes required the approval of the Estates General
They want the Third Estate to be equal to the upper classes
What is it that the Cahiers, the Declaration of the Rights of Man, and "What is the Third Estate?" have in common?
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