AP Euro Vocab 29 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
part of the Northern renaissance, declares the universe to be governed by math
Labour Party
Roman lower class
Rise of "isms"
19th century
(October 1805) Britain's Admiral Nelson destroyed the combined French and Spanish navies. Nelson was killed but invasion of Britain now became impossible.
Organization for European Economic Cooperation that sought to establish a permanent organization to continue work on a joint recovery program
Encouraged the arts
Female education (mothers should be educated)
Physical activity
Well rounded life
intellectual revolution of the eighteenth century in which the philosophes stressed reason, natural law, and progress in their
A 19th-century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be. Strict determinists; unlike Romantics Ex: Emile Zola, Honore do Balzac, Gustave Flaubert
relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China.
"Rebirth" Connection to Greeks and Romans. Cultural Intellectual Achievements. Gains in literature, art, philosophy, political and historical thought.
Transformation of large numbers of small peasant farmers into landless rural wage earners
Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543)
The finest representive of early modern skepticism, Created a new genre, the essay. [Renaissance]
French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s by Louis XIV
Bismarck's attack on the Catholic Church
lorenzo valla
doantion of constantine (document saying pope had power) he proved it was a forgery
A relaxing of Soviet policies following Stalin's death, including censorship and private ownership.
A political system in which the government has total control Over the lives of citizens.
Otto von Bismarck
German Political mastermind who spearheaded Prussian expansion
the Roman Catholic doctrine that the whole substance of the bread and the wine changes into the substance of the body and blood of Christ when consecrated in the Eucharist
John Maynard Keynes
(1883-1946) Criticized Treaty of Versailles in his book Economic Consequences of the Peace (1919). His viewpoint was that huge reparations, and tough economic guidelines would lead to the impoverishment of Germany, and the economic hardship on all countries. He felt that the entire treaty needed to be revised for Germany/Europe to survive. His ideas were agreed upon by many English people, and caused guilt amongst English and American leaders.
Niccolo machiavelli
(1469-1527) Wrote The Prince which contained a secular method of ruling a country. "End justifies the means."
league of cambrai
when everyone (Papacy, other city-states, mercenaries, etc) made a pact that they said was against Turks, but effectively fought Venice and won all of it's territories, When Fredinand II of Aragon, the Holy Roman Emperor Maximillian I, Pope Julius II, and Louis XII formed an alliance that they said was against the Turks but actually attacked Venice. Their goal was to divide its land possessions among themselves, including the territories of Mantua and Ferrara. The alliance was unsuccessful, however, because all parties were working for their individual, instead of collective, success. In the end, the city of Venice survived, though its terra firma was divided among its opponents.
Karl Lueger
Mayor of Vienna whom Hitler idolized
Alexander VI
(1492-1503) Corrupt Spanish pope. He was aided militarily and politically by his son Cesare Borgia, who was the hero of The Prince.
Giotto di Bondone
1266-1337, usually considered first great painter of Renaissance, fame spread fast throughout Italy and style greatly influenced others, his art reflects humanity, deep emotion and naturalism, all unseen since classical times.
Louis Blanc
Maintained that the social problems could be solved by government assistance. Called for the establishment of workshops financed by the state but owned and operated by the workers.
political prison and armory stormed on July 14, 1789, by Parisian city workers alarmed by the king's concentration of troops at Versailles
policy of equipping and training of the South Vietnamese to fight for themselves
English founder of a small fascist party in Britain
Robert Clive
British general and statesman whose victory at Plassey in 1757 strengthened British control of India (1725-1774)
Edict of Nantes
Published by Henry IV(Henry of Navarre) in 1598, granted liberty of conscience and liberty of public worship to the Huguenots in 150 fortified towns, such as La Rochelle
bank of amsterdam
the ________ created exchange rates for the different currencies as well as creating their own coin so they became the most successful bank in europe at the time because they were so trusted
Cartesian Duality
The idea, developed by Rene Descartes, that the mind and body are completely different. Intelligence is not a physical aspect of a person.
James I
King of England (1603-1625) and of Scotland as James VI (1567-1625). The son of Mary Queen of Scots, he succeeded the heirless Elizabeth I as the first Stuart king of England. His belief in the divine right of kings and his attempts to abolish Parliament and suppress Presbyterianism in Scotland created resentment that led to the English Civil War.
A military alliance, formed in 1955, of the Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellite nations.
Warsaw Pact
Defenestration of Prague
The throwing of Catholic officials from a castle window in Bohemia. Started the Thirty Years' War.
This was a playwright and a philosophe who said that the best that one could hope for in a government is a good monarch and he even often criticized the Catholic Church and government in his plays
Dual Monarchy
The joining of Austria and Hungary under two different crowns
Hohenzollern family
royal dynasty of electors, Kings, and emperors of Prussia, Germany, and Romania
This is the political faction in Italy that supported the pope
civil rights for jews, but still cannot serve in govt.
Germany 1871
October Manifesto
(1905), issued by Nich. II, attempted to quiet strikes, local revolts, promised freedom of speech and assembly, called the Duma into session
commercial revolution
the expansion of the trade and buisness that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th centuries.
Stalin's rise
He was totally focused on himself, double and tripled crossed, rose by gaining support of party
Louis Pasteur
a French scientist and physician whose discoveries led to the full acceptence at the close of the century of the bacterial theory of disease; this increased the public concern about cleanliness.
Johan Tetzel
Enlisted to preach indulgence. He knew how to arouse the people into feeling guilty for their sins.
friedrich nietzsche
German philosopher who said that "God is dead," that lackadaisical people killed him with their false values. Said that Christianity and all religion is a "slave morality." He also said that the only hope for mankind was to accept the meaninglessness of human life, and to then use that meaninglessness as a source of personal integrity and liberation. Also stated that from this meaninglessness people called Supermen would exert their mind on other and rise to power. he appealed to people who liked totalitarianism.
Balance of Power
A strategy to maintain an equilibrium, in which weak countries join together to match or exceed the power of a stronger country. One of the guiding principles of the Congress of Vienna
Gaspard de Coligny
attacked at marriage of Henry of Navarre by Henry of Guise, advisor to 2nd freak
Protestant Ethic
Mid 1600s. A commitment made by the Puritans in which they seriously dwelled on working and pursuing worldy affairs.
Victor Hugo
This was a Romantic writer who wrote prose and poetry
German Naval Expansion
They started building up their naval fleet in order to challenge the British fleet. They wanted to have the number one naval army
Labor aristocracy
This was the union of skilled workers in the working classes that had a set behavioral code. They were usually run by construction bosses and factory foremen
This was the name given to the person appointed by the States General to carry out ceremonial functions in a province in the Netherlands
Recreation and Liesure
Spectator sports like horse races and boxing matches were created, men went out and drank with buddies, freak shows and acrobats were popular.
a system in which the planets move in a circular motion around the sun
Alfred von Schlieffen
German who concocted the plan of "France for breakfast, Russia for dinner"
Spanish Economy
do not conform to capitalism, put all their money in the wool trade
Long Parliament
This Parliament met for 13 years from 1640-1653 and chose not to implement the taxes that Charles II wanted to defend England against the Scots. This was mostly because they agreed with the Scot's negative opinion of Laud's religious changes and disagreed with the king on many issues. This powerful parliament also executed Charles's chief advisory, the Earl of Strafford.
Lateran Accord of 1929
Mussolini grants independence to the Vatican.
The Revolution of 1848 in Austria
Revolution in France sparked revolutions throughout Europe. /The revolution in the Austrian Empire began in Hungary. /An unstable coalition of revolutionaries forced Ferdinand I to capitulate and promise reforms and a liberal constitution. /National aspirations and the rapid pace of radical reform undermined the revolution. /Conservative forces regrouped and the army crushed the revolution. /Francis Joseph was crowned emperor of Austria in December 1848
"new world order"
President Bush spoke of an order that would apparently feature the United States and a cooperative United Nations working together to impose stability throughout the world
-Polish Crisis/Invasion of Poland
associated with the emergence of the Solidarity mass movement in Poland, challenged the Soviet control over the satellite countries of the Eastern Bloc
Whigs and Tories
These were the two parties in the Parliament. The Whigs were mostly liberal and wanted change while the Tories wanted to keep the government as it was
Coup d'etat of Fructidor
The Directory staged this coup d'etat and put their own supporters into the legislative seats they had won. Then, they exiled their enemies and imposed censorship.
German Confederation (Bund)
39 states out of the original 300, only Britain remained as a growing power-began their century of world leadership from 1814 to 1914
Beer Hall Putsch
An armed uprising in Munich of maybe 50 people at most, crushed, Hitler's idea
James I and VI
The first Stuart king of England, the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, and successor to Elizabeth I of England. He was also the king of Scotland.
James I (of England)
he was declared King of England by will of Elizabeth; first Stuart ruler, son of Mary Stuart, Queen of the Scots; viewed his authority superior to Parliament; saw the divine right of kings as an extension of the apostolic succession; he was protestant ruling over r. catholic england
First and Second Balkan Wars
The Balkan Wars were two conflicts that took place in the Balkans in south-eastern Europe in 1912 and 1913. The First Balkan War broke out on 8 October 1912 when Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and Serbia (see Balkan League), having large parts of their ethnic populations under Ottoman sovereignty, attacked the Ottoman Empire, terminating its five-century rule in the Balkans in a seven-month campaign resulting in the Treaty of London. The Second Balkan War broke out on 16 June 1913 when Bulgaria was dissatisfied over the division of the spoils in Macedonia, made in secret by its former allies, Serbia and Greece. Their armies repulsed the Bulgarian offensive and counter-attacked penetrating into Bulgaria, while Romania and the Ottoman Empire took the opportunity to intervene against Bulgaria and make territorial gains. In the resulting Treaty of Bucharest, Bulgaria lost most of the territories it had gained in the First Balkan War
Mary Tudor (r. 1553-1558)Bloody Mary
Daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon who tried to reconnect England with the papacy
Estates General met in 1789 voting
before the estates general gathered, a public debate over its organization drew the lines of basic disagreement. the aristocracy did everything they could to limit the influence of the third estate. they decide that instead of having each member of every estate votes they would just have the voting conducted by the head of each order should have a vote making it more a more fair 1:1:1 ratio.
How did Western absolute monarchy differ from eastern absolute monarchy?
West depended on the middle class while east had a weak middle class and strong nobility
How did the welfare state initially treat women?
Britain and France tended to encourage women to stay home
France generally treated women as equals but offered financial incentives for women to have children
Crimean War - impact in Britain & Russia
This war showed that the Russian were way behind the rest of the world, and needed reform.
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