AP Euro Vocab 25 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Utrecht
z
1315
Great Famine
Garibaldi
Red shirted thousand
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Unified Northeastern Europe
Plebiscite
A vote of the people.
Pietro Aretino
Addressed michelangelo as divine
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization- formed in 1040 by U.S. Anti-Soviet military alliance was possible
NO
did Renaisannce humanists accept paganism?
Spinoza
Jewish philosophe who envisioned a secularized version of Judaism which could allow Jews to enter mainstream society; his beliefs were very unorthodox and many criticized him as an atheist; his way of living had little or no regard for the original faith
Paul Cezanne
➢ Rejected work of impressionists
➢ Sought to express visually underlying geometric structure and form of everything he painted
➢ Post Impressionism
➢ Retained impressionist emphasis on light and color
➢ Payed more attention to structure and form
➢ Sought to use color and line to express inner feelings and produce personal statement of reality rather than imitation of objects
➢ Shifted from objective reality to subjective
➢ Withdraw from traditional task of depicting external world
erasmus
who interpretated italian ideas about attitudes toward a classical antiquity
Saint Helena
South Atlantic island. Napoleon's final home after the Battle of Waterloo.
Collectivization
Putting smaller farms together into one large farm so as to increase productivity
Girodins
left party of Jacobins during legislative assembly
Stream-of-Consciousness
Literary technique that explored the psyche through different idea randomly bubbling up in a story.
intendants
holder of a public administrative office
John Wycliffe
(c.1328-1384) Forerunner to the Reformation. Created English Lollardy. Attacked the corruption of the clergy, and questioned the power of the pope.
Walther Rathenau
was a German industrialist, politician, writer, and statesman who served as Foreign Minister of Germany during the Weimar Republic.
17. I believed in the "Justification by Faith"
Martin Luther
Andrew Celsius
Invented measurement of temperature - Celsius.
Auguste Comte
wrote the six-volume System of Positive Philosophy and postulated the positivist method.
Encomienda
Indians were required to work a certain number of days for a land owner, but had their own land to work as well
Savonarola
A Dominican friar that predicted the French invasion of Florence from the paganism and the moral vice of the city
Krupp
an example of a cartel in Germany
Hanover
German Dynasty of England, begins with George I
The 18th century philosopher was known as the "Jewish Socrates"
Mendelsohn
Yeltsin
mayor of Moscow who eased tensions after the collapse of the Soviet Union. elected as president of the Soviet Republic of Russia in 1991. opposed by Russian Parliament but supported by the military.
Isabella D'este
Took over her husband
Influential political figure
Kleindeutsch vs. Grossdeutsch
Kleindeutsch: Meaning "small German". The argument that the German speaking portions of the Habsburg empire should be excluded from a United Germany. Grossdeutsch: Meaning "large German". The argument that the German speaking portion of the Habsburg empire be included in a united Germany.
Versailles
Site of palace outside Paris. Women marched there to demand action from Louis XVI.
Enclosure
the idea of keeping farms and different land plots closed off
artist
Bellini was a(n) __________ in the renaissance
Young Plan
program for settlement of German reparations after World War I. Presented by American Owen D. Young. Set the total reparations at $26,350,000,000 to be paid over a period of 58½ years. Was adopted by the Allied Powers in 1930 to supersede the Dawes Plan.
Encomienda System
system in Spanish America that gave settlers the right to tax local Indians or to demand their labor in exchange for protecting them and teaching them skills.
Classical liberalism
The ideas of liberty and equality-the central ideas of classical liberalism-had deep roots in Western history. Classical liberalism first crystallized at the end of the seventeenth century and during the Enlightenment of the eighteenth century. Liberal ideas reflected the Enlightenment's stress on human dignity and human happiness on earth and its faith in science, rationality, and progress. Most of the writers of the Enlightenment were passionately committed to greater personal liberty and equal treatment even before the law. Liberals demanded that citizens' rights had no limits except those that assure rights to other. Revolutionary leaders believed that people were sovereign. It exemplified by the American Constitution and the Bill of Rights, liberty meant individual freedoms, and political safeguards, equality meant equality before the law, not equality of political participation or wealth. (692, 697)
Glasnost
A Soviet policy of openness to the free flow of ideas and information, introduced in 1985 by Mikhail Gorbachev
Realpolitik
The "politic of reality" i.e. the ue of practicla means to achieve ends. Bismarck was a practitioner.
People's Budget
A plan in British parliament that increased spending on social services
civic humanist
Humanists who made Humanism into a program for educating Italian city state leaders
Bruni
first gave the name "humanitas" to the learning that celebrated humans and virtuous action
Bourbon
a European royal line that ruled in France (from 1589-1793) and Spain and Naples and Sicily
17th parallel
line of latitude that separated North and South Vietnam
Henry IV
Grandfather of Louis XIV, founder of the Bourbon dynasty, inaugurated a remarkable recovery, seen as a king of the people, kept France mostly at peace, lowered peasantry taxes, sought to heal the religious divisions of France
Russian Army 1689
Not a modern army more midevil
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
A 1748 agreement that returned everything to prewar conditions, except for Silesia, which Frederick II of Prussia kept.
Senate
Power vested in the great council and the legislative body
columbian exchange
The exchange of goods and ideas between Native Americans and Europeans
Elector Frederick William
The Great Elector, lays foundations for Prussian success in the future
Enabling Act
Article 48 of the Weimar constitution, which enabled Hitler to issue decrees carrying the force of law
June Days
These were the French workers' revolts in 1848 after the closure of the National Workshops
No. Unemployment/majority of middle aged men died in war
Was there a baby boom?
James II
This was the Catholic king of England after Charles II that granted everyone religious freedom and even appointed Roman Catholics to positions in the army and government
The Catholic League
formed in response to the Protestant Union in 1609
duke of buckingham
Richard's right hand man in his schemes to gain power. Almost as amoral and ambitious as Richard himself
Eamon De Valera
(1882-1975) The first president of the Irish Republican Army. Born in the United States.
Great Schism
A period of division in the Roman Catholic Church, 1378-1417, over papal succession
Principia Mathematica
In 1687, Sir Isaac Newton wrote this. It was filled with contributions to many areas of science, and included the three well-known laws of motion.
Social Contract
the idea that an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will
Id, Ego, Superego
Freud said that there was conscious, which you could control, and the subconscious. He said that the Id was living in the subconscious was just had primordial desires that wanted stuff like food and sex. Then there was the Superego that did not want pleasures of love, and was just pure intellect and rationality. The ego is the middle ground, the referee between the two different things, Id and Superego. All of this is going on the subconscious.
victor emmanuel II
crowned king of united Italy in 1861
Triple Alliance
Started out as the Dual Alliance in 1879 between Germany and Austria, which shaped European diplomacy until the end of WWI. Became the Triple Alliance in 1881 with the addition of Italy, who sought to support its imperialistic ambitions.
Catholic Emancipation Bill (1829)
Enabled Catholics to hold public office for the first time
Invasion of Belgium
The Schlieffen Plan required that the Germans take Belgium which had a promise that its neutrality would be guaranteed by the Europen powers. When Germany invaded Belgium this brought Great Britain into the war and inflamed the public opinion of the U.S.
Nazi racial theories
Felt that Aryan white people were most superior, Scandinavian were 2nd best, French were 3rd, and the slavs, jews, and pretty much the rest were the worst
Council of Trent
This was the meeting called by Pope Paul III that secured reconciliation with the Protestants
Catherine the Great
This was the empress of Russia who continued Peter's goal to Westernizing Russia, created a new law code, and greatly expanded Russia
Martin Luther
95 theses and the Diet of Worms and the idea of "faith alone" conservative not happy about the German peasants revolt wrote Against the Murdering and Thieving Peasants against Tetzel's indulgences. 2 sacraments and no transubstantiation. leader of the Reformation
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Social Contract
universe is regulated by natural law that can be explained by science - (Gravity), Can be applied to human behavior, No need for Bible or Religion as sources of truth
Even if believed in God: God created world but then abandoned it and thus world follows natural law without God's Involvement
Poor Law
1834, Gave some aid to the poor, but not very helpful against unemployment. Very favorable to employers.
Charles II
Son of Ch. I and restored in 1660. Also restoration of C of E and Parlt. King more careful in his dealings with Parlt and Parlt more warmly disposed to King since interregnum been a frightening disturbance. Legally, though, everything the same as before 1640. King was now given income in form of taxation set by Parlt. - gave new power to Parlt. and flexibility to govts. Artistocracy cleared land of feudal restrivctions BUT were willing to pay taxes - consequently would end up being politically powerful for next 150 years not just in Parlt. but also locally as JPs ->Squirearchy. CH. I a very social king - Engl. goes back to preCromwll culture. No heirs, number of mistresses - Nell Gwynn, relaxed, sensual man. Not interested in doctrinal issues - determined not to "set out on his travels again" therefore easygoing.
Theory of Class Struggle
This was the theory that two opposing classes have always battled against eachother to form another class that will battle against its antithesis until the synthesis is one equal class working with each other for each other
Hitler's Popularity - how popular & why
Hitler was popular for promising economic recovery and delivering
Treaty of Versailles terms
These terms said that Germany had to pay money, that Germany had to give up land, and that Germany had to keep its army size down
divine right monarchy
a king's power to rule was granted to him directly from God; however, the king must perform appropriate duties and not use this as an excuse for arbitrary rule
Reasons for and against German unity
Upper class and Conservatives did not want unification because they would have less power, but the rest of the people wanted it because of nationalism and German identity
order of the garter
Formed in 1348 by Edward the III of England and inspired by Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table, they were a select group of nobles whose job it was to exemplify qualities of chivalry.
Absolute Monarchy and a Constitutional State.
What were the two types of government in the 1600's
Around what year did the first Habsburg Emperor rule and where was he from?
Around 1450, he was the Archduke of Austria.
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