AP Euro Vocab 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
an unavoidable event
Sculptor. Probably exerted greatest influence of any Florentine artist before Michelangelo. His statues expressed an appreciation of the incredible variety of human nature.
Frederick the Great was from....
to work long and hard
Style in art and architecture developed in Europe from about 1550 to 1700, emphasizing dramatic, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts. Associated with Catholicism.
one of the most influential philosophers of the time
William Harvey
Englishman who announced blood circulates throughout the body.
fascism/ fascist
militarily dominated government which controls all aspects of society
Wrote the Decameron which tells about ambitious merchants, portrays a sensual, and worldly society.
Established by Peter the Great, they received land and control of the peasants
a medium sized government that England had
Carl Linnaeus
System Nature- developed methods to classify and name plants and animals.
the consolidation or fencing in of common lands by British landlords to increase production and achieve greater commercial profits. It also involved the reclamation of waste land and the consolidation of strips into block fields
term used to describe close government control of the economy that sought to maximize exports and accumulate as much precious metals as possible to enable the state to defend its economic and political interests
Thomas Cranmer
Prepared the First Book of Common Prayer.
Joseph II
wanted to end serfdom and had toleration
family economy
the basic structure of production and consumption in preindustrial europe
When a person is kicked out of the Catholic church
public opinion
due to print culture, this allowed for people to talk about what they read
consumer revolution
the vast increase in both the desire and the possibility of consuming goods and services that began in the early eighteenth century and created the demand for sustaining the Industrial Revolution
believed in scientific law
what do the reformers have in common?
danish phase
Freidrich List
German journalist,
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley
Wrote Frankenstein.
12 Aritcles-Peasants in Germany
to ask, demand, or claim
New Model Army
Created by Cromwell.
International relations involving the deliberate creation of a risk of war to apply pressure on the other party.
Taxes on imports or exports
Lech Walesa
Lenin's shipsyards electrician and devout catholic who led the workers to make a democratic trade union and called it solidarity.
This was the extremely lopsided victory by English army over the protestors as a result of the Corn Laws
Giuseppe Mazzini
1805-1872. explains his understanding of nationalism in "Mazzini Defines Nationality." He combines a generally democratic view of politics with a religious concept of the divine destiny of nations. Mazzini says the essential characteristics of a nationality are common ideas, common principles, and common purpose.
a COMPLETELY worthless battle that resulted in millions dead
Describe Europe's response to the threat of universal monarchy in Europe.
training to improve strength or self-control
Criticized the Church and the corruption in its clergy in the 1300s. Challenged papal infallibility and called for the power of the clergy to be supplanted with the Bible and individual interpretation of it by all Catholics. Together with Jan Hus he set the stage for the Protestant Reformation.
Early Renaissance Artists
Giotto, Masaccio, Donatello, Boccaccio, and Petrarch
a renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements. Do great things through God.
Zimmerman Telegram
German Arthur Zimmerman sent a telegram to the German minister in Mexico City telling him to promise the Mexican President German help if Mexico went to war with the U.S. the telegram was intercepted and decoded by the British, shocked the American public.
councils and lay people (elected by the people) who govern the church -- the elect
Blood Sports
form of entertainment: bullbaiting and cockfighting
former Muslims who were forced to convert to Catholicism or leave; they were eventually kicked out with the Jewish Conversos
Congress of Vienna
This agreement reorganized Europe following the defeat of Napoleon, restoring the balance of power., This was the meeting between the Quadruple Alliance in order to formulate a peace agreement and to balance the victories of the Napoleonic wars
Home Rule
Split Liberal Party in Ireland allowing
God prechoosing those to save and those to condemn
expanded from a market town organized as a manor to a city of 450,000 people/ Unable to incorporate to deal with the urban problems such as crime, water purity, sewers, garbage/ Such new cities in general were drab, sooty, dark/ Homes were poorly built and closely packed/ Family life disintegrated in the slums
John Huss
1369. Czech priest similar to Wycliffe. Rejected papal authority in Bohemia. burned at council of constance.
The ruling family of Florence that made money by being merchants and through banking.
Chapelier Law
This law forbade unions and strikes.
Indians were required to work a certain number of days for a land owner, but had their own land to work as well.
city states
small self-governing towns in italy that excelled in the merchant industries and cultural expansion
Ems Telegram
The carefully edited dispatch by Bismarck to the French ambassador Benedetti that appeared to be insulting and thus requiring retaliation by France for the seeming affront to French honor
Pugachev's Rebellion
1773, tried to restore traditional system with rights for peasants.
8. I was the Renaissance humanist, I wrote Praise of Folly
Defenestration of Prague
the hurling, by protestants, of catholic officials from a castle window in prague, setting off the thirty years' war
Communist Manifesto
a socialist manifesto written by Marx and Engels describing the history of the working-class movement according to their views
famous artist of the Age of Anxiety; developed the cubist movement; painted "Les Desmoiselles d'Avignon" and "Guernica"
Desiderius Erasmus
a northern Dutch humanist who wrote the Praise of Folly. He believed in a Christianity of the heart, not one of ceremonies or rules but wanted to reform the church NOT abadon it as Luther did
gerard groote
dutch preacher - founded brtjren of common life
"New Imperialism"
The new idea that revitalized the period of expansion and gathering of colonies
a school of late 19th century French painters who pictured appearances by strokes of unmixed colors to give the impression of reflected light
Working class leisure
The working class still enjoyed drinking, although it was discouraged, they started to enjoy sports and music halls, although blood sports declined
Total War
The channeling of a nation's entire resources into a war effort
"enlightened" absolutism
a form of absolute monarchy or despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment. Enlightened monarchs embraced the principles of the Enlightenment, especially its emphasis upon rationality, and applied them to their territories. They tended to allow religious toleration, freedom of speech and the press, and the right to hold private property. Most fostered the arts, sciences, and education.
a group made up of working class French citizens who had experienced hardship because of the assignats. This group was important to the economy of France. Their main goal was to overcome social inequality and have food available to all citizens. Mob rule was their primary instrument for action, and they used the Paris Commune for politics. They were a very effective group that advocated revolution.
Alfred Dreyfus
A Jewish military captain in the French Army, he was falsely accused of treason, and his affair split France apart
year the peace treaty was signed in Lodi
This was the political idea in which the people regarded tradition as the basic source of human institutions and the proper state and society remained those before the French Revolution which rested on a judicious blend on monarchy, bureaucracy, aristocracy, and respectful commoners
Postdam Conference
This is the conference where Stalin, Truman, and Churchill came together to decide how Germany would be administered. Their goals were to establish order, settle peace treaty issues, and deal with the effects of WWII.
What was sovereignty?
Power-during the American and French Revolution believed that the people had sovereignty
the prince of humanists --> he had a great impact because he was a leading intellectual so his works were read or he was listened to. he advocated reforming the church and thought that education would solve it. he also wrote the philosophy of christ
Treaty of Utrecht
1713, ended War of Spanish Succession between Louis XIV's France and the rest of Europe; prohibited joining of French and Spanish crowns; ended French expansionist policy; ended golden age of Spain; vastly expanded British Empire
Franco-Prussian War
War of France against Prussia and the North German Confederation. Caused by the Ems Dispatch over the Spanish succession. Resulted in a Prussian victory, and the Treaty of Frankfurt confirmed German possession of Alsace and the northern part of Lorraine afterward which caused much French resentment.
henry viii
English king who created the Church of England after the Pope refused to annul his marriage (divorce with Church approval)
Victor Hugo
This was a Romantic writer who wrote prose and poetry
A payment to the man's family from the bride's family. Wealthy people may have viewed this as an investment, that would be regained through business and political advantages the match would give them. Young women with limited means worked as domestic servants so that their employers would pay their dowries.
Napoleonic Code
Passed by Napoleon. Took away many of the rights gained by women, aimed at reestablihing the "family monarchy". Modified after Napoleon's defeat.
Henry of Guise
Catholic and leader of an influential family in France who wanted to drive out all Huguenots in France and establish a Catholic Kingdom for himself. Lost to Navarre
levee en masse
proclamation made by Lazere Carnot in order to support the war effort. It declared that all males in the population were enlisted in the army, and all production from the country must go to military purposes. This demonstrates the desperate need for war support during this time.
cold war
the period after World War II during which the world was politically divided between Western/democratic and Eastern/communist nations. (p. 993)
Georges Haussman
French baron who Napoleon III hired to redo Paris, he built wide boulevards that went out from the middle of the city and tore everything down to do it
*living standards got better, no more successful uprisings, beginning of urban renewals in Europe, sickness goes down, beginning of modern world, becomes model for urban expansion
Mein Kampf
Hitler's book in which he outlined his ideas on race, living space, and the Fuhrer
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
passive resistance civil rights leader in US during 1950s to 1960s
The Thirty Year War
Began When Phillip II launched the Spanish Armada on England. Englanf ended up victorious even though they were outnumbered. most of the Spanish fleet was destroyed. divided into four phass: Bohemian, Danish, Swedish, and French
Hundred Days
The term given to the period of time of Napoleon's escape from Elba and his defeat at Waterloo.
louis xiv
king of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715)
1. Trans-Siberian line
2. Tariffs (protective tariffs for Russian Industry
3. Gold Standard (Russ. currency could be widely accepted
4. Foreign Capital (encouraged foreign workers and companies to immigrate
5. Coal, steel, Petroleum (Production increase)
Economic Reform Surges during the 1890's in Russia
Concordat of Bologna
1516 - Treaty under which the French Crown recognized the supremacy of the pope over a council and obtained the right to appoint all French bishops and abbots.
Meeting at Marburg
This was the meeting that tried to settle the dispute between Martin Luther and Ulrich Zwingli over the presence of Christ in the Lord's Supper.
Elizabeth I (1558-1603)
Allied with the Dutch and defeated the Spanish Armada of Philip II
Importance of Germany's campaign through Belgium
When Germany moved through Belgium, it caused Britain to go on the side of the war with France.
Favorable balance of trade
This was the ideology that most states used to gain the most money from their exports by increasing the amount of finished materials while decreasing the amount of raw materials
The sinking of what ship by the Germans caused the most protest by Americans?
The Lusitania in 1915
Jews and the Age of the Ghetto
-famous for their intellectual life and connections to financial institutions
-did not have same rights and privileges unless monarch issued an order
-not allowed to mix with society; old regime jews lived in separate communities called ghettos and were self governing
-poverty,inferiority exception was Court Jews
flight from the pound
gold sent out of Britain to pay for imports, people convert from pounds into more stable currency
Locarno Pact / Spirit of Locarno
The pact was an agreement to define the border between France and Germany, and in which Britain and Italy would gang up on the aggressor if the treaty was broken. The spirit was this feeling that war could be stopped again by peace talks that settled in Europe after the pact
What was the affect of the Federalists compromise to the anti-federalists?
First ten amendments to the Constituion and basic freedoms
- no more than 100,000 troops and no draft
- no artillery, planes, submarines, ordered to hand over fleet, but destroyed it instead
What did the Treaty of Versailles do to the German Military?
Common Lands
Italian mercenary soldiers
michel de montaigne
founded skepticism
(1533-1592) The finest representative of early modern skepticism. Created a new genre, the essay.
Karl Marx
(1818-1883) German philosopher, political economists, historian, political theorists, sociologist & communist revolutionary; Marxism
Curzon line
Eastern boundary of Poland
the italian nationalistic movement, which its goal of liberation and unification. secret societies had to form because nationalists could not support their cause openly. this term is the italian word for 'resurgence'.
Urban growth during the agricultural revolution. It dealt with the migration from rural to urban areas.
Russian dynasty, started with Michael Romanov after the Time of Troubles and lasted until 1917.
Bartholomew Diaz
(1487-1488) Portuguese, first european to reach the southern tip of Africa
The delibriate act of misrepresenting or manipulating historical evidence, generally to serve a politcal purpose
Augustinian monk and botanist whose experiments in breeding garden peas led to his eventual recognition as founder of the science of genetics (1822-1884)
Berlin Decree
1806-issued by Napoleon, instituted the Continental System, in the response to British blockade of commercial ports under French control.
Nouvelle Heloise
One of Rousseau's best seller's.
seized power during the Russian Revolution; introduced the New Economic Policy
Algeciras Conference
Conference provoked Germany backfired on Germany over the issues of the Morocco crisis.
British party more responsive to commercial and manufacturing interests.
This Roman poet who represents reason leads Dante through Hell in the Divine Comedy.
1588 Spanish vessels defeated in the English Channel by an English fleet, thus preventing Philip II's invasion of England
Marco Polo
Venetian merchant and traveler. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade.
A form of local government instituted in Imperial Russia by Alexander II, this was a great liberal reform. Shut down after the October Revolution. Local self-governments consisted of boards with 5 classes of members: delegates of the peasants, less wealthy urban classes, wealthier townsman, small land owners, and large land owners. While nobles were still given priority, the system did give the greater population more say relatively.
"Prague Spring"
The 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia was the crucial event of the Brezhnev era
Giuseppe Garibaldi
a bold and romantic Italian nationalist who led a small army in the capture of Sicily, and then proceeded to conquer the rest of the south of Italy and unite it with the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. Was offered a command in the American Civil War by Abraham Lincoln, but turned him down.
the first 'rebirth' of antiquity or Greco-Roman civilization since the downfall of the Roman Empire and of art, classical studies, and political and economic theory
Roman Catholic Church
powerful religion exerted considerable control over European society during the Middle Ages. Centered in Rome
The idea that human beings simply exist, have no higher purpose, and must exist and choose their actions for themselves. Existentialism mainly influenced by Nietzsche. Existentialism sustain popularity in Germany with Martin Heidegger and Karl Jaspers who appealed to university students.
Art Nouveau
early twentieth century artistic style in graphics, fashion, and household design that featured flowing, sinuous lines, borrowed large part from Asian art
A Protestant sect that opposed infant baptism, believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion; they also advocated pacifism, separation of church and state, and democratic church organization.
Glorious Revolution
This was the "revolution" that replaced James II with William and Mary that also recognized the supremacy of the Parliament with minimum bloodshed
Christian Democrats
Political party that ruled West Germany for the first 20 years (1949-69) led by Konrad Adenhaur...credited for "economic miracle"
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon
This socialist man believed that property is theft
Anti-Comintern Pact
Between Hitler and Japan; offered security against Russia.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo, started World War I.
Charles I
James I's son ruled from 1625-1649; believes in divine right, asked Parliament for money, parliament gave no money to him, dismissed Parliament, came up with the Forced Loan, parliament made him agree to teh Petition of Right, had Duke of Buckingham assassinated
National Liberation in Greece
Greek patriot Alexander Ypsilanti leads Greece against Ottoman Turks fights for independence, asks the aid of European Powers. Metternich and the Holy Alliance(Russia, Prussia, Austria) side with the Ottoman. After year of fightin, Finally Britain, France and even Russia force the Turks to surrender. The Turks refuse and get annihilated by a combined Russian French and English navy
social democratic labor party
social democrats, Russian socialist party formed in 1898.
The Courtier
A treatise that sought to train, discipline, and fashion the young man into the courtly ideal, the gentleman
Belgian Congo
exploited by Leopold II at Belgium under the Berlin Act, Leopold was supposed to act as a trustee. He violated the agreement and stripped the country of its resources.
Joseph Goebbels
Chief minister of the Nazi propaganda, and organizer of Kristallnacht
Martin Luther
author of the Ninety-Five Theses and essentially the creator of Protestantism and the Reformation; changed the Catholic Church's hold on Europe
St. Petersburg
Capitol city created by Peter the Great to resemble a French city. It was built on land taken from Sweden
Fanny Kaplan
young woman who attempted to kill Lenin in 1918. only wounded him.she favored Constituent Assembly. executed. her parents emigrated in Americas. six brothers and sisters also punished.
Dutch War
started by Colbert over trade, France vs. Dutch, Spain, and Holy Roman Empire, ended with the Treaty of Nijmegan
1618- 1648
30 years war, austrian stasge, swedish intervened, Battle of White Mountain
Maria Theresa
- Austrian absolutist who to first steps to abolition of serfs, taxed RCC more/took more of RCC property, expelled Jesuits
-but banned workes of Rousseau and Voltaire
this was basically the emergence of a freer global economy which integrated trade between nations so that trade and commerce could be done more efficiently.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
(March 1918)-Pact by which Lenin pulled Russia out of the war with Germany and gave up one third of the Russian population in the western territories
The Grand Army
Combined French armies under Napoleon. Virtually destroyed during Napoleon's ill-fated Russian campaign.
Jean-Babtiste Colbert
An advisor to Louis XIV who proved himself a financial genius who manged the entire royal administration
Middle class values
The middle class frowned upon heavy drinking and the women were fond of fashion. Education was necessary and sexual purity was considered a virtue
big four
The Big Four were the four most important leaders, and the most important ones at the Paris Peace Conference. They were Woodrow Wilson- USA, David Lloyd George- UK, George Clemenceau- France, and Vittorio Orlando- Italy.
the battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat, Located in Belgium, the place where the british army and the prussian army forces attacked the french. Napoleon's final defeat against the British and Prussians
five year plans
Plans that Joseph Stalin introduced to industrialize the Soviet Union rapidly, beginning in 1928. They set goals for the output of steel, electricity, machinery, and most other products and were enforced by the police powers of the state.
cottage industry
the new putting out system created by entrepreneurs during the Industrial Revolution ; textile manufacturing
Thomas More
refused to sign the Act of Succession because he wouldn't recognize Henry VIII as head of the Church and was killed in 1535; wrote Utopia
Married Life
Men had all control over families and wives; in all areas, women conformed to men
George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
German philosopher and author. A believer in universal consciousness, he also believed that history was a goal- driven process. A part of this process was the dialectic
The art of language, or study of words and their origins and meanings, which was a main focus of humanists, or a"humanity". Lorenzo Valla used this to prove that the Donation of Constantine was, in fact, a much more recent forgery and a papal lie.
Modern Devotion
A kind of boarding school for reform minded laity. A resource for the movement educated people and created priests for reformation religions and philosophies also know as the brothers of the common life.
A city in the Ukrain territory of the Soviet Union where a major nuclear accident occured.
Final Solution / Holocaust
was Nazi Germany's plan and execution of its systematic genocide against European Jewry during World War II, resulting in the final, most deadly phase of the Holocaust
War of Devolution
Against Spain on basis of claim to Spanish Netherlands; Jan De Witt led middle class Dutch government; William III led opposition of Dutch
edward VI
henry VIII's only son - was young and sickly
Geocentric theory
The idea that the Earth is the center of the universe.
Crimean War
A war fought in the middle of the nineteenth century between Russia on one side and Turkey, Britain, and France on the other. RUssia was defeated and the independence of Turkey was guaranteed
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
heir to the throne of Austria Hungary; assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, a bosnian serb.; sparked WWI
Charles I of Spain
Heir to the Habsburg, Burgundian, and Spanish dynasties.
Warsaw Pact
A treaty in 1945 signed by most of the communist countries as a response to NATO
French Humanist Francois Rabelais
He was more secular and attracting a broader readership among literature. He wrote the two master pieces Garangtua and Pantagruel. Garangtua was a comic about the adventure of Ganrgtua a giant and his son who meets hilarious figures. Pantagrua was a spoof on French society in which Rebelias calls for reform.More and rebalias said that instiutions create individuals and mold healthy life.
Frederich the Wise of Saxony
Supporter of Marthin Luther, he hid him from the Catholic Church when he refused to repent.
Frederick William IV
This king of Prussia was the king who gave into Prussia's constitution
Baldassare Castiglione's Book of the Courtier
Epitomized the main ideas of Italian humanism. Said a successful man was one who could integrate knowledge of ancient languages and history with athletic, musical, and military skills, all while being polite and exhibiting a high moral character.
Mussolini's Rise - role of Black Shirts
These were Mussolini's bullies who pushed socialist out of Northern Italy
Francisco Franco (1892 - 1975)
the leader of the rebel forces in the Spanish Civil War. After winning the war, Franco became the dictator of Spain in which he led along military lines. He established policies highly favorable to the Catholic Church due to the support he had received from them during the war. Universal suffrage was eliminated and Spain was mainly isolated during Franco's rule by the other European countries.
What was the book Copernicus wrote and what was the Copernican hypothesis?
On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres-stars were motionless, earth rotated around the sun [heliocentric] and universe was of large size, and earth was just another planet
Popular parliament.
HQ of anabaptists
Break from Authority
United Moldavia and Walachia
These were the French philosophers
North Atlantic Treaty Organization- formed in 1949 by U.S. anti-Soviet Military alliance of Western Governments.
pseudoscientifc theory that biological features of race determine human character & worth
led National Socialist German Worker's Party
Marxists who believed that workers empowered to vote could obtain their ends through democratic means without revolution and the dictatorship of the proletariat, known as revisionism.
Margaret Thatcher
Conservative Prime Minister, 1979 campaigned against welfare state
Francois Villon
author of the grand testament
the act or practice of censoring
Boer War
Cecil Rhodes policies eventually embroiled Britain in the costly Boer war (1899-1902), in which Britain's use of concentration camps and scorched earth policies led to international condemnation. Vs. Dutch Boers.
lawyer and writer turned revolutionary leader; "the incorruptible"; after his leadership in the Reign of Terror, only his own execution ended this radical phase of the revolution
Ulrich Zwingli
Introduced the reformation in Switzerland.
Russian Duma
Russian parliament opened in 1906, elected indirectly by universal male suffrage but with absolute veto power from the tsar. (p.841)
Edward Morel
➢ "The Black Man's Burden"
➢ Sarcastic version of a white man's burden
➢ Pointed out destructive effects of Western imperialism on Africans
a prominent early Bolshevik leader in the Soviet Union. ____ rose through the Communist Party ranks to become head of the Party organization in Leningrad. _____ was seen as a focal point of opposition to the more extreme policies of Joseph Stalin, and as a counterbalance to the increasing concentration of power in Stalin's hands., The Great Purges started by the assassination of this Politburo member and popular Leningrad party chief
(1856-1924) President of the United States and key figure in the peace conferences following World War I; he intended to make the world "safe for democracy".
Woodrow Wilson
John Kay
Inventor who created an imbalance between weavers and spinners by creating a device to increase efficiency of weavers; spinners could not create thread to keep up
tax on property and land, provided permanent income for French royal government
Royal council
center of royal authority in England
Bolshevik (October) Revolution
Replaces the Provisional Government with Lenin's forces
Moses Mendelssohn
Rewrote the torah in German transliteration. He advocated entering German culture while keeping Jewish law. He was orthodox but had a few reform principles.
Jean Monnet
French economist who advocated a Common Market in Europe (1888-1979) Founding father of the EU
ethnic groups in the _________ empire included: germans hungarians czechs slovaks poles ukrainians slovenes serbians romanians italians
Russo-Japanese war
1904-1905 embarassing defeat by Japan, Russia recognized it needed to industrialize further, only one railroad to the far east (Vladivostok)
Robert Walpole
Englishman and Whig statesman who (under George I) was effectively the first British prime minister (1676-1745)
this helped relieve the social and population pressures on the continent and led to europeanization of the world
Archbishop Laud
Archbishop who believes more popery is better than less. Tries to impose new prayer book and bishops in England.
John Locke
Two Treatises on Government, Essay on Human Understanding
The Catholic Church
This started when Constantine made Christianity the state religion of Rome. When Rome collapsed the only structure left was the Roman Catholic Church. The church gave some structure to Europe. Thus, people turned to the church and it grew greatly in power. The church offered some highly selective education. It is the priests who interpret the bible and they used that to their advantage and depicted it in a way that benefited the Catholics. The Catholic Church and the Pope essentially ruled Europe throughout the middle ages until later on.
communist party
a political party practicing the ideas of Karl Marx and V.I. Lenin; originally the Russian Bolshevik Party. One class would evolve, property would all be held in common, and there would be no need for government; the central government directs all major economic decisions
The Little Entente
The French alliance between the smaller countries of Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia.
Dreyfus Affair
Incident in France where a Jewish captain was tried for treason because they military was anti-Semitic, and it divided the country
Da Vinci
Regarded as the embodiment of the "Renaissance Man", he was a famed painter, sculptor, architect, scientist, mathematician, inventor, botanist, and writer.
Rump Parliament
This was the Parliament after Oliver Cromwell dismissed the Cavaliers
The Great Fear
Aristocrats of the National ASsembly decided that the only way to halt the violence in the countryside was by renouncing their feudal rights
Peasants no longer obligated to work on the local lords land
All the people of France were subject to the same laws
Marshall Plan
U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall urged Americans to offer economic aide- this was the Marshall Plan. Refused by Stalin.
Peace of Augsburg
1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler, granted legal recognition of Lutheranism in Germany
Laura Cereta
letters talked about the right of women to education in the arts and sciences, contribution to history and culture.
total war
no segment of the population within any of the participating nations could avoid the impact of the war
Prince Francis Rákóczy
The Hungarians rose in one last patriotic rebellion under Prince Francis Rakoczy against the Habsburgs in 1703. Rakoczy and his forces were eventually defeated, but this time the Habsburgs had to accept a definitive compromise. Charles VI restored many of the traditional privileges of the Hungarian aristocracy in return for Hungarian acceptance of the hereditary Habsburg rule. (572)
The German Empire (701)
created 1871, Prussia and German states together
Paracelsus (1493-1551)
believed all matter was made up of salt ,sulfur , murcury
Paul von Hindenburg
President of the Weimar Republic of Germany who appointed Hitler Chancellor in 1933
"The White Man's Burden"
The justification of imperialism, this was created in Kipling's work
Venetian School of Art
Titian, use of mannerism (distorted figures and exaggerated musculature, and heightened color to express emotion and drama more intently
Baldassare Catiglione
Offered a manual for the manners of the modern gentleman, The Book of the Courtier: A gentleman is trained for polite company, poised and well dressed, skilled in arms and sports, capable of making music and conversation, a reader of the classics, a social mixer who is good humored, lighthearted, and considerate of others' feelings.
Cardinal Jules Mazarin
Prime minister of France. Worked to increase France's power. Many people hated him because of his harsh policies. This led to the Fronde.
Casablanca Conference
Called by the Allies in 1943 to discuss strategy against Germany. Resolved to accept nothing less than unconditional surrender of Axis powers. Also called for an invasion of Italy and Sicily by British and American troops to ease the pressure on Russia.
Enclosure movement
This was the way that the English landowners would now organize their land so that the farmers would become more productive in their work
Eamonn de Valera
one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Ireland. Co-owner of one of the Irish Press Newspapers, he served in public office from 1917 to 1973, holding the various Irish prime ministerial and presidential offices. A significant leader of Ireland's struggle for independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the early 20th century, and the Republican anti-Treaty opposition in the ensuing Irish Civil War, de Valera was the author of Ireland's constitution, Bunreacht na hÉireann.
Third World
The region of the world containing a high concentration of underdeveloped or emergent countries
Phillip II
son of Charles V; very Spanish, so he wasn't nearly as popular as his father was in areas like the low lands, beligium, Netherlands, etc
Catherine the Great
ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796, added new lands to Russia, encouraged science, art, lierature, Russia became one of Europe's most powerful nations
Otto von Bismark
led the drive for a Prussian- based Hohenzollern Germany
Council of Trent
This was the meeting called by Pope Paul III that secured reconciliation with the Protestants
Assembly of Notables
-summoned by King Louis XVI, who hoped to persuade nobles to agree to the reforms proposed by his principal ministers Charles de Calonne and Lomenie de Brienne.
-used the financial emergency to attempt major constitutional reforms
-most important: insisted that any new tax scheme must have the approval of the Estates General, the representative body of the three estates of the realm, and that the king had no legal authority to arrest and imprison arbitrarily.
James I
The first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1925 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625
Dante Alighieri-
He was an Italian poet who began by writing love poems. However, after his exile from Florence in 1301, he spent the next twenty years wandering throughout Italy, writing more philosophical and literary pieces. Dante's The Divine Comedy is an epic poem detailing his travels through hell, purgatory, and heaven. The poem includes a variety of writing styles and allusions to political and religious figures that correspond with the location. On a somewhat larger scale, Dante uses The Divine Comedy to express his views on numerous aspects of medieval life.
Leonardo DA Vinci (1452-1519)
High Renaissance Artist, but also a military engineer, architect, sculptor, scientist and inventor. Sketchbooks show workable designs fo submarines and helicopters. Painted the Mona Lisa
Hundred Days of Reform
An attempt by the Chinese to reform their country in 1898 order to meet the western threat, that was undermined by the boxer revolution
Cabal of Charles II
Under Charles II, the CABAL which was his appointment of a council of 5 men serving both as advisors and parliament members, the council had minsterial responsiblilty, and s a royal minster it was answerable in Parliament for the King.
Alliances 1873-1914 & German isolation
Germany became more and more isolated because it was aggressive and France had pursued many alliances against Germany, leaving Germany only with Austria
Bartholomew Diaz, Vaseo de Gama, Pedro Alvares Cabral
famous navigators that sailed to places unknown (the new world)
1. Place land troops in Egypt, quell riots and take control
2. To gain control of Suez Canal
3. Improve Egyptian infrastructure
4. improve taxation
Resisted by Egyptians.
British reforms during temporary control
Rebirth of Classical Texts (Greek and Roman)
Scholars and humanists looked back to the time when there was more knowledge, the time of the Greeks and Romans.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
The preamble of the French constitution drafted in August 1789; it established the sovereignty of the nation and equal rights for citizens.
How were the earliest steam engines used?
They were used to pump water out of coal mines
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