AP Euro: The Cold War and Nationalism Flashcards

Terms Definitions
purges
Stalin's systematic elimination, between 1935 and 1939, of all centers of independent thought and action within the Communist Party and the government in the Soviet Union. Somewhere between seven and eight million Soviet citizens were arrested; at least
a million of those were executed, while the rest were sent to work camps known as gulags.
spartacists
Marsixt revolutionaries in post-World War I Germany, led by Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Leibknecht, who were dedicated to bringing a socialist revolution to Germany.
Ems Telegram
A diplomatic correspondence between
Napoleon III of France and William I of Prussia, edited by Bismarck to make it seem like they had insulted one another. An example of Realpolitik.
NATO
North Atlantic Treat Organization, 1949, founded in response to Berlin Crisi; collective security organization consisted of the democracies in Europe, US and Canada to prevent against Soviet expansion in Europe; if any of the 12 member nations were attacked by the Soviets, the other nationas would come to its defense
KPD
(Communist Party of Germany) founded at the time of the failed Spartacist uprising in 1919, it rejected the legitimacy of the Weimar system and continually attacked its leaders.
SPD
(Social Democratic Party of Germany) Founded during the latter part of the 19th century, it was Germany's largest party until 1932. Its strength was based in the growing industrial working class.
De-stalinization
social process of neutralizing the influence of Joseph Stalin by revising his policies and removing monuments dedicated to him and renaming places named in his honor
Algeria
called it metropolitan france. Close colonies. Across the Mediterranean. Massive efforts at terrorist activities to make a statement. French gov responded to Algerian terrorism brutally. Call their president back, and he gives them their independence and they trust him because he has such good credentials and is such a good nationalist.
"Prague Spring"
In 1968, Czechoslovakia, under Alexander Dubcek, began a program of reform. Dubcek promised civil liberties, democratic political reforms, and a more independent political system. The Soviet Union invaded the country and put down the short-lived period of freedom.
Bosnia-Herzegovina
declared its independence in March 1992 and civil war spread there; Bosnian Serbs (about 30% of population) refused to live in a Muslim-dominated state and began military operations assisted by Serbia and the Yugoslav federal army
Freikorps
Regiments of German World War I veterans, commanded by old imperial army officers, that were used by the government of the Weimar Republic to defeat Marxist revolutionaries in the 1920s.
gulags
Work camps where Stalin sent Soviet citizens whom he considered to be enemies of the state.
Berlin Airlift
The U.S.-sponsored airlift, from June 1948 to May 1949, which brought supplies to West Berlin; it was a response to Soviet troops cutting off all land traffic from the West into Berlin in an attempt to take control of the whole city.
perestroika
Russian term that refers to a "restructuring"
that Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev believed
was required for the survival of the Soviet Union. Introduced in 1985, the concept of perestroika (along with glasnost or "openness") quicldy fanned the fires of reform and autonomy throughout the Soviet Union and its satellite states.
Truman Doctrine
The U.S. doctrine (named after President Harry Truman) which established, in 1947, the U.S. system of military and economic aid to countries threatened by communist takeover.
"space race"
Many scientists and military leaders believed that control of space would be very important. Consequently, the USA and USSR invested billions of dollars in developing satellites, space stations, rockets, etc. This investment led to great scientific advances, but also caused friction and insecurities.
Potsdam Conference
1945, U.S. president Harry Truman demanded free elections in eastern Europe but Stalin refused; Stalin wanted a "buffer zone" between Germany and USSR for protection against a future war
Egypt
Arab defeat in 1948 by Israel triggered a successful nationalist revolution in Egypt in 1952 that effectively ended British control of Egypt
German reunification
process in which German Democratic Republic (East Germany) joined Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and Berlin was united into a single city
"massive retaliation"
US policy, 1953-55, under PResident Eisenhower, the US policy temporarily shifted to helping eastern European countries remove communism; US vowed to destroy USSR with nuclear weapons if it tried to expand
Maastricht Treaty
The treaty, signed in 1992, creating the European Union, the world's largest trading bloc, and moving to adopt a common currency (the Euro).
Warsaw Pact
The Soviet Union's response, in 1949, to the formation of NATO, establishing a military
alliance of the communist countries of Eastern
Europe.
glasnost
Russian term that refers to a new "openness"
that Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev believed was required for the survival of the Soviet Union. Introduced in 1985, the concept of glasnost (along with perestroika or "restructuring") quickly fanned the fires of reform and autonomy throughout the Soviet Union and its satellite states.
Compromise of 1867
The Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph's attempt, in 1866, to deal with the demands for greater autonomy from the ethnic minorItles within the Hapsburg Empire. The compromise set up a dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary, where Franz Joseph served as the ruler of both Austria and Hungary, each of which had its own parliament.
Great Depression
A total collapse of the economies
of Europe and the United States, triggered by the American stock market crash in 1929 and lasting most of the decade of the 1930s.
globalization
A term that refers to the increasing integration
and interdependence of the economic, social,
cultural, and even ecological aspects oflife in the latetwentieth and early-twenty-first centuries. The term not only refers to way in which the economies of the world affect one another, but also to the way that the
experience of everyday life is increasingly standardized by the spread of technologies which carry with them social and cultural norms.
The Crimean War
Conflict between the Russian and Ottoman Empires fought primarily in the Crimean Peninsula. To prevent Russian expansion, Britain and France sent troops to support the Ottomans.
Vladimir Putin
elected president of Russia in 2000, launched reforms aimed at boosting growth and budget revenues and keeping Russia on a strong economic track.
Lech Walesa
A Polish politician, a former trade union and human rights activist, and also a former electrician. He co-founded Solidarity, the Soviet bloc's first independent trade union, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, and served as President of Poland from 1990 to 1995.
Ronald Reagan
first elected president in 1980 and elected again in 1984. He ran on a campaign based on the common man and "populist" ideas. He served as governor of California from 1966-1974, and he participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. While president, he developed Reagannomics, the trickle down effect of government incentives. He cut out many welfare and public works programs. He used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War. He was also responsible for the Iran-contra Affair which bought hostages with guns.
Solidarity
Polish trade union created in 1980 to protest working conditions and political repression. It began the nationalist opposition to communist rule that led in 1989 to the fall of communism in eastern Europe. (p. 863)
START Treaty, 1990
This arms-control treaty signed by Bush and Gorbachev was the first genuine reduction of the nuclear warheads of the Cold War
Basques, ETA
Spain, used terrorism in its attempt for independence
Marshall Plan
1949-51, US sent a massive financial aid package of $13 billion to help war-torn Europe recover form the war; purpose: prevent communism from spreading into economically devaststaed regions while fostering trade between the US and EUrop; result: western and central Europe recovered economically--the "economic miracle"--Soviets refused to allow US aid to countries in eastern Europe
Joseph Stalin
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
Romania, Nicolai Ceaucescu
a Balkan republic in southeastern Europe; oppressive dictator overthrown and assassinated in Dec. 1989
Dayton Agreements
1995, agreed to divide Bosnia between Muslims and Serbs; Bosnian Serb aspirations to join a Greater Serbia frustrated by US and other NATO troops sent to enforce the Dayton agreements
Revolutions of 1989
The revolutions spurred by Communist nations who wanted to break away from the Warsaw pact
Helmut Kohl
a West German chancellor Helmut Kohl skillfully exploited the historic opportunity on their doorstep. He represented a ten-point plan for a step by stem unification in cooperation with both East Germany and the international community. He then promised the ordinary citizens of a struggling, bankrupt East Germany an immediate economic bonanza. (1044)
ethnic cleansing
Bosnian Serbs tried to liquidate or remove Muslims by shelling cities, confiscating or destroying of houses, gang rape, expulsion, and murder
The Wasteland
The (1922) T. S. Eliot's epic poem, depicting a world devoid of purpose or meaning.
The Popular Front
This French political party was an alliance of left-wing movements, including the French Communist Party (PCF), the French Section of the Workers' International (FSIO) and the Radical and Socialist Party, during the interwar period. It won the May 1936 legislative elections, leading to the formation of a government first headed by FSIO leader Léon Blum
fall of Soviet Union
Costs protecting and maintaining its empire in eastern Europe were too high. Call for reforms from middle class became extremely influential
Slobodan Milosevic
President of Serbia from 1989 to 1997 and of Yugoslavia 1997 to 2000. A key figure in the ethnic conflicts in the Balkans in the 1900's.
Jean-Marie Le Pen
France, the most outspoken opponent of both immigraiton and French integration into the European Union
Josip Broz Tito
Yugoslavian Premier from 1945 to 1953, and President from 1953 to 1980. He was a member of the Russian Bolshevik party around the time of WWI, but later created a unified socialist Yugoslavia separate from the Soviet Union.
containment
by 1947, the US pledged to prevent the further spread of communism
U-2 incident
The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great embarrassment for the United States.
Brezhnev Doctrine
Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they saw the need.
Pope John Paul II
This Polish Pope brought the world's attention to the solidarity movement of the Polish, calling for human rights. He became a hero of the Polish nation.
hydrogen bomb
developed by the US in 1952 and USSR in 1953; far more destructive than the atomic bombs dropped on Japan at the end of World War II; the world now had two nuclear superpowers
collectivization of agriculture
As an extension of the his Five Year Plan (initiated in 1928), Stalin pursued a policy of destroying the culture of the peasant village and replacing it with one organized around huge collective farms. The peasants resisted and were killed, starved, or driven into Siberia in numbers that can only be estimated but which may have been as high as eight million.
Austro-Prussian War of 1866
Engineered by Bismarck as part of his master plan to unifYGermany under the
Prussian monarchy. Prussian troops surprised and overwhelmed a larger Austrian force, winning victory in only seven weeks. The result was that Austria was expelled from the old German Confederation and a new North German Confederation, completely under the control of Prussia, was created.
West Germany (Federal Republic of Germany)
1949, became an independent country when US, France, and Britain gave back each of their zones; lead by Konrad Adenauer (1949-1963)
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