AP Euro: The French Revolution Flashcards

Terms Definitions
the right to vote
mainly represented the provinces, feared the radical mobs in Paris and were inclined to keep the king alive.
middle class in revolutionary France
Thomas Paine
American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809)
Counter revolution led by conservative forces (nobles, clergy, and the peasantry).
paper currency backed by church lands
manorial rights
nobles' privileges. Includes first night rights, hunting season is all seasons, and tax collections.
Paper currency used during the early parts of the Revolution; extremely subject to inflation
Gallican Church
Roman Catholic church in France, headed by the monarch, not the pope
Estates General
The French national assembly summoned in 1789 to remedy the financial crisis and correct abuses of the ancien regime. Hadn't been called since 1614, each estate got one vote
Legislative Assembly
This legislative body ruled France during the First French Republic.
direct land tax on the French peasantry and non-nobles during the Ancien Regime
favoritism shown to relatives or close friends by those in power (as by giving them jobs)
Bread shortage
When France had a poor wheat production, it caused this, which made thousands of members of the Third Estate very hungry
lèvee en masse
the entire nation conscripted into service as war was defined as a national mission
September Massacres
led by Paris Commune, rumors spread that imprisoned counter-revolutionary aristocrats and priests were plotting with foreign invaders, mobs slaughtered over a thousand priests, bourgeoisie, and aristocrats who opposed their program; many were in prison. Most of the revolution's remaining foreign supporters were shocked by the violence
Law court staffed by nobles that could register or refuse to register a king's edict.
Edmund Burke
Wrote Reflections on the Revolution in France
Lord Nelson
when Napoleon tried to bring his Mediterranean fleet around Gibraltar to northern France, a combined French/Spanish fleet was, after a series of mishaps, virtually annihilated by HIM at the Battle of Trafalgar on Oct. 21, 1805. Nelson lost his life in that Battle but proved a victory for the British.
Code Napoleon
Napoleon's set of laws that declared that all men are equal before the law
Jacques Necker
financial expert of Louis XVI, he advised Louis to reduce court spending, reform his government, abolish tarriffs on internal trade, but the First and Second Estates got him fired
Maximilien Robespierre
"The incorruptable;" the leader of the bloodiest portion of the French Revolution. He set out to build a republic of virtue.
War of the First Coalition
French revolutionary forces wee soundly defeated by the Austrian military; only the conflict between eastern monarchs over the division of Poland saved France from defeat; intensified existing unrest and dissatisfaction of unpropertied classes
Tennis Court Oath
Declaration mainly by members of the Third Estate not to disband until they had drafted a constitution for France (June 20, 1789).
Madame de Stael
woman who was influenced by germany, became a leader of romanticism in France
liberty and equality
Call for human rights, freedom to worship, is dictated by their own conscience, end to censorship and arbitrary laws, legally, not gender or economically, everyone should have equality
Second Estate
made up of rich nobles that held highest offices in government; they disagreed about Enlightenment Ideas; approx. 2 % of the population that owned approx. 20 % of land
Women's march to Versailles
Oct. 1789; women pushed the revolution forward in October when shortages of bread persisted; incited by Jean-Paul Marat, 7,000 women (along with the Paris national guard) marched 12 miles from Paris to Versailles demanding the king redress their economic problems
Lettre de cachet
a warrant formerly issued by a French king who could warrant imprisonment or death in a signed letter under his seal
Marie Antoinette
Queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793) Madame deficit. "if they can't have bread, give them cake"
Reign of Terror
This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed
"Reflections on the Revolution in France"
Written by Edmund Burke, the philosophical conservative, in England. He had previously adivsed SLOW adaptation of liberties for England and commenting on the revolution in France he predicted anarchy and dictatorship as result of too rapid advance of liberties. Said each country should shape its government based on national circumstances and historical background and character. Advised against wholesale liberalization. Book translated and read by Catherine the Great and Gustavus III.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
piece of legislation made those who pledged swear allegiance to the state above all other political, religioius, or social obligations
What was the problem with the voting in the Estates General?
Each house held one vote
7 Changes as a result of the Constitution of 1791
sovereignty was defined as belonging to the people, unicameralism was instated to disable the possibility of the nobles overpowering in the assembly, abolished many institutions that were harmful to liberty, the National Assembly asserted its legal presence in French government, the feudal geographic divisions were formally abolished and the territory of the French state was divided into several administrative units
How did the French REvolution get its influence from the American Revolution? (at least 3)
hundreds of French officers served in America and were inspired; the Constitution of America; the expenses of supporting the revolutionary forces finished off the French treasury
A new calendar was formed, as were new schools
What are a few things that the Legislative Assembly did to decrease the church's influence?
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