AP euro vocab1 Flashcards

Kingdom of Prussia
Terms Definitions
Luftwaffe
german airforce
Consulado
Spanish merchant guild
3rd Estate
Bourgeoisie and Peasants
Dmitri Mendeleev
developed periodic table
Intendants
royal commissioners who painstakingly collected information from local communities for Paris and delivered royal orders from the newer judicial nobility called the noblesse de robe.
inquisition
a severe interrogation (often violating the rights or privacy of individuals)
William Wordsworth
poetry that glorified nature
Constitutionalism
Limitation of government by law
Fronde
When Louis XIV continued Richelieu's centralizing policies, attempts to increase royal revenues led to the civil wars of 1648-1653 known as the "Fronde." The word Fronde means "slingshot" or "catapult", and a frondeur was originally a street urchin who threw mud at passing carriages of the rich. However, the Fronde originated in the provinces, not Paris and the term frondeur came to known as anyone who opposed the policies of the government. (536)
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The European middle-class family might spend _____ percent of its income on food and drink.
impact of marx
no revolution-things generally improved
during second half of the century wages rose and many countries permitted to labor unions
most major states had given men the right to vote
conditions improved for workers, they were less willing to subvert the government
marx thought russia would be last to revolt, but it was the first
Napoleonic Code
Napoleon's laws, including free religion, other freedoms, but also limited press, etc.
aesthetic
(philosophy) a philosophical theory as to what is beautiful, concerning or characterized by an appreciation of beauty or good taste
Virtue
characteristic that causes people to care more about their country than themselves
Bureaucracy
system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials; used in Prussia
Charles Darwin
(1809-1882) English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection; published "On the Origins of Species"
God, Glory, Gold
Three main reasons for exploration.
audiencia
Within each territory the viceroy, or imperial governor, exercised broad military and civil authority as the direct representative of the sovereign in Madrid. The viceroy presided over the audiencia, a board of twelve to fifteen judges, which served as his advisory council and the highest judicial body. (p.512)
Conquistadores
Spanish 'conqueror' or soldier in the new World.
Anticlericalism
hostility to the church provoked by concerns of people about the secular interests. This reaction was symptomatic of the broad commitment to genuine piety that was apparent in followers of Wycliffe, Hus, and Savonarola.
Wilson's peace plans calling for freedom of the seas, arms reduction, and the right of self-determination for ethnic groups.
Fourteen Points
Liberalism
The belief in equality and freedom. Practices include representative governments, equality before the law, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, and freedom from arbitrary arrest.
Walter Gropius
German architect who broke form previous design with light, airy, bright buildings of glass and iron
manorial rights
privileges of lordship that allowed them to tax the peasantry for their own profit, monopolies on baking bread, fees for justice
Quattrocento
The cultural and artistic events of 15th century Italy, encompasses the artistic styles of the late Middle Ages (most notably International Gothic) and the early Renaissance., Italian for fifteenth century(1400s).
Wannsee meeting
Nazi meeting where the "Final Solution" policy is decided
what did cardinal Richelieu establish?
an administrative system
Humanism
Studied the Latin classics to learn what they reveal about human nature. Emphasized human beings, their achievements, interests, and capabilities.
Parlement of Paris
main state court in France
Untouchables
Gandhi, a member of the merchant class, tried to eradicate the injustices of the caste system. He wanted to help the status of the lowest classes of society, the casteless untouchables. He called them harijans, meaning "children of God."
Article 231
Provision of the Versailles Treaty that blamed Germany for World War 1
Carlsbad Decrees
1819, it discouraged liberal teachings in southern Germany. Censorship imposed by Metternich.
Yeoman
In England - a class of small freeholders(the yeomanry) developed between the landed gentry and the rural poor. Reached status becos fixed payt. to manorial lord and due to inflation acquired more wealth & became small landowners. Some peasants in France, w. Germany and the Netherlands gained status like the Engl. yeoman.
Frederick William I
Promoted the evolution of prussias highly efficient civil bureaucracy by establishing the 'General directory' Frederick william personally kept a close watch over his officials to ensure that they performed their duties. Close, personal supervision of the bureaucracy became a hallmark of the 18th century. By the end of his reign, the army had doubled. Prussia had the fourth largest army. William ensured a close bond betweeen the nobility and the army.
St. Petersburg
Capitol city created by Peter the Great to resemble a French city. It was built on land taken from Sweden; created during the age of absolutism; "window to the West"
THe Prince
A pamphlet written by Machiavelli to express how a successful ruler would rule.
Francisco Goya
A Spanish painter and printmaker, Goya (1746-1828) worked for the Spanish Crown, and was a member of the Romanticist movement. He painted Third of May, 1808 in commemoration of the massacres of the Spanish people during the French occupation of Iberia.
English Royal Society
society funded by merchants and scientists and emphasized theoretical science, which allowed them with more options
Adolphe Thiers
Leader of the National Assembly in France, he ordered the Paris Commune to be crushed. He also declared the Third Republic of France, because it "divided France the least"
daGama
found a sea route to the Indian Ocean
John Maynard Keynes
Young English economist who denounced Treaty of Versailles and said that people needed to revise treaty and help German econ. He Wrote Economic Consequences of the Peace. Said Britain needed Germany, and if the German market went under, Britain econ would go under. His book was one of the major reasons that the British were sympathetic towards Germany.
Vendée
A region in western France south of Brittany, it was the site of several anti-Revolutionary uprisings from 1793-6 that claimed as many as a million lives.
fredrick the great of prussia
enlightened absolutist; allowed religious freedom and promoted education and legal reform; participated in the poland partitions;
Lombardy
An Italian State to the north. Annexed 1859.
Modern liberalism
This was new thought that the governments should be subject to change. This was the counterpart to conservatism
First Moroccan Crisis
(1905) international crisis over the international status; Germany resented France's increasing dominance of Morocco & insisted on an open door policy
The public
Determined to reach and influence all the French (and European) economic and social elites, many of which were joined together in the 18th century concept of the educated or enlightened public
Battle of Tannenberg
Russian troops mobilized faster than expected and invaded Eastern Prussia, Helmuth von Moltke transferred troops from Western Front to Easter, victory by the Germans led to the liberation of East Prussia and began German advance eastward, but Germany had to fight two-front war
Michael Servetus
Spanish refugee to Geneva burned for denial of holy trinity
Michael Servetus
Protestant even to Calvinism
Babylonian Captivity
Petrarch wrote about the __ of the papacy. France, which was known as the Babylon of the West, was where the successors of the poor fisherman ruled during the new papacy. It was a time when the French popes and French cardinals ruled the Church.
Alfred Reyfus
The main person in the Dreyfus Affair Captain Alfred Dreyfus was a Jewish captain in the French army. Somebody framed him giving secret French information to the German Republic and he was sent to jail. Sooned it was discovered he was framed but they kept him in jail. After much opposition, the French army released him in 1898
New Social Classes
factory owners became aware of their status, inherited businesses, sheltered wives
Pope Leo X
began to sell indulgences to raise money to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica in Rome; tried to get Luther to recant his criticisms of the church; condemned him an outlaw and a heretic when he would not do so; banned his ideas and excommunicated him from the church
Hundred Years' War
The Greatest Struggle of the epoch between France and England. not fought continually for 100 years there were 3 diff. phases.
Oligarchy
small group that ruled a city and its surrounding countryside
The Berlin Wall
a wall constructed between East and West Berlin with guards who fired on any who tried to escape from East Berlin to West Berlin; served as a symbol of the conflict between communist and noncommunist powers
Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor and Carlos I of Spain, tried to keep Europe religiously united, inherited Spain, the Netherlands, Southern Italy, Austria, and much of the Holy Roman Emperor from his grandparents, he sought to stop Protestantism and increase the power of Catholicism. He allied with the pope to stamp out heresy and maintain religous unity in Europe. He was preocuppied with struggles with Turkey and France and could not soley focus on the rise of Protestantism in Germany.
Alsace-Lorraine
A part of France Germany got when they won the Franco Prussian War.
alexander III
Russian tsar who came to the throne after his father was assassinated. He undid many reforms and opposed liberalism. He also started the Russianification campaign.
Elizabeth I
This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England
The Great Famine
Between 1315 and 1317, the worst famine in medieval history hit Europe. Because the population was growing, crops were being grown on all good land as well as a lot of less-than-ideal land. Even all this was not enough to support the population, so famine struck. However, this "Great Famine," although the worst, was not the only one to happen.
Philip the 2nd and Escorial
this building was under construction from 1563 to 1584, was a monestary, tomb and royal palace to Philip and his family
Shah Abbas I
(1587-1629) This Shah of Iran was the most illustrious ruler of the Safavid Empire, he moved the imperial capital to Isfahan in 1598, where he erected many palaces, mosques, and public buildings.
The second revolution
the period of time in the french revolution that saw a radicalization of the people. this phase began around the middle of 1792, when king louis and marie antoinette were accused of treason
Pragmatic Sanction
This was the act passed by Charles VI that stated that Hapsburg possessions were never to be divided, in order to allow his daughter to be ruler
Johan Gutenberg
In 1450, he was able to create a printing press with movable type.
Hundred years war
the series of wars between England and France, 1337-1453, in which England lost all its possessions in France except Calais.
law of universal gravitation
every body in the universe attracts every other body in the universe in a precise mathematical relationship, whereby the force of attraction is proportional to the quantity of matter of the objects and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. The whole universe was unified in one majestic system
Who was the heir to Joanna and Philips dynasty?
Charles V
(1701-1713) Last of Louis XIV's wars involving the issue of succession to the Spanish throne.
War of the Spanish Succession
Frederick William IV
A king and leader of Prussia who was unable to unify Germany "from above," he was replaced by William I
peace of westphalia
Over the last four years of the war, the parties were actively negotiating at Osnabrück and Münster in Westphalia. On 24 October, 1648 the Peace of Westphalia was signed, ending the Thirty Years War.
The Swedes received a large cash indemnity and control over western Pomerania, Bremen and Verden. The French recieved rights (nature unclear) over Alsace. The control of the Emperor over the German territorial rulers was reduced to a nullity.
Within the German portion of the Empire, private exercise of non-conforming religion was permitted and the organs of government were rendered religiously neutral. Lands secularized by the Protestants in 1624 were generally allowed to remain so. However, in the Habsburg territories of Bohemia and Austria the Emperor was given a nearly free hand to re-impose Catholicism.
Income inequality / Standard of Living
There was an large inequality of income and standard of living between Europe and the non-industrialized world because industrialization itself opened the gap
50%, so parents would not get attached. Attached it to poverty.
chance of living for a child
Frederick III a.k.a. King Frederick I
became king in Prussia for helping out Leopold I HRE with his massive army
How did the belief of Eastern Orthodoxy in Russia separate them from the rest of Europe?
The rest of Europe were Roman Catholics who were united by the pope while eastern Orthodoxy rejected the authority of the pope.
How did England feel about King James, Queen Elizabeth's Scottish cousin?
They were hostile to his ideas about divine right and the fact that he was Scottish He often disagreed with the House of Commons
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