-denounced the idea of "active" and "passive" citizens
|cult of supreme being||
1758-1794. super radical. super rousseau. he thought if a person went against the general will, he or she was an enemy of the state.
|doubling of the third estate||
really radical legislative body. Girondian rule: 1792-1793. Jacobin rule: 1793-1794.
France's unskilled laborers who worked in cities doing unskilled manual labor and were most affected by famine or inflation
|3 revolutionary principles:||
..., Name of the Prussian Representative at the Congress of Vienna
..., French revolutionary leader who stormed the Paris bastille and who supported the execution of Louis XVI but was guillotined by Robespierre for his opposition to the Reign of Terror (1759-1794)
late 18th, early 19th century
|levée en masse||
-mass conscription by revolutionary govt.
-generated resistance due to unpopularity
no distinction by class or titles. this occurred during the revolution.
propagandist who wanted virtue, valued lower classes, part of national convention. called "tyrant of arts" and eventually got banished.
|Le Chapelier Law||
-june 14, 1791
-prohibited workmen from joining together to refuse to work for a master
..., he resented French influence in Germany, he believed humans were different at different times and places, revived German folk culture
..., McClellans plan to capture Richmond, instead of going over land, he would go down the potomac river to a peninsula eas of richmond btwn the york and james rivers. fromhere the troops could approach the city
..., Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe.
|cahiers de doleances||
..., Grievances- Criticized the governtment's wastefullness, indirect taxation, church taxes and corruption, and rights given to the aristocracy. Begin to demand more equal rights.
|Vendeé (2nd Rev.)||
A counterrevolutionary revolt in western France that resisted the Civil Constitution of the French Clergy
|american revolution effect||
drained the french economy, proved that revolution could happen, brought more revolutionary ideals
|flight to Varennes||
-Louis XVI and family tried to flee France
-turned public against him and strengthened support for a republic
-major turning point in revolution
-Former slave who had fought in the French army
-led a rebellion of free blacks in the Caribbean against the French sugar plantation owners
..., One in a series of responsble persons who saw the need for financial reform in France(e.g. LXIV, John Law, Maupeou, Turgot and Swiss banker called Necker). He was the successor to Necker as finance minister to Louis XVI. He proposed, 1786, a general tax to replace the taille, a lightening of indirect taxes, the abolition of internal tariff barriers, confiscation of church properties, and establishment of provincial assemblies in which propertied elements should be represented without regard to estate. An Assembly of Notables was called for support in these plans in 1787 but resulted in deadlock and Calonne was dismissed.
..., law courts in France, each being supreme for a certain area of the country. Upheld certain "fundamental laws" which they said the king could not overstep - and they often refused to uphold royal edicts which they declared to be unconstitutional. Beneath surface, France still very composite. Different "local liberties"-> 300 different regional systems of law. No uniformity of codes or taxes.
|Declaration of Pilnitz||
-Emperor Leopold II and King Frederick William II
-expressed concern over plight of French monarchy
-wanted to see order restored in France
|de-christianization (2nd Rev.)||
An unsuccessful aggressive campaign by radical revolutionaries that denounced religious institutions and symbols
|enragés (2nd Rev.)||
Radical sans-culottes who put down Girondists and wanted to intensify de-christianization
|declaration of Pillintz||
August 27 1791. united austria and prussia. it said that they would step in if royal family threatened. french people wanted war against austria.
|October Days (1st Rev.)||
Uprising of sans-culotte and petite bourgeoisie women angered by the overpriced/lack of bread
They want for the National Assembly to go to Paris-they get a real sense of the key issues-food/bread; peasants need more land to be more productive-this results in the confiscation of Church land leading to more productive land, more taxable land, and also assignats
|temple of reason||
during the French Revolution, a temple of a new religion created to replace Christianity: the Cult of Reason, which had some Deist ideas, also worshiping a "Supreme Being". This religion was supposed to be universal and to spread the ideas of the revolution, summarized in its "Liberté, égalité, fraternité" motto, which was also inscribed on the Temples
|treaty of chaumont||
..., treaty that bound allies for zoyrs (whatever that means), each would negotiate with napoleon seperately, would not stop until france was at her old borders
..., Issued by Prussia and Austria on July 25, 1792. Stated that if harm done to the king or queen there would be severe retribution. Mistake - played right into hands of radical revolutionaries in France. They used it to panic France into thinking invasion imminent. Began recruiting defence force.
|Robespierre (2nd Rev.)||
Leader of the Jacobins who supported the Terror as a way to defend democracy and liberty
|july 14 1789||
the storming of the bastille, when a mob stole weapons from the armory, killing guards. when Louis didn't defend it, it showed how little power he had.
a tax on income for both nobles and commoners
Phase of the French Rev. in which the National Convention established a five-member executive and was noted for its political instability, wars, and economic hardship
-created by Thermidorians
-part of new constitution of 1795
-comforts of the wealthy contrasted greatly with deprivations of the poor
-ended terror but did not bring stability nor peace
|conspiracy of equals||
..., 1796 plot led by Gracchus Babeuf which called for a return to many ideals of the Revolution and an overthrow of the Directory
|fall of the bastille||
..., Hundreds of hungry people stormed the prison in search of gunpowder to save Paris and the National Assembly
|jeunesse dorée or "gilded youth"||
-during the Directory, late 18th century
-drawn from the bourgeoisie and old nobility
-set social and cultural tone of the day
|Civil Constitution of the French Clergy (1st Rev.)||
Very controversial document that declared the Church a state Church-made priest swear an oath of loyalty to the Revolution; bishops elected by local assemblies
|The Terror (end of 2nd Rev.)||
Period in which the Jacobins terrorized counterrevolutionaries
it was monitored by the Commitee of Public Safety and led by Robespierre
|Sieyès (influential throughout the Rev.)||
French priest who was an avid supporter of the 3rd estate (which he thought should be the National Assembly) and denounced noble privileges
Later helped to overthrow the Directory
|Assembly of Notables (before the Estates-General is convoked in 1789)||
Assembly used to deal with an emergency crisis that was used instead of Estates-General in order for Louis XVI to avoid losing power
made up of upperclergy/nobles-but they refused to make decisions and instead wanted the convocation of the Estates-General
|Thermidorean Reaction (After the 2nd Rev.)||
Phase of the French Revolution in which people who created terror become threatened-Jacobins are overthrown and Robespierre executed
Created bicameral legislature
Return of moderate bourgeois reformers to power
|taxes the third estate had to pay||
taille- land tax, gabelle- salt tax, tithes (10% of income)
|Flight to Varennes (end of 1st Rev.)||
Attempted flight of Louis XVI to support a counterrevolutionary army that failed.
Furthered the support for a republic